Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei
|سید علی حسینی خامنهای|
|2nd Supreme Leader of Iran|
4 June 1989
Acting: 4 June – 6 August 1989
|Preceded by||Ruhollah Khomeini|
|3rd President of Iran|
13 October 1981 – 3 August 1989
|Prime Minister||Mir-Hossein Mousavi|
|Supreme Leader||Ruhollah Khomeini|
|Preceded by||Mohammad-Ali Rajai|
|Succeeded by||Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani|
|1st Chairman of Expediency Discernment Council|
7 February 1988 – 3 June 1989
|Appointed by||Ruhollah Khomeini|
|Preceded by||office established|
|Succeeded by||Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani|
|Member of the Assembly of Experts|
15 August 1983 – 21 February 1991
|Member of the Islamic Consultative Assembly|
28 May 1980 – 13 October 1981
|Constituency||Tehran, Rey and Shemiranat|
|Tehran's Friday Prayer Imam|
14 January 1980
|Appointed by||Ruhollah Khomeini|
|Preceded by||Hussein-Ali Montazeri|
|Born||Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khameneh
17 July 1939 
Mashhad, Khorasan, Iran
|Political party||Independent (1989– )|
|Spouse(s)||Khojaste Bagherzadeh (m. 1964)|
|Relatives||Hadi Khamenei (brother)|
|Residence||House of Leadership|
|Alma mater||Qom Seminary|
|Main interest(s)||Uṣūl al-Fiqh, Tafsīr|
|Notable idea(s)||Fatwa against nuclear weapons|
||Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Irregular Warfare Headquarters
|Years of service||1979–80; 1980–81|
|Commands held||Head of Revolutionary Guards|
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: سید علی حسینی خامنهای, pronounced [ʔæˈliː hoseiˈniː χɒːmeneˈʔiː] ( listen); born 17 July 1939) is a marja and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989. He was previously President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the second-longest serving head of state in the Middle East (after Oman's Sultan Qaboos), as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.
According to his official website, Khamenei was arrested six times before being sent into exile for three years during Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's reign. He was the target of an attempted assassination in June 1981 that paralysed his right arm.
Khamenei was one of Iran's leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and developed close ties with the now powerful Revolutionary Guards which he controls, and whose commanders are elected and dismissed by him. The Revolutionary Guards have been used to suppress opposition to him. Khamenei then went to serve as the third President of Iran from 1981 to 1989, while becoming a close ally of the first Supreme Leader, Ruhollah Khomeini. Eventually, after Khomeini had a disagreement with the then heir apparent Hussein Ali Montazeri, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani claimed that Khomeini had chosen Khamenei as his successor while the Assembly of Experts deliberated to elect the next Supreme Leader. After Khomeini's death, Khameini was elected by the Assembly of Experts as the new Supreme Leader on 4 June 1989, at the age of 49. He has been head of the servants of Astan Quds Razavi since 14 April 1979.
Today, as Supreme Leader, Khamenei is the head of state of Iran and the commander-in-chief of its armed forces. For this reason, he is considered the most powerful political authority in the country. As Supreme Leader, Khamenei can issue decrees and make the final decisions on the main policies of the government in many fields such as economy, the environment, foreign policy, and national planning in Iran. According to Karim Sadjadpour, Khamenei has either direct or indirect control over the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government, as well as the military and media. All candidates for the Assembly of Experts, the Presidency and the Majlis (Parliament) are vetted by the Guardian Council, whose members are selected directly or indirectly by the Supreme Leader of Iran. There have been also instances when the Guardian Council reversed its ban on particular people after being ordered to do so by Khamenei.
There have been major protests during Khamenei's reign, including the 1994 Qazvin Protests, the 1999 Iranian student protests, the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests the 2011–12 Iranian protests, and the 2017–18 Iranian protests. Journalists, bloggers, and other individuals have been put on trial in Iran for the charge of insulting Supreme Leader Khamenei, often in conjunction with blasphemy charges. Their sentences have included lashing and jail time, and some of them have died in custody. Regarding the nuclear program of Iran, Ali Khamenei had issued a fatwa in 2003 saying that the production, stockpiling, and use of all kinds of weapons of mass destruction is forbidden.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Personal life
- 3 Political life and presidency
- 4 Supreme Leader
- 4.1 Election as Supreme Leader
- 4.2 Political philosophy and image
- 4.3 Dispute regarding status as Grand Ayatollah
- 4.4 Appointments
- 4.5 Fatwas and messages
- 4.6 Relationship with the press
- 4.7 Political power following reform era
- 4.8 Financial assets
- 4.9 Protests during leadership
- 4.10 Challenges following 2009 election protest
- 4.11 Relations with former President Ahmadinejad
- 5 Domestic policy
- 6 Foreign policy
- 7 Literature and art
- 8 Public diplomacy
- 9 Succession
- 10 Works
- 11 See also
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Early life and education
Born to Seyyed Javad Khamenei, an Alim and Mujtahid born in Najaf, and Khadijeh Mirdamadi (daughter of Hashem Mirdamadi) in Mashhad, Khamenei is the second of eight children. Two of his brothers are also clerics; his younger brother, Hadi Khamenei, is a newspaper editor and cleric. His elder sister Fatemeh Hosseini Khamenei died in 2015, aged 89. He has an ethnic Azerbaijani background on his father's side, with one source claiming that his mother was an ethnic Persian speaker from Yazd. Some of his ancestors are from Tafresh in today's Markazi Province and migrated from their original home in Tafresh to Khamaneh near the Tabriz. Khamenei's great ancestor was Sayyid Hossein Tafreshi, a descendent of the Aftasi Sayyids, whose lineage supposedly reached to Sultan ul-Ulama Ahmad, known as Sultan Sayyid, a grandchild of Shia fourth Imam, Ali ibn Husayn.
His education began at the age of four, by learning Quran at Maktab; he spent his basic and advanced levels of seminary studies at the hawza of Mashhad, under mentors such as Sheikh Hashem Qazvini and Ayatollah Milani. Then, he went to Najaf in 1957, but soon returned to Mashhad due to his father's unwillingness to let him stay there. In 1958, he settled in Qom where he attended the classes of Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi and Ruhollah Khomeini. Like many other politically active clerics at the time, Khamenei was far more involved with politics than religious scholarship.
Khamenei is married to Khojaste Bagherzadeh, with whom he has four sons (Mostafa, Mojtaba, Masood, and Meysam) and two daughters (Boshra and Hoda). One of his sons, Mojtaba, married a daughter of Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel.
According to Mehdi Khalaji, an Iran expert at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Khamenei has a decent life "without it being luxurious". Robert Tait of The Telegraph notes that Khamenei is "renowned for a spartan lifestyle." Khamenei's official residence is the Beit Rahbari compound. According to the Telegraph, around 500 people are employed at the Beit Rahbari compound, "many recruited from the military and security services". Mother Nature Network published a picture of Khamenei exiting a BMW car, and noted that Khamenei has been seen riding around in a BMW.
Khamenei's health has been called into question. In January 2007, after he had not been seen in public for some weeks, and had not appeared as he traditionally does at celebrations for Eid al-Adha, rumours spread of his illness or death. Khamenei issued a statement declaring that "enemies of the Islamic system fabricated various rumors about death and health to demoralize the Iranian nation", but according to author Hooman Majd, he appeared to be "visibly weak" in photos released with the statement.
