Kham language

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Kham
Kham Pang
खाम पाङ
Native toNepal
RegionRapti Zone, Rolpa and Rukum Districts
Dhaulagiri Zone, Baglung DistrictKarnali regions
EthnicityWestern Magar
Native speakers
27,000 (2011 census)[1]
Devanagari
Official status
Official language in
No official status
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
kif – Eastern Parbate Kham
kgj – Gamale kham
kip – Sheshi Kham
kjl – Western Parbate Pang
Glottologkham1286[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Kham, also Kham Pang (Nepali: खाम भाषा)—narrowly defined—is a complex of Sino-Tibetan Magaric languages spoken natively in the highlands of the Rolpa and Rukum districts of Rapti and the westernmost part of Baglung district in Dhawalagiri Zone and Karnali region by western clans of the Kham tribes, called collectively western Khams. Randy LaPolla (2003) proposes that Kham magar and Dhut magar may be part of a larger "Rung" group. However both may ultimately go for separate ethnic identity as they have distinct linguistic and cultural barriers.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Ethnologue lists the following location information for the varieties of Kham.

Eastern Parbate Kham (dialects: Bhujel Kham, Nishel Kham) is spoken in the following villages of Baglung District, Dhawalagiri Zone.

  • Nishel dialect: Nisi, Bhalkot, and Budhathok villages
  • Bhujel dialect: Kuku, Diza, Kang, Masbang, Musuri, and Sukurdung villages

Western Parbate Kham (dialects: Takale, Maikoti, Mahatale, Lukumel, Wale, Thabangi)

Taka-Shera considered to be the center of the Western Parbate Kham.

Gamale Kham (dialects: Tamali, Ghusbanggi)

Gamale Kham is spoken in the western hills of Gam Khola, in Gam, Jhyalgung, Chalbang, Tamali, Dangadhara, Sheram, Ghusbang, Huiching, Guwakholagau, Maulabang, and Kuipadhara villages.

Sheshi Kham (dialects: Tapnanggi, Jangkoti)

  • Western hills of Rukum District, Rapti Zone: in Jangkot, Kotgaon (Tapnang), Rimsek, Korcabang, Dangdung, Hwama, Dhangsi, Bhabang, and Ghapa villages.

Dialects[edit]

Watters (2002:12) classifies the Kham dialects as follows.

Proto-Kham
  • Sheshi
    • Tapnangi
    • Jangkoti
  • Gamale
    • Tamali
    • Ghusbangi
  • Parbate
    • Eastern Parbate
      • Nishel
      • Bhujel
    • Wester Parbate
      • Maikoti
      • Takale (including the Takale, Sheral, Ghumilbangi, Garkhanyel, Koral, and Nakhale village sub-dialects)
      • Lukumel
      • Thabangi
      • Wale

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Kham Pang has 22 consonants.

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
aspirated
Affricate voiceless t͡s
voiced d͡z
aspirated t͡sʰ
Fricative voiceless s h
voiced z
Rhotic ɾ
Approximant central j w
lateral l
  • The rhotic /ɾ/ is realized as a trill [r] at the end words. Otherwise, it is a flap.

Vowels[edit]

Kham Pang has 25 vowels.

  Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long nasal short long short long nasal short long nasal short long nasal
Close i ĩː y   ɯ ɯː ɯ̃ː u ũː
Mid e ẽː ø øː ə əː ə̃ː   o õː
Open   a ãː  

Tone[edit]

  • voice register

Reconstruction[edit]

Proto-Kham has been reconstructed by Watters (2002). Proto-Kham reconstructions from Watters (2002: 443-456) are given below.

