Khaling language

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खालिङ (khāliṅ)
Native to Nepal
Region Solukhumbu and Khotang districts
Native speakers
15,000 in Nepal (2011 census)[1]
unknown number in India[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 klr
Glottolog khal1275[2]

Khaling is a Kiranti language spoken in Solukhumbu district, Nepal and in India. It is one of the few Kiranti languages with tonal contrasts. Khaling has approximately 15,000 speakers and is therefore considered a vulnerable language. Khaling has a complex system of stem alternations: as many as 10 distinct stems have to be posited for a word (Jacques et al. 2012). Khaling is very unusual in having an auditory demonstrative (see Jacques and Lahaussois 2014). Khaling is also known as Rai, Khalinge Rai, Khael Bra, and Khael Baat.[3]

General information[edit]

Khaling is still being acquired by children who live in Khaling-speaking areas, as well as non-Khaling children who happen to live in that area.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Khaling is spoken in the following VDC's of Nepal (Ethnologue).


  1. ^ a b Khaling at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khaling". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "Did you know Khaling is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  • Hale, Austin, editor. 1973. Collected papers on Khaling, Kulung, Darai, Newari, Chitwan Tharu. Nepal Studies in Linguistics, 1. Kirtipur: Summer Institute of Linguistics and Institute for Nepal and Asian Studies. vii, 87 p.
  • Jacques, Guillaume, Aimée Lahaussois, Boyd Michailovsky, and Dhan Bahadur Rai. 2012. An overview of khaling verbal morphology. 'Language and linguistics' 13.6: 1095–1170. [1]
  • Jacques, Guillaume; Lahaussois, Aimée (2014). "The auditory demonstrative in Khaling". Studies in Language. 38.2: 393–404. 
  • Jacques, Guillaume Khaling derivational morphology
  • Toba, Sueyoshi and Ingrid Toba. 1972. Khaling phonemic summary. Tibeto-Burman Phonemic Summaries, 12. Kirtipur: Summer Institute of Linguistics and Institute of Nepal Studies, Tribhuvan University. 73 p.
  • Toba, Ingrid. 1973. "The Khaling verb." Nepal Studies in Linguistics 1: 1-14.
  • Toba, Sueyoshi and Ingrid Toba. 1975. A Khaling-English, English-Khaling glossary. Kathmandu: Summer Institute of Linguistics and Institute of Nepal and Asian Studies. xiii, 86 p.
  • Toba, Ingrid. 1977. "Folk art and culture change as observed in a Khaling village." Kailash 5(1): 13-27.
  • Toba, Sueyoshi. 1981. Khaling texts. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. 97 p.
  • Toba, Sueyoshi. 1983. Khaling Texts. YAK 7. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
  • Toba, Sueyoshi. 1984. Khaling. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
  • Caughley, R. C., & Caughley, R. C. (1996). Review of: The structure of Kiranti languages: comparative grammar and texts, by Karen Ebert. Journal of Nepalese Studies, 1(2), 243-246.
  • Hansson, G. (1991). The Rai of Eastern Nepal, Ethnic and Linguistic Grouping: Findings of the Linguistic Survey of Nepal. Linguistic Survey of Nepal and Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University.
  • Hodson, T. C.. (1913). Note on the Numeral Systems of the Tibeto-Burman Dialects. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 315–336. Retrieved from
  • Matisoff, J. A. (2003). Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman: system and philosophy of Sino-Tibetan reconstruction. UC Publications in Linguistics. 174
  • Michailovsky, B., & Mazaudon, M. (1973). Notes on the Hayu language. Kailash, 1, 135-52.
  • van Driem, G.. (1990). The Fall and Rise of the Phoneme /r/ in Eastern Kiranti: Sound Change in Tibeto-Burman. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 53(1), 83–86. Retrieved from

External links[edit]