On 9 September 2014, Khamenei underwent prostate surgery in what his doctors described in state news media as a "routine operation". According to a report by Le Figaro, Western intelligence sources said Khamenei has prostate cancer.
Political life and presidency
- 1979 – Founded the Islamic Republic Party, along with like-minded clerics such as Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili, and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
- 1980 – Under Secretary of Defense.
- 1980 – Supervisor of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
- 1980 – Leader of the Friday Congregational Prayer.
- 1980 – The Tehran Representative in the Consultative Assembly.
- 1981 – Ayatollah Khomeini's Representative in the High Security Council.
- 1981 – Elected President of the Islamic Republic of Iran after assassination of Mohammad-Ali Rajai, and was re-elected to a second term in 1985.
- 1982 – Chairman of the High Council of Revolution Culture Affairs.
- 1988 – President of the Expediency Discernment Council.
- 1989 – Chairman of the Constitution Revisal Committee.
- 1989 – Khamenei became the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran by choice of the Assembly of Experts, after the death of Ruhollah Khomeini.
Muhammad Sahimi claims that his political career began after the Iranian Revolution, when the former President of Iran, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, then a confidant of Khomeini, brought Khamenei into Khomeini's inner circle. Later on, the current President of Iran, Hassan Rouhani, then a member of Parliament, arranged for Khamenei to get his first major post in the provisional revolutionary government as deputy defense minister.
Khomeini appointed Khamenei to the post of Tehran's Friday prayers Imam in 1980, after resignation of Hussein-Ali Montazeri from the post. He served briefly as the vice Minister of National Defence from late July to 6 November 1979 and as a supervisor of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards. He also went to the battlefield as a representative of the defense commission of the parliament.
On 27 June 1981, while Khamenei had returned from the frontline, he went to the Aboozar Mosque according to his Saturdays schedule. After the first prayer, he began to give lecture to worshipers who had written their questions on the paper. Meanwhile, a tape recorder accompanied with papers was put on the desk in front of Khamenei by a young man who pressed a button. After a minute the loud speaker’s sound become like whistle and suddenly the tape recorder exploded. "A gift of Furqan Group to Islamic republic", it was written on the inner wall of the tape recorder. Ayatollah Khamenei's treatment took several month and his arm, vocal chords and lungs were seriously injured. He was permanently injured, losing the use of his right arm.
In 1981, after the assassination of Mohammad-Ali Rajai, Khamenei was elected President of Iran by a landslide vote (97%) in the Iranian presidential election, October 1981 in which only four candidates were approved by the Council of Guardians. Khamenei became the first cleric to serve in the office. Ruhollah Khomeini had originally wanted to keep clerics out of the presidency but later changed his views. Khamenei was reelected in Iranian presidential election, 1985 where only three candidates were approved by the Council of Guardians, receiving 87% of the votes. The only Iranian presidential election that had fewer candidates approved by the Council of Guardians was the Iranian presidential election, 1989, where only two candidates were approved by the Council of Guardians to run, and Rafsanjani easily won 96% of the votes.
In his presidential inaugural address Khamenei vowed to eliminate "deviation, liberalism, and American-influenced leftists". According to the Iran Chamber, vigorous opposition to the government, including nonviolent and violent protest, assassinations, guerrilla activity and insurrections, was answered by state repression and terror in the early 1980s, both before and during Khamenei's presidency. Thousands of rank-and-file members of insurgent groups were killed, often by revolutionary courts. By 1982, the government announced that the courts would be reined in, although various political groups continued to be repressed by the government in the first half of the 1980s.
During Iran-Iraq war
Khamenei was one of Iran's leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and developed close ties with the now-powerful Revolutionary Guards. As president, he had a reputation of being deeply interested in the military, budget and administrative details.
After the war
In its 10 April 1997 ruling regarding the Mykonos restaurant assassinations, the German court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam Ali Fallahian after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of Khamenei and Rafsanjani. Iranian officials, however, have categorically denied their involvement. The then Iranian Parliament speaker Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri dismissed the ruling as being political, untrue and unsubstantiated. The ruling led to a diplomatic crisis between the governments of Iran and several European countries, which lasted until November 1997. Darabi and Rhayel were finally released from prison on 10 December 2007 and deported back to their home countries.
Khamenei has fired and reinstated Presidential cabinet appointments. Iran's Chief Justice Sadeq Larijani, a Khamenei appointee, has warned the president of Iran against voicing opposition to Khamenei.
Election as Supreme Leader
Leadership council proposal
Initially, the idea of leadership council was proposed by some members of Assembly of experts. Various lists were proposed and Khamenei was named in all of them. For instance, a council of three members, Ali Meshkini, Mousavi Ardebili and Khamenei, was proposed to lead Iran. According to Rafsanjani, he and Khamenei were against the proposal while Ayatollah Haeri Shirazi and Ayatollah Ebrahim Amini were in favor of it. Supporters of the council proposal believed that having a council would produce a higher degree of unity in society and more positive characteristics would be found in a council, while the opposers believed that an individual leader was more efficient according to the past experiences in case of Judiciary council.
Ebrahim Amini listed the summary of reasons presented by the two sides. According to him the opposers rejected the proposal because: i) Evidences for Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist were true only for the guardianship of an individual and it was not clear who held the guardianship when there was a council. Guardianship of a council was not rooted in Hadiths and Islamic jurisprudence. ii) Previous council type organizations such as broadcasting council and supreme judicial council were not successful in practice and leadership council would not do well for similar reasons. iii) People were accustomed to the leadership of an individual and a council of leaders was something unfamiliar to them. iv) An individual leader could act more decisive when dealing with critical and important decisions and solving problems and crisis. On the other hand, the supporters of the proposal believed that: i) At the time, there were no Faqih equal to Khomeini or even two or three levels lower than him so that he could fulfill the expectation of people. ii) In case of council of leaders, the members could compensate each other, if any of them had some shortage in a field.
Finally, 45 members voted against the leadership council proposal while more than 20 people were in favor of it and the proposal was rejected. After the assembly rejected the idea of a Leadership Council, Khamenei was elected Leader by 60 of the 74 members present with Grand Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani receiving the remaining 14 votes. Though Khamenei opposed this and argued heavily against the decision, he eventually accepted it after debating with the mujtahids of the Assembly.
Since Khamenei was not a marja' at the time—which the Iranian constitution required—he was named as the temporary Supreme Leader. Later, the constitution was amended to remove that requirement and the Assembly of Experts reconvened on 6 August 1989, to reconfirm Khamenei with 60 votes out of 64 present. On 29 April 1989, responding to the letter of Ayatollah Meshkini, the head of committee responsible for revising the Constitution, asking Khomeini's viewpoint regarding the 'marjaʿiyyat criteria, Khomeini said: "...From the very beginning, I believed and insisted that there is no need for the requirements of marjaʿiyyat (authority in jurisprudence). A pious mujtahid (jurist-intellectual), who is approved by the esteemed Assembly of Experts (Majlis-i Khobregan), will suffice." In a video that surfaced during the 2017–18 Iranian protests, Khamenei is seen before the assembly saying he was not religiously qualified to be Supreme leader. Khamenei, who was ranked as a Hujjat al-Islam and not a Marja' as required by the Iranian constitution, said he would only be a "ceremonial leader", and was reassured by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani the position would be "temporary" until a referendum, apparently planned for one year later.