A. Body parts
  • *r-dzəŋ ~ *b-dzəŋ ‘back’
  • *yep ‘back (upper)’
  • *phuː ‘belly’
  • *dziːh ‘blood’
  • *klaŋ ‘body’
  • *s-rus ‘bone’
  • *nun ‘breast’
  • *sək ‘breath’
  • *r-mehsiŋ ‘buttocks’
  • *r-tso ‘cheek’
  • *r-na ‘ear’
  • *(ba)r-zut ‘egg’
  • *mik ‘eye’
  • *s-ŋa ‘face’
  • *sot ‘fat’
  • *r-sin ‘fingernail’
  • *kəŋ ‘foot’
  • *r-nihl ‘gums’
  • *r-ta ‘guts’
  • *muhl ‘hair (body)’
  • *p-tsem ‘hair (head)’
  • *kut ‘hand’
    • *r-la ‘the under-arm area; side of the body’
  • *s-r-ŋat ‘head’
  • *s-yiŋ ‘heart’
  • *b-rəhŋ ‘horn’
  • *sya ‘animal’
  • *r-khap ‘jawbone’
  • *kəl ‘kidney’
  • *p-sin ‘liver’
  • *yaːh ‘mouth’
  • *s-məŋ ‘mustache’
  • *r-dehŋ ‘neck’
  • *s-nat ‘nose’
  • *r-dzihs ‘piss’
  • *s-nis ‘pus’
  • *b-rəhm ‘rib’
  • *p-s-til ‘saliva’
  • *kli ‘shit’
    • *r-kək ‘excrement in the intestine of a slaughtered animal’
  • *s-pum ‘shoulder’
  • *r-sa ‘sinew’
  • *l-kota ‘skin’
  • *r-nahp ‘snot’
  • *r-meh ‘tail’
  • *r-pihl ‘tears’
  • *r-b-yah ‘thigh (upper side)’
  • *p-s-le ‘tongue’
  • *ha-p-sya ‘tooth’
  • *wohs ‘vomit’
  • *hwaŋ ‘waist’
  • *r-mil ~ *s-mil ‘wind pipe’
  • *kər ‘wing’
B. Pronouns/kinship terms/nouns referring to humans’
  • *dahpa ‘bachelor’
  • *za ‘child’
  • *nan ‘friend’
  • *b-re ‘husband’
  • *dahme ‘maiden’
  • *r-min ‘name’
  • *r-mi; *ruː ‘person’
    • *s-lepa ‘man, male human’
    • *miːma ‘woman, female human’ < *mi ‘person’ + *ma ‘female’
  • *nana ‘sister (older)’
  • *nam ‘sister (younger)’
  • *nəŋ ‘thou’
  • *dzya ‘wife’
C. Foodstuff
  • *bəhres ‘bread’
  • *tsip ‘curry’
  • *r-zəm ‘food’
  • *s-ŋən ‘herbs’
  • *raŋrəi ‘millet’
  • *r-mo ‘mushroom’
  • *hek ‘parched grain’
  • *tuk ‘poison’
  • *(ya)kaŋ ‘rice (cooked)’
  • *plima ‘wheat’
D. Animal names or animal products
  • *səhr ‘antelope’
  • *nim ‘bear’
  • *r-pen ‘bedbug’
  • *b-zin ‘bee’
  • *bwa ‘bird’
    • *s-puŋ ‘chick’
  • *gəl ‘boar (wild)’
  • *b-s-rut ‘bug’
  • *s-raŋ ‘cat’
  • *har ‘cow’
  • *kaːh ‘dog’
  • *ŋah ‘fish’
  • *tek ‘frog’
  • *ra ‘goat’
  • *r-ta ‘horse’
  • *r-pəti ‘leech’
  • *la ‘leopard’
  • *syar ‘louse’
  • *s-p-yu; *s-p-ya ‘monkey’
  • *srəm ‘otter’
  • *b-rəhŋ ‘pheasant’
  • *wə ‘pig’
  • *bi ‘rat’
  • *luk ‘sheep’
  • *guhl ‘snake’
    • *daŋ ‘python, constricting snake’
  • *p-s-yap ‘squirrel (flying)’
  • *s-kyar ‘woodpecker’
  • *p-sən ‘wool’
E. Natural objects or phenomena; the inanimate landscape; vegetable and mineral kingdoms
  • *r-plah ‘ashes’
  • *kər ‘branch’
  • *r-pup ‘cave’
  • *la ‘day’
    • *tshyam ‘a certain day’
  • *b-rih ‘dirt’
  • *r-gəm ‘earth’
  • *rihm ‘evening’
  • *ehŋ ‘field’
    • *baŋ ‘a field, meadow, bowl shaped valley’
  • *meh ‘fire’
  • *p-set ‘fruit’
  • *tshi ‘grass’
  • *kuŋ ‘hole’
  • *dzəhŋ ‘iron’
  • *s-la ‘leaf’
  • *r-nahm ‘low country’
  • *p-s-ya + *hwot ‘moon’
  • *goŋ ‘mountain’
  • *rik; *mun ‘night’
  • *r-wa ‘rain’
  • *bəih ‘river’
  • *yem ‘road’
  • *s-rin ‘root’