Political philosophy and image
Khamenei's era has differed from that of his predecessor. He has, however, continued Khomeini's policy of "balancing one group against another, making sure that no single side gains too much power." But lacking Khomeini's charisma and clerical standing, he has developed personal networks, first inside the armed forces, and then among the clerics, while administering the major bonyads and seminaries of Qom and Mashhad. According to Vali Nasr of the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, "[Khamenei] [took] many of the powers of the presidency with him and [turned] the office of the supreme leader into the omnipotent overseer of Iran's political scene". In Nasr's view, Khamenei is an "unusual sort of dictator". Officials under Khamenei influence the country's various powerful, and sometimes bickering, institutions, including "the parliament, the presidency, the judiciary, the Revolutionary Guards, the military, the intelligence services, the police agencies, the clerical elite, the Friday prayer leaders and much of the media", as well as various "nongovernmental foundations, organizations, councils, seminaries and business groups".
Khamenei issues decrees and makes the final decisions on economy, environment, foreign policy and everything else in Iran. Khamenei regularly meets with president, cabinet members, head and officials of the judiciary branch, parliamentarians, among others, and tells them what to do. Khamenei has also fired and reinstated Presidential cabinet appointments. Khamenei meets with foreign dignitaries, however he does not travel overseas; if anyone wishes to see him, that person must travel to Iran. Apart from his time in Najaf as a student, Khamenei travelled to Libya during his time as President.
In his speeches Khamenei regularly mentions many familiar themes of the 1979 revolution: justice, independence, self-sufficiency, Islamic government and resolute opposition to Israel and United States, while rarely mentioning other revolutionary ideals such as democracy and greater government transparency. According to Karim Sadjadpour of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Khamenei has "resisted Rafsanjani's attempts to find a modus vivendi with the United States, Khatami's aspirations for a more democratic Islamic state, and Ahmadinejad's penchant for outright confrontation."
Privatization of state-owned businesses
In 2007, "Khamenei ordered his deputies to start privatizing state-owned businesses," including the telephone company, three banks and dozens of small oil and petrochemical enterprises. After a few months, at a televised meeting with then-President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his Cabinet ministers, important clerics, the leader of parliament and provincial governors, the heads of state broadcasting and the Iranian chamber of commerce, Khamenei ordered "to pass some laws, sell off some businesses, and be quick about it." Khamenei warned that "those who are hostile to these policies are the ones who are going to lose their interests and influence."
Dispute regarding status as Grand Ayatollah
Khamenei's status as marja', the highest level Shia authority, is controversial. In 1994, after the death of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Araki, the Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom declared Khamenei a new marja. Several ayatollahs, however, declined to recognize him as such. Some of those dissidents clerics included Mohammad Shirazi, Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Hassan Tabatabai-Qomi, and Yasubedin Rastegar Jooybari. In 1997, for example, Montazeri "questioned the powers of the Leader" and was subsequently punished for his comments with the closure of his religious school, an attack on his office in Qom, and a period of house arrest.
Khamenei's acceptance of marja'iyat for Shi'as outside Iran does not have traditional precedence in Shi'ism. Marja'iyat can be, and in modern times is, increasingly transitional.[clarification needed][relevant? ]
The table below lists some of the incumbent senior officeholders in Iran directly appointed by the supreme leader (sorted by date of appointment):
|Commander of Islamic Republic of Iran Army||MG Ataollah Salehi||11 September 2005||N/A|||
|Commander of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps||MG Mohammad Ali Jafari||2 September 2007||N/A|||
|Chief Justice of Iran||Sadegh Larijani||14 August 2009
(14 August 2014)
|Head of Bonyad Mostazafan||Mohammad Saeedikia||22 July 2014||5 years|
|Chief of Police||BG Hossein Ashtari||21 March 2015||3 years|||
|Head of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee||Parviz Fattah||5 April 2015||N/A|||
|Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi||Ebrahim Raisi||7 March 2016||N/A|||
|Head of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting||Abdulali Ali-Asgari||11 May 2016||N/A|||
|Chief-of-Staff of Iranian Armed Forces||MG Mohammad Bagheri||28 June 2016||N/A|||
|Head of Islamic Azad University's Board of Trustees||Ali Akbar Velayati||19 January 2017||N/A|||
Fatwas and messages
Fatwa regarding companions of Muhammad
In 2010, Khamenei issued a fatwa which bans any insult to the Sahabah (companions of Muhammad) as well as Muhammad's wives. The fatwa was issued in an effort to reconcile legal, social, and political disagreements between Sunni and Shia.
Khamenei is one of the Ulama signatories of the Amman Message, which gives a broad foundation for defining Muslim orthodoxy. as well as elaborating on the factors needed to create Islamic unity, he argues: "neither the Shia Muslims allied with the British MI6 are Shias, nor the Sunni mercenaries of the American CIA are Sunnis, as they are both anti-Islamic."
Fatwa against nuclear weapons
The fatwa was cited in an official statement by the Iranian government at an August 2005 meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. It's been widely discussed by international officials and specifically recognized by the US administration.
The Iranian official website for information regarding its nuclear program has provided numerous instances of public statements by Khamenei wherein he voices his opposition to pursuit and development of nuclear weapons in moral, religious and Islamic juridical terms. Khamenei's official website specifically cites a 2010 version of these statements in the fatwa section of the website in Farsi as a fatwa on "Prohibition of Weapons of Mass Destruction".
Doubts have been cast by experts on the existence of the fatwa as it can be changed or modified as and when deemed necessary, as well as doubts on its authenticity, its impact, and its apparently religious nature. Gareth Porter believes that the fatwa is "sincere" and Gholam-Hossein Elham commented that it will not change.
Relationship with the press
In 2000, he was listed by the Committee to Protect Journalists as "one of the top ten enemies of the press and freedom of expression", and was named to the Time 100 in 2007. Opposition journalists Ahmad Zeidabadi, Mohsen Sazegara, Mohammad Nourizad and Akbar Ganji were arrested and investigated for spreading critical articles containing unproven charges against Khamenei's policies as the leader and some organizations. According to the Iran's Press Law "spreading rumors and lies and distorts the words of others" is not allowed. Also, according to the law, "spreading libel against officials, institutions, organizations and individuals in the country or insulting legal or real persons who are lawfully respected, even by means of pictures or caricatures" is not allowed.
Among his controversial actions were his rejection of a bill presented by the Iranian parliament in 2000 that aimed to reform the country's press law, and the disqualification of thousands of parliamentary candidates for the 2004 Iranian legislative election by the Guardian Council he appointed.
Political power following reform era
(1) A vast network of commissars stationed in strategic posts throughout government bureaucracies, dedicated to enforcing his authority; (2) the weak, conservative-dominated parliament, headed by Khamenei loyalist Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel (whose daughter is married to the Leader's son); (3) the rapidly rising political and economic influence of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards, whose top leaders are directly appointed by Khamenei and have always been publicly deferential to him; (4) the political disengagement of Iran's young population ....; and (5) most significant[ly], the 2005 presidential election, which saw hardliner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad trounce Khamenei's chief rival ... Hashemi Rafsanjani ...
According to Christopher Dickey, in order to consolidate his power base, Khamenei has developed close relations with the security and military establishment, while also expanding the bureaucracy inside the government and around his Beit Rahbari compound.
Writing in The Telegraph, Damien McElroy and Ahmad Vahdat observed: "The ayatollah likes to cultivate an image of austerity but receives major commissions from the Iranian oil and arms industries and there have been regular claims that he and his son have amassed a fortune running into billions of dollars." A six-month investigation by Reuters has said that Khamenei controls a "financial empire" worth approximately US$95 billion that is not overseen by the Iranian Parliament, a figure much larger than the estimated wealth of the late Shah of Iran. According to the Reuters investigation, Khamenei uses the assets of a company called Headquarters for Executing the Order of the Imam or "Setad" in Farsi, in order to increase his grip on power. Reuters "found no evidence that Khamenei is tapping Setad to enrich himself," but did find that he used Setad's funds, which "rival the holdings of the shah", for political expedience - "Setad gives him the financial means to operate independently of parliament and the national budget, insulating him from Iran's messy factional infighting." According to The Telegraph, money from Setad is used to fund Khamenei's Beit Rahbari compound, which employs over 500 stewards, as was reported in 2013. Hamid Vaezi, Setad's head of public relations, said the information "was far from realities and is not correct". The six-month investigation by Reuters into found that, regarding the source of Setad's funds, "Setad built its empire on the systematic seizure of thousands of properties belonging to ordinary Iranians: members of religious minorities like Vahdat-e-Hagh, who is Baha'i, as well as Shi'ite Muslims, business people and Iranians living abroad."
Protests during leadership
There have been several major protests during Khamenei's reign, including the 1994 Qazvin Protests—where, according to Al-Arabiya, around 40 people were killed and over 400 were injured— the 1999 Iranian student protests, the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, when protesters chanted "death to the dictator", and ripped down pictures of Khamenei, as well as the 2011–12 Iranian protests and 2017–18 Iranian protests, among others. In 2016, Khamenei, who outlines the elections guidelines "in line with Article 110 of Iran’s Constitution", asked to maximize the amount of transparency in elections in Iran, using modern technologies.
Challenges following 2009 election protest
In mid-August 2009, a group of unnamed former reformist lawmakers appealed to the Assembly of Experts – the constitutional body charged with electing and (in theory) supervising and removing the Leader – to investigate Leader Ali Khamenei's qualification to rule. A week later another anonymous letter was issued "calling Iran's leader a dictator and demanding his removal", this one by a group of Iranian clerics. The letters were called a blow to Khamenei's "status as a neutral arbiter and Islamic figurehead" and an "unprecedented challenge to the country's most powerful man" though not a blow to his actual power as leader. The New York Times reports "the phrase 'death to Khamenei' has begun appearing in graffiti on Tehran walls, a phrase that would have been almost unimaginable not long ago."
The letter was addressed to the head of the Assembly of Experts, Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, a "powerful former president" who also questions the election results. According to the Associate Press it is unlikely the letter's demands would be met as "two-thirds of the 86-member assembly are considered strong loyalists of Khamenei and would oppose" any investigation of him.
According to The New York Times, a "prominent Iranian cleric and a former lawmaker said on Sunday that they had spoken to some of the authors and had no doubt the letter was genuine". According to this cleric, the letter's signatories number "several dozen, and are mostly midranking figures from Qum, Isfahan and Mashhad", and that "the pressure on clerics in Qum is much worse than the pressure on activists because the establishment is afraid that if they say anything they can turn the more traditional sectors of society against the regime".
Relations with former President Ahmadinejad
Early in his presidency, Ahmadinejad was sometimes described as "enjoy[ing] the full backing" of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, and even as being his "protege." In Ahmadinejad's 2005 inauguration the supreme leader allowed Ahmadinejad to kiss his hand and cheeks in what was called "a sign of closeness and loyalty," and after the 2009 election fully endorsed Ahmadinejad against protesters. However, as early as January 2008 signs of disagreement between the two men developed over domestic policies, and by the period of 2010–11 several sources detected a "growing rift" between them. The disagreement was described as centered on Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei, a top adviser and close confidant of Ahmadinejad and opponent of "greater involvement of clerics in politics", who was first vice president of Iran until being ordered to resign from the cabinet by the supreme leader.
In 2009, Ahmadinejad dismissed Intelligence Minister Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, an opponent of Mashaei. In April 2011, another Intelligence minister, Heydar Moslehi, resigned after being asked to by Ahmadinejad, but was reinstated by the supreme leader within hours. Ahmadinejad declined to officially back Moslehi's reinstatement for two weeks and in protest engaged in an "11-day walkout" of cabinet meetings, religious ceremonies, and other official functions. Ahmadinejad's actions led to angry public attacks by clerics, parliamentarians and military commanders, who accused him of ignoring orders from the supreme leader. Conservative opponents in parliament launched an "impeachment drive" against him, four websites with ties to Ahmadinejad reportedly were "filtered and blocked", and several people "said to be close" to the president and Mashaei (such as Abbas Amirifar and Mohammed Sharif Malekzadeh) were arrested on charges of being "magicians" and invoking djinns. On 6 May 2011, it was reported that Ahmadinejad had been given an ultimatum to accept the leader's intervention or resign, and on 8 May he "apparently bowed" to the reinstatement, welcoming back Moslehi to a cabinet meeting. The events have been said to have "humiliated and weakened" Ahmadinejad, though the president denied that there had been any rift between the two, and according to the semiofficial Fars News Agency, he stated that his relationship with the supreme leader "is that of a father and a son."
In 2012, Khamenei ordered a halt to a parliamentary inquiry into Ahmadinejad's mishandling of the Iranian economy. In 2016, Khamenei advised Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, his former ally with whom his relationship was strained after Ahmadinejad accused his son Mojtaba Khamenei of embezzling from the state treasury, to not run for president again.
Khamenei is regarded by some as the figurehead of the country's conservative establishment.
Khamenei supported Mesbah Yazdi describing him as one of Iran's most credible ideologues prior to the 2005 election, but has reportedly "recently been concerned about Mesbah's political ambitions."
In 2007, Khamenei requested that government officials speed up Iran's move towards economic privatization. Its last move towards such a goal was in 2004, when Article 44 of the constitution was overturned. Article 44 had decreed that Iran's core infrastructure should remain state-run. Khamenei also suggested that ownership rights should be protected in courts set up by the Justice Ministry; the hope was that this new protection would give a measure of security to and encourage private investment. In 2007, Iranian police under the direction of Khamenei launched a "Public Security Plan", arresting dozens of "thugs" to increase public security.