  • *sa + *pik ‘salt’
  • *nup ‘set (sun)’
  • *saŋ ‘shadow’
  • *nəm ‘sky’
  • *mihkut ‘smoke’ < *meːh ‘fire’ + *ku ‘smoke’
  • *r-pom ‘snow’
  • *səro ‘star’
  • *r-dzuht ‘stick’
  • *luŋ ‘stone’
  • *nəmi(y) ‘sun’
  • *b-zu ‘thorn’
  • *siŋ ‘tree’
  • *riːh ‘water’
    • *rihmun ‘cooking water’ < *riːh ‘water’ + *mun ‘warm’
  • *rəhm ‘weed’
F. Artifacts and social organization
  • *r-wan ‘arrowhead’
  • *r-wa ‘axe’
  • *r-beh(k) ‘basket’
  • *li ‘bow’
  • *tshəm ‘bridge’
  • *pəsi(-s) ‘broom’
  • *kwa ‘cloth’
  • *yahm ‘door’
  • *b-rihŋ ‘drum’
  • *'gor ‘circle’
  • *muhthap ‘hearth’ < *muh ‘burn’ + *thap ‘hearth’
  • *zihm ‘house’
    • *r-bəŋ ‘lower storey of house; cattle byre’
  • *khor ‘knife’
  • *gur ‘load’
  • *tən ‘sleeping mat’
  • *b-lo ‘large bamboo mat’
  • *tshum ‘mortar’
  • *r-gəp ‘a small needle’
  • *r-khap ‘a large needle’
  • *b-zəhn ‘net’
  • *r-gum ‘pillow’
  • *gohr ‘plow’
  • *b-dza ‘pot’
  • *p-sip ‘sheath’
  • *tsihŋ ‘snare’
  • *gel ‘spirit’
  • *naŋkhar; *nam ‘village’
  • *ehn ‘work’
  • *kum ‘yoke’
G. Spatial/directional
  • *glahŋ ‘across’
  • *chin ‘behind’
  • *khar ‘center’
  • *me ‘down’
  • *s-ŋa ‘front’
  • *thək ‘upright’
  • *a-sniŋ ‘year’
    • *rta-sniŋ ‘last year’
    • *pərniŋ ‘next year’
H. Numerals and quantifiers
  • *tə ‘one’
  • *nehs ‘two’
  • *sohm ‘three’
  • *b-zi ‘four’
  • *r-ŋa ‘five’
I. Verbs of utterance, body position or function
  • *sən; *so ‘awaken’
  • *klik ‘cry’
  • *eh ‘defecate’
  • *si ‘die’
  • *b-yi ‘fart’
  • *sas ‘laugh’
    • *p-s-rat ‘to play’
    • *b-s-res ‘toy, plaything’
  • *nah ‘rest’
  • *tsuŋ ‘sit’
  • *r-ŋəhl; *em; *ruk ~ *ru-t ‘sleep’
    • *s-ip ‘to put to sleep’
  • *p-tshis ‘sneeze’
  • *s-paŋ ‘speak’
  • *tsyahŋ ‘stand’
  • *kəlet ‘tickle’
  • *r-dzihs ‘urinate’
  • *woh-t ‘vomit’ < CAUS. of wohs ‘to spurt out’
  • *gəhr ‘weep’
J. Verbs of motion
  • *kles ‘arrive’
  • *rə-t ‘bring’
  • *plu-s ‘climb’
  • *huŋ ‘come’
  • *plu-s ‘emerge’
    • *s-plu-t ‘cause to emerge, expel’
  • *te-s ‘fall’
  • *s-bur ‘fly’
  • *z-ba ‘go’
  • *b-la ‘graze’
  • *mohŋ ‘hide’
  • *zok ‘run’
K. Verbs of emotion, cognition, perception
  • *r-məŋ ‘dream’
  • *p-tshet ‘fear’
  • *s-meŋ ‘forget’
  • *that ‘hear’
    • *thas ‘to be heard, audible’
  • *sən ‘know’
  • *r-ses ‘something, to know how’
  • *r-sək ‘proud’
  • *rəhŋ ‘see’
    • *p-tsyu ‘to look’
  • *s-ŋər; *s-nəm ‘smell’
  • *b-ris ‘tingle’
L. Stative verbs with human patients
  • *məhŋ ‘drunk’
  • *sot ‘fat’
  • *kre ‘hunger’
  • *na ‘ill’
  • *so ‘itchy’
  • *tshaŋ ‘pure’
  • *tsos ‘thirst’
M. Stative verbs with non-human patients
  • *pək ‘bad’
  • *li ‘be’
  • *p-se ‘bear fruit’
  • *s-ta-s ‘become’
  • *ka ‘bitter’
  • *pak ‘broken’
  • *mom ‘bud’
  • *p-set ‘bud’
  • *r-pu-s ‘burst’
  • *zihm; *gim ‘cold’
  • *s-ta ‘collapsed’
  • *s-kluŋ ‘detach’
  • *thəŋ ‘dried’
  • *yək ‘full’
  • *p-tsa ‘good’
  • *s-len ‘greasy’
  • *piŋ ‘green’