On 30 April 2008, Ali Khamenei backed President Ahmadinejad's economic policy and said the West was struggling with more economic difficulties than Iran, with a "crisis" spreading from the United States to Europe, and inflation was a widespread problem. The Iranian leader said that the ongoing economic crisis which has crippled the world has been unprecedented in the past 60 years. "This crisis has forced the UN to declare state of emergency for food shortages around the globe but foreign radios have focused on Iran to imply that the current price hikes and inflation in the country are the results of carelessness on the part of Iranian officials which of course is not true", he said. Khamenei emphasized that no one has the right to blame the Iranian government for Iran's economic problems. He also advised people and the government to be content and avoid waste in order to solve economic problems. "I advise you to keep in your mind that this great nation is never afraid of economic sanctions", he added.
Science and technology
Ali Khamenei has been supportive of scientific progress in Iran. He was among the first Islamic clerics to allow stem cell research and therapeutic cloning. In 2004, Khamenei said that the country's progress is dependent on investment in the field of science and technology. He also said that attaching a high status to scholars and scientists in society would help talents to flourish and science and technology to become domesticated, thus ensuring the country's progress and development.
The Bahá'í Faith is the largest religious minority in Iran, with around 300,000 members (8,000,000 members worldwide) and is officially considered a dangerous cult by Iranian government. It is banned in Iran and several other countries,. Khamenei has approved new legislation against Bahá'ís in Iran and lessen their influence abroad. According to a letter from the Chairman of the Command Headquarters of the Armed Forces in Iran addressed to the Ministry of Information, the Revolutionary Guard, and the Police Force, Khamenei has also ordered the Command Headquarters to identify people who adhere to the Bahá'í Faith and to monitor their activities and gather any and all information about the members of the Bahá'í Faith.
Trials of people for insulting Khamenei
In 1996, Abbas Maroufi was sentenced to 35 lashes and 6 months imprisonment for spreading lies and insulting Khamenei. Maroufi was also banned from working as a journalist and his literary monthly Gardoon was closed. Maroufi had compared Khamenei to former Shah of Iran Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.
In 2005, an Iranian was jailed for two years for insulting Khamenei and Imam Khomeini while being cleared of insulting the prophet.
In 2010, opposition activist Ahmad Gabel was sentenced to 20 months in jail for insulting Khamenei, as well as 3 additional years for possessing a satellite receiver, a 3-year exile and a fine.
In 2014, eight men including a Briton were sentenced for 19 to 20 years for insulting Khamenei and other charges relating to Facebook comments.
In 2017, Sina Dehghan was sentenced to death for insulting the prophet, with an additional 16-month sentence for insulting Khamenei in a messaging application.
Interpretation of Islamic law
In 2000, Ali Khamenei sent a letter to the Iranian parliament forbidding the legislature from debating a revision of the Iranian press law. He wrote: "The present press law has succeeded to a point in preventing this big plague. The draft bill is not legitimate and in the interests of the system and the revolution." His use of "extra-legislative power" has been criticized widely by reformists and opposition groups. In reaction to the letter, some Parliament members voiced outrage and threatened to resign. Kayhan and Jomhuri-ye Eslami are two newspapers published under the management of Khamenei.
In late 1996, following a fatwa by Khamenei stating that music education corrupts the minds of young children, many music schools were closed and music instruction to children under the age of 16 was banned by public establishments (although private instruction continued). Khamenei stated, "The promotion of music [both traditional and Western] in schools is contrary to the goals and teachings of Islam, regardless of age and level of study."
In 1999, Khamenei issued a fatwa stating that it was permitted to use a third-party (donor sperm, ova or surrogacy) in fertility treatments. This was different in "both style and substance" to the fatwa on ART by Gad El-Hak Ali Gad El-Hak of Egypt's Al-Azhar University in the late 1980s which permitted ART (IVF and similar technologies) as long there is no third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses).
In 2002, after protests erupted in the capital, Khamenei intervened against the death sentence given to Hashem Aghajari for arguing that Muslims should re-interpret Islam rather than blindly follow leaders. Khamenei ordered a review of the sentence against Aghajari and it was later commuted to a prison sentence.
In July 2007, Khamenei criticized Iranian women's rights activists and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): "In our country ... some activist women, and some men, have been trying to play with Islamic rules in order to match international conventions related to women", Khamenei said. "This is wrong." Khamenei made these comments two days after Iranian women's rights activist Delaram Ali was sentenced to 34 months of jail and 10 lashes by Iran's judiciary. Iran's judiciary works under the auspices of the supreme leader and is independent from the government.
Khamenei is an advocate of Islamic practice of Hijab. He believes that hijab is aimed at honoring women. To the Western objection to the compulsory hijab in Iran, he responds by pointing out the compulsory unveiling in certain western countries and obstacles created for veiled Muslim women who want to enter universities. He further argues that women in the West have lost their honor by pointing out perceived high rate of sexual violence in the West as well as the widespread exploitation of female sexual appeal for commercial purposes: "In effect, they have been treating women like a commodity, like another of their products. If you were to look at the magazines, which are published in the West, you would see that they advertise a commodity for sale next to the naked picture of a woman. Can you imagine a bigger insult to women? They [the West] must be answerable [not Islam]."
Khamenei argues that "Today, homosexuality is a major problem in the western world. They [western nations] however ignore it. But the reality is that homosexuality has become a serious challenge, pain and unsolvable problem for the intellectuals in the west."
Presidential, parliamentary, and Assembly of Experts elections
As Supreme Leader, Khamenei has influence over elections in Iran since the Constitution of Iran allows him to appoint half of the members of the Guardian Council and the Chief Justice of Iran. The Constitution also establishes that the Council approves or disqualifies candidates for office while the Chief Justice presents the other half of the members of the Council to be selected by Parliament. These constitutional provisions give Khamenei direct and indirect influence over the Council; an entity that, in turn, has direct influence over who can run for government. This influence was evident in the 2004 parliamentary elections, in which the Guardian Council disqualified thousands of candidates from running—including 80 incumbents, many of the reformist members of Parliament, and all the candidates of the Islamic Iran Participation Front party. Subsequently, the conservatives won about 70 percent of parliamentary seats. The election became a key turning point in the country's political evolution as it marked the end of the campaign for political and social reform initiated by former President Mohammad Khatami.
During the 2005 presidential election, Khamenei's comments about importance of fighting corruption, being faithful to the ideals of the Islamic revolution, as well as on the superior intelligence and dynamism of those who studied engineering, were interpreted by some as a subtle endorsement of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (who had a PhD in traffic engineering). After the election, and until recently, Khamenei was outspoken in his support for Ahmadinejad, and "defended him publicly in ways which he never" had reformist president Khatami. Khamenei would later certify the results of the 2009 Iranian Presidential election.
Khamenei took a firm stand against the 2009–10 Iranian election protests, and stated that he will neither reconsider vote results nor bow to public pressure over the disputed reelection of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. "By Allah's favor, the presidential election was accurately held, and the current matters should be pursued legally." In a public appearance on 19 June he expresses his support for the declared winner Ahmadinejad and accused foreign powers—including Britain, Israel and the United States—of helping foment protest against the election results. In particular, he singled out Britain, perceiving the country as the "most evil" of its enemies. He said that the Iranian people will respond with an "iron fist" if Western powers meddle in Iran's internal affairs.
In response to reformist gains in the 2015–2016 election cycle, Khamenei lamented the loss of conservative clerics from the Assembly of Experts and suggested changes to the law by which the Guardian Council vets candidates may be needed because it is currently too difficult for the Guardian Council to vet so large a number of candidates.
This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (June 2017)
Khamenei has called human rights a fundamental principle underlying Islamic teachings, that precedes western concern for human rights by many centuries. He has attacked Western powers who have criticized the rights record of the Islamic Republic for hypocrisy saying that these countries economically oppress people in Third World countries and support despots and dictators. In response to Western complaints of human rights abuses in Iran he has stated that the American administration has committed many crimes and is therefore not fit to judge the Islamic Republic.
Khamenei has "direct responsibility" for foreign policy, which "cannot be conducted without his direct involvement and approval". He has a foreign policy team independent of the president's "which includes two former foreign ministers" and "can at any time of his choosing inject himself into the process and 'correct' a flawed policy or decision." His foreign policy is said to steer a course that avoids either confrontation or accommodation with the West.
Opposition to United States foreign policy
On 4 June 2006, Khamenei said that Iran would disrupt energy shipments from the Persian Gulf region (about 20% of the world's daily supply of oil passes from the Persian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz very close to Iran's coast) should the country come under attack from the US, insisting that Tehran will not give up its right to produce nuclear fuel.
On 14 September 2007, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (on the 1st Friday prayer of Ramadan) predicted that George W. Bush and American officials will one day be tried in an international criminal court to be held "accountable" for the U.S. led invasion of Iraq. He has also blamed the United States for "blind terrorism" after its invasion of Iraq. He asserts that the United States is the main cause of insecurity in Iraq.
On 21 March 2009, a day after US President Barack Obama claimed to offer Iran a "new beginning" of diplomatic engagement between the two old foes, Khamenei said a change of US "words" was not enough and added: "We will watch and we will judge (the new US administration) ... You change, our behavior will change."
In June 2011, Khamenei accused the United States government of terrorism and rejected the American definition of terrorism; he was quoted as saying, "The U.S. and the European governments that follow it describe Palestinian combatant groups who fight for the liberation of their land as terrorists."
In June 2012, Khamenei warned Western governments that the mounting sanctions on the country will only deepen the Iranians' hatred of the West.
In October 2014, Khamenei said the U.S. and the U.K. created ISIS as a tool to fight Iran and "create insecurity" in the region.
On 19 July 2015, while speaking at a mosque in Tehran, Khamenei said to his supporters that the policies of the United States in the region were "180 degrees" opposed to Iran’s political and religious movement. The speech was punctuated by chants of "Death to America" and "Death to Israel". Khamenei said in regards to the 2015 nuclear deal that "Even after this deal our policy towards the arrogant U.S. will not change." U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said that if the comments reflected policy, it was "very disturbing", and "very troubling".
Condemnation of 11 September attacks
After the September 11 attacks, Khamenei condemned the act and the attackers and called for a condemnation of terrorist activities all over the world, but warned strongly against a military intervention in Afghanistan. He is quoted as saying, "Mass killings of human beings are catastrophic acts which are condemned wherever they may happen and whoever the perpetrators and the victims may be."
Zionism and Israel
Khamenei is an opponent of the State of Israel and Zionism, and has been criticized for anti-Semitic rhetoric and for making threats against Israel. On 15 December 2000, Khamenei called Israel a "cancerous tumor of a state" that "should be removed from the region" and in 2013 called Israel a "rabid dog", as well as in 2014 during the Gaza war, for what he called attacking innocent people. In 2014 a tweet, from an account attributed to Khamenei, claimed that there was no cure for Israel but its annihilation.
In a September 2008 sermon for Friday prayers in Tehran, Khamenei stated that "it is incorrect, irrational, pointless and nonsense to say that we are friends of Israeli people", because he believed that the occupation is done by the means of them. "...usurpation of houses, lands, and business [of Palestinian people] are carried out using these people. They are the background actors of Zionist elements," said Khamenei in his speech. "...we have no problem with Jews and Christians...we have problem with the usurpers of Palestine land," he added. Also, he said that he had raised the issue "to spell an end to any debates". In 2013, Khamenei accused France of "kneeling" before Israel, while saying that Israel was led by people unworthy of the "title human".
Nevertheless, according to anti-regime change activist Abbas Edalat, in 2005 Khamenei responded to a remark by then-President Ahmadinejad which had been widely translated as saying that the "regime occupying Jerusalem should be wiped off the map" by saying that "the Islamic Republic has never threatened and will never threaten any country."
In a September 2009 sermon, Khamenei was quoted as saying, that "the Zionist cancer is gnawing into the lives of Islamic nations." In another report of the same speech, he added that "we will support and help any nations, any groups fighting against the Zionist regime across the world, and we are not afraid of declaring this."
Khamenei instead proposed that "Palestinian refugees should return and Muslims, Christians and Jews could choose a government for themselves, excluding immigrant Jews," adding "No one will allow a bunch of thugs, lechers and outcasts from London, America and Moscow to rule over the Palestinians."
On 10 September 2015, in a speech about Israel after agreement on the nuclear program of Iran, Khamenei made a remark "Israel will not exist in 25 years". For the first time, the remark was published in Khamenei's official website and his Twitter. This sentence was introduced as the best and most important sentence made by Iranian people in 2015, in an online poll conducted by his official website.
On 21 February, at the 6th International Conference in Support of the Palestinian Intifada, Khamenei regarded withdrawal of Israel from south Lebanon in 2000 and from Gaza in 2005 as two major achievements so far. Also, he advised the Islamic countries to refrain from "useless" crises and differences and instead concentrate on the issue of Palestine which he regarded as the core issue of Islam. "Otherwise, the potentials and capabilities of the nations will go to waste in the face of vain struggles, which would provide opportunities for the Zionist regime to become even stronger," he added.
Questioning of the Holocaust
On 21 March 2014, Khamenei used a morning speech marking Nowruz, the Persian New Year, to call into question the Holocaust. He said, "the Holocaust is an event whose reality is uncertain and if it has happened, it's uncertain how it has happened".
Literature and art
Interested in the study of the novels and stories since childhood, Khamenei has studied various world's credible novels. He was "fascinated by Jean-Paul Sartre and Bertrand Russell" in his youth. He praised the works of Mikhail Sholokhov, Alexei Tolstoy, Honoré de Balzac, and Michel Zévaco. However, Victor Hugo's works are the best in his view:
In my opinion, Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables is the best novel that has been written in history. I have not read all the novels written throughout history, no doubt, but I have read many that relate to the events of various centuries. I have read some very old novels. For example, say, I’ve read The Divine Comedy. I have read Amir Arsalan. I have also read A Thousand and One Nights. . . . [But] Les Misérables is a miracle in the world of novel writing. . . . I have said over and over again, go read Les Misérables once. This Les Misérables is a book of sociology, a book of history, a book of criticism, a divine book, a book of love and feeling.
He suggested reading The Grapes of Wrath to "an audience of writers and artists" and Uncle Tom’s Cabin to the high-level state managers as he thought is shed light on the history of United States. "Isn’t this the government that massacred the original native inhabitants of the land of America? That wiped out the American Indians?...Today, one of the most tragic works of art is Uncle Tom’s Cabin. . . . This book still lives after almost 200 years," Khamenei said.