  • *gis < *s-lis ‘heavy’
  • *s-gwaŋ ‘hole’
  • *b-rah ‘hot’
  • *wyi ‘leak’
  • *bom ‘light’
  • *s-lo; *b-re ‘long’
  • *dzöhl ‘loose’
  • *mah ‘lost’
  • *s-dem ~ *them ‘low’
  • *khət ‘matched’
  • *sahr ‘new’
  • *gyahm ‘red’
  • *mihn ‘ripe’
  • *tsik ‘rotten’
  • *lum ‘round’
  • *p-tsha ‘sharp’
  • *tun ‘short’
  • *zim ‘small’
  • *b-sir ‘sour’
  • *tuk ‘spicy’
  • *sli-s ‘stale’
  • *b-rehk ‘sweet’
  • *ruhŋ ‘thick’
  • *plek ‘thin’
    • *wa ‘to be thin (esp. of boards)’
  • *mun ‘warm’
  • *pal ‘white’
    • *plaŋ ‘bright, illuminated’
N. Action verbs with human agent
  • *s-po ‘beat’
  • *ŋih ‘beg’
  • *kəi ‘bite’
  • *s-mut ‘blow’
    • *phut ‘to blow with bellows’
  • *r-lap ‘bore’
  • *s-kle(t) ‘break’
  • *hip ‘burn’
  • *r-duhp ‘butt’
  • *ləhŋ ‘buy’
    • *b-lot ‘to lend to someone’
    • *b-los ‘to borrow’
  • *guhr ‘carry’
  • *kloh ‘catch’
  • *kwa-t ‘clothe’
  • *r-sat ‘comb’
  • *phin ‘cook’
    • *mihn ‘to cook until done’
    • *tso ‘to boil’
  • *kəp ‘cover’
  • *pəl ‘cut’
    • *kri ‘to cut meat’
  • *p-syah ‘dance’
  • *goh ‘dig’
  • *gəp ‘draw water’
  • *zya ‘eat’
    • *kəi ‘to eat things which require chewing’
  • *hat ‘extract’
  • *z-dət ‘find’
  • *z-dup ‘gather’
  • *ya ‘give’
  • *p-set ‘grind’
  • *r-guh ‘guard’
  • *tup ‘hammer’
  • *tsho ‘herd’
  • *phok ‘husk’
  • *lut ‘insert’
  • *tak ‘install’
  • *r-then ‘kick’
  • *saht ‘kill’
  • *kek ‘ladle’
  • *b-rihm ‘lay wall’
  • *lep ‘lick’
  • *dzət ‘make’
  • *pek ‘milk’
  • *z-bra-t ‘mix’
  • *pho-t ‘open’
  • *phok ‘pay’
  • *tik ‘pick up’
  • *s-krəp ‘pin closed’
  • *p-tsil ‘pinch’
  • *p-sut ‘plug’
  • *tek ‘press’
  • *dzəhk ‘put’
    • *nat ‘to set down, place’
  • *ra-s ‘release’
  • *phit ‘remove from fire’
  • *tsep ‘ride’
  • *s-ŋo ‘roast’
  • *b-zu ‘rub’
    • *p-sil ‘to scrub’
  • *s-lom ‘scald’
  • *sim ‘scoop’
  • *s-pik ‘scrape’
    • *pur ‘to scratch’
  • *s-nan ‘seize’
  • *p-yet ‘sell’
  • *s-priŋ ‘send’
  • *ruhp ‘sew’
  • *p-yen ‘shave’
  • *gap ‘shoot’
  • *s-tən ‘show’
  • *kok ‘skin, peel’
  • *phyak ‘snap’
  • *tshim ‘soak’
  • *was ‘sow seed’
  • *khəl ‘spin wool’
  • *p-si ‘split firewood’
  • *tser ‘squeeze’
  • *ku ‘steal’
    • *rok ‘to ransack, rummage’
  • *r-wal ‘stir’
  • *on ‘stop’
  • *sit ‘sweep’
  • *p-sik ~ *p-sis ‘teach’
  • *p-tsit ‘tear’
  • *khya ‘throw’
  • *s-ki ‘tie’
  • *s-to ‘trade’
  • *kil ‘twist’
  • *s-krup ‘unfold’
  • *bohk ‘uproot’
  • *tse ‘wash’
    • *r-za ‘to wash hair’
  • *rəhk ‘weave’
    • *rihn ‘to set up a loom’
  • *hul ‘whet’

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eastern Parbate Kham at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Gamale kham at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Sheshi Kham at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Western Parbate Pang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kham". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.