Khamenei is fluent in Arabic in addition to his native languages, Persian and Azerbaijani. He has translated several books into Persian from Arabic, including the works of the famous Egyptian theoretician Sayyid Qutb. He speaks Azerbaijani, his father's native language.
When it comes to poetry, in Mashhad he used to participate in the literary associations along with known poets and used to critique poems. Writing some poems himself, he chose pseudonym 'Amin' for himself.
In February 2011, Ali Khamenei supported the Egyptian uprising against their government, describing it as Islamic awakening instead of Arab Spring. Trying to communicate with Arab people, he addressed Egypt's protesters in Arabic. (Iranians are not Arabs, and Iran's official language is Persian) He introduced himself as "your brother in religion", while praising the "explosion of sacred anger". Later, in "Islamic Awakening conferences" which were held in Tehran, Khamenei praised the Muslim youths of Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Yemen and Bahrain for what he described as Islamic awakening. He also paralleled these events with Islamic revolution in Iran during his Nowruz oration in 2011. However, major protests against the Iranian regime also broke out throughout Iran in 2011, and they became known as the 2011–12 Iranian protests.
- Four main books of Rijal
- The outline of Islamic thoughts in the Quran
- Honest leader
- Discourse on Patience (translation by Sayyid Hussein Alamdar available online)
- Iqbal: Manifestation of the Islamic Spirit, Two Contemporary Muslim Views ISBN 1-871031-20-6
- Replies to Inquiries about the Practical Laws of Islam ISBN 964-472-000-8 (PDF version)
- Lessons from the Nahjul-Balaghah
- Human Rights in Islam
- The Charter of Freedom
- Essence of Tawhid: Denial of Servitude but to God
Translations from Arabic:
- Future in the realm of Islam
- List of national leaders
- List of current Maraji
- The 250 years old man
- To the Youth in Europe and North America (Letter)
- Khamenei's fatwa against nuclear weapons
- Palestine (2011 book)
- Entekhab.ir, پایگاه خبری تحلیلی انتخاب. "توضیحات مجلس خبرگان درباره جلسه انتخاب آیتالله خامنهای به عنوان رهبر در سال 68/ آیتالله گلپایگانی فقط 14 رای داشت". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی انتخاب - Entekhab.ir.
- "1982 Assembly of Experts Election", The Iran Social Science Data Portal, Princeton University, archived from the original on 19 October 2015, retrieved 10 August 2015
- "چه کسی در نخستین انتخابات خبرگان اول شد؟ +جدول". 7 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
- "Parliament members" (in Persian). Iranian Majlis. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- "A photo of Identity document of Ayatollah Khamenei" (in Persian). Khamenei.ir. 1 February 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "جامعه روحانيت مبارز جوان ميشود" [Combatant Clergy Association gets younger] (in Persian). Fararu. 8 July 2012. 118101. Archived from the original on 2 September 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Velayati, Ali Akbar. "Ayatollah Ali Khamenei". The Great Islamic Encyclopedia (in Persian). Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- Raee, Sajjad (Winter 2008). Ardestani, Hussein, ed. نقش آیتالله خامنهای در دفاع مقدس: سال اول جنگ [Ayatollah Khamanei's Role in the Sacred Defense: During the First Year] (PDF). Negin-e Iran: Quarterly for Studies of Iran–Iraq War (in Persian). Tehran: Sacred Defense documents and research center. 7 (26): 9–24. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Detailed biography of Ayatollah Khamenei, Leader of Islamic Revolution, Khamenei.ir, archived from the original on 10 April 2016, retrieved 17 March 2016
- "The Office of the Leader, Seyyed Ali Khamenei". Leader. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iran". State. 23 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
The government monitored meetings, movements, and communications of its citizens and often charged persons with crimes against national security and insulting the regime based on letters, e-mails, and other public and private communications.
- "Profile: Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei". BBC News. 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- "The Supreme Leader - The Iran Primer". Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Khamenei.ir". Khamenei.ir. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013.
- Khamenei has kept a low profile[permanent dead link][permanent dead link] Agence France Presse, 20 June 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.[dead link]
- Maziar Bahari (6 April 2007). "How Khamenei Keeps Control". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "KHAMENEI WILL BE IRAN'S LAST SUPREME LEADER". Newsweek. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017.
referring to the enormous power Khamenei has given Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, which, under Khamenei's direct control, has brutally repressed demonstrators, human rights activists, and opposition journalists.
- Jamsheed K. Choksy. "Tehran Politics: Are the Mullahs Losing Their Grip?". World Affairs Journal. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017.
Khamenei has strengthened alliances with militant commanders, especially within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), in the hope that all opposition to his authority will continue to be suppressed—as it was during the protests of 2009.
- "انتصاب آیتالله خامنهای به عنوان رئیس خدمهی آستان قدس رضوی". farsi.khamenei.ir. khamenei.ir. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Profile: Iran's 'unremarkable' supreme leader Khamenei". BBC News. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012.
- Ganji, Akbar, "The Latter-Day Sultan: Power and Politics in Iran", Foreign Affairs, November December 2008
- "Iran's Khamenei hits out at Rafsanjani in rare public rebuke". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
- "Khamenei says Iran must go green - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
- Louis Charbonneau and Parisa Hafezi (16 May 2014). "Exclusive: Iran pursues ballistic missile work, complicating nuclear talks". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017.
- "IranWire - Asking for a Miracle: Khamenei's Economic Plan". Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
- "Khamenei outlines 14-point plan to increase population". 22 May 2014. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017.
- "Iran: Executive, legislative branch officials endorse privatization plan". Archived from the original on 5 January 2017.
- "Rafsanjani breaks taboo over selection of Iran's next supreme leader". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 December 2016.
- "Iran reverses ban on reformist candidates". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016.
- "The Basij Mostazafan - A culture of martyrdom and death". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016.
- "Police Are Said to Have Killed 10 in Iran Protests". The New York Times. 28 December 2009. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010.
- "Several killed, 300 arrested in Tehran protests". Archived from the original on 31 December 2009.
- "IRAN 2015 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT" (PDF). US State Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2017.
During the year the government arrested students, journalists, lawyers, political activists, women’s activists, artists, and members of religious minorities; charged many with crimes such as “propaganda against the system” and “insulting the supreme leader;” and treated such cases as national security trials (see sections 1.a. through 1.e.; section 6, Women; and section 7.a.).
- "IRAN 2016 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT" (PDF). US State Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2017.
- Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. پیام تسلیت هاشمی به آیتالله خامنهای/ اعلام برنامه وزرای کشاورزی و نیرو به هاشمی (in Persian).
- Eternal Iran, in 1721. Patrick Clawson, 2005, ISBN 1-4039-6276-6, p.5.
- Robin Wright, The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil and Transformation in Iran, Alfred A. Knopf, 2000
- "PressTV-President offers condolences to Leader". Archived from the original on 12 March 2017.
- Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East – Facts on File, Incorporated, 2009, p.79
- "Iran and the Caucasus: The Triumph of Pragmatism over Ideology – Centre for World Dialogue". Worlddialogue.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Azeris unhappy at being the butt of national jokes". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. IRIN. 25 May 2006. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iran at sea over Azerbaijan". Asia Times. 28 September 2004. Archived from the original on 23 April 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2009. Another ethnic Azeri is Rahim Safavi, the overall commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) and the most important military-security official in the country.
- Majd, Hooman (19 February 2009). "Change Comes to Iran". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010.
Ali Khamenei, [...], while ethnically Turkic is also half Yazdi, but he seems not to have inherited the timidity gene from his mother.
- Anaj News. 6 مرداد، سالروزسفر تاریخی رهبر معظم انقلاب به رشت (in Persian). Archived from the original on 29 July 2015.
- "(broken)".[permanent dead link]
- "ShiaOnline.ir - شیعه آنلاین - نگاهی اجمالی به شجره نامه آیت الله خامنه ای". shia-online.ir. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014.
- "Historic Personalities of Iran: Seyed Ali Khamenei". Iran Chamber. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Ali Rahnemaré, ''An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of Ali Shariati,'' I.B. Tauris Publishers, London, New York 1998, P.231. ISBN 1-86064-552-6. 2000. ISBN 978-1-86064-552-5. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "آشنایی با فرزندان مقام معظم رهبری". Seratnews. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Mehrzad Boroujerdi; Kourosh Rahimkhani. "Iran's Political Elite". United States Institute of Peace. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- "The Frugality Of Iran's Supreme Leader". Payvand.com. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Robert Tait (12 November 2013). "Ayatollah Ali Khamenei controls £60 billion financial empire, report says". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017.
- Julian Borger. "Mojtaba Khamenei: gatekeeper to Iran's supreme leader". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.
- "Yazdi Released; Mousavi, Karroubi Children Write Letter to Nation". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017.
- "Iran's car market is opening up". MNN - Mother Nature Network. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Majd, Hooman, The Ayatollah Begs to Differ: The Paradox of Modern Iran, by Hooman Majd, Doubleday, 2008, p. 61
- Iran’s Top Leader Undergoes Prostate Surgery Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. The New York Times. 8 September 2014.
- "Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has prostate surgery". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.. Le Figaro quoted Western intelligence officials as saying that the cancer was discovered about ten years ago. "The cancer is in stage four, in other words has spread." Doctors estimate "he has two years left to live."
- Ahmari, Sohrab (23 March 2015). "Iran's Coming Leadership Crisis". The Wall Street Journal: A13. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017.
- Sahimi, Muhammad (8 May 2016). "Iran's Incredible Shrinking Ayatollah". National Interest. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Nikola B. Schahgaldian, Gina Barkhordarian (March 1987), The Iranian Military Under the Islamic Republic (PDF), RAND, ISBN 0-8330-0777-7, archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2017, retrieved 15 January 2017
- Nasr, Vali (9 December 2007). "Meet 'The Decider' of Tehran. It's Not the Hothead You Expect". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2007.
- Maloney, Suzanne (2015). Iran's Political Economy since the Revolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0521738149. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017.
- Kahlili, Reza (2013). A Time to Betray: A Gripping True Spy Story of Betrayal, Fear, and Courage. Threshold Editions; Reprint edition. p. 155. ISBN 978-1439189689.
- Qaffari, Mostafa. "Report about assassination attempt on adventure of 27 June 1981". Khamenei.ir. Archived from the original on 8 December 2016.
- Staff. "Terror of Tehran's popular Friday prayer by Munafiqs". Political Studies and Research Institute. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Murphy, John (2007). Ali Khamenei. Chelsea House Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-0791095171.
- "Castro to Ayatollah Khamenei: "Why did you shake with your left hand instead of right?"". Khabaronline. Archived from the original on 16 April 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- Sadjadpour, Karim (2009). Reading Khamenei: The World View of Iran's Most Powerful Leader (PDF). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2011.
- "History of Iran: Iran after the victory of 1979's Revolution". Iran Chamber. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Yossi Melman (11 October 2007). "Israel fails to prevent Germany freeing Iranian". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009.
- Roya Hakakian (4 October 2007). "The End of the Dispensable Iranian". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- "German court implicates Iran leaders in '92 killings". CNN. 10 April 1997. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Germany Deports Iranian jailed for 1992 murders". Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
- "Iran: Terrorist Freed In Germany Is Welcomed By Tehran". Eurasia Net. 14 December 2007. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Iranian lawmakers warn Ahmadinejad to accept intelligence chief as political feud deepens Archived 17 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Middle East - Iranian vice-president 'sacked'". Archived from the original on 25 July 2009.
- "Iran's Rouhani warned against opposing supreme leader - World Bulletin". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Mohammad, Mahboubi (7 June 2015). "Witnesses narrate the attempt of Rafsanjani to pass the suggestion of 'leadership council'". Raja News (in Persian). Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Khani, Elahe. "Why are the attacks are towards the leadership?". Borhan. Fars News. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (4 June 1989). چرا آیت الله خامنه ای وصیت امام را خواند؟/ پیشنهاد رهبری آیت الله گلپایگانی از سوی جامعه مدرسین . بازسازی و سازندگی (in Persian). Archived from the original on 20 June 2013.
- "خبرگان رهبری – رييس مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام: از مهمترين پيشرفتهاي واقعي انقلاب اسلامي، تأسيس سازماني براي ولايت فقيه بود[ايلنا]". Khobreganrahbari.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "هاشمي رفسنجاني: در سال 68 مهمترين مخالفت با رهبري يك فرد را، خود مقام معظم رهبري داشتند". Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Analysis: Iran's Theological Community Contends With Changing World – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 16 September 2004. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Assembly of experts; From Montazeri to re-election of Khamenei". Political Studies and Research Institute (in Persian). Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- Hovsepian-Bearce, Yvette (2015). The Political Ideology of Ayatollah Khamenei: Out of the Mouth of the Supreme Leader of Iran. Routledge. ISBN 9781317605829. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- Iran’s supreme leader blames US-Israeli plot for protests, Financial Times, 9 January 2018
- Leaked Video Embarrasses Iran’s Khamenei, Implicates Rafsanjani, Asharq Al Aswat, 10 January 2018
- Leaked video reveals new details about election of Iran's supreme leader, Al-Monitor, 11 January 2018
- Shocking Video Clip From 1989 Shows Khamenei Elected Only For One Year As A Caretaker, Radio Farda, 9 January 2018
- "PressTV-'Economic issues, Iran's foremost problem'". Archived from the original on 1 August 2017.
- "Leader Meets President, Cabinet Members". 9 November 2004. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016.
- "Supreme Leader Meets with President Rouhani and Cabinet Members". Archived from the original on 6 August 2016.
- "Leader meets with President and Cabinet members". 14 July 2015. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016.
- "Ayatollah Khamenei: Judiciary Should Pursue Violated Rights of Iranian Nation at the International Level". 2 July 2016. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016.
- "Iran's leader Khamenei warns of Western 'schemes' as new MPs meet". 28 May 2016. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016.
- "Tehran switches gear in its relationship with Tripoli after Qaddafi's death". 22 October 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Glimpses from the Life of Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Ali Khamenei". Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Iran's inner and outer circles of influence and power". 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017 – via Los Angeles Times.
- Behrooz, Maziar (2 January 1997). "Leadership & legitimacy: The controversy among the clergy over who should lead the Islamic state (From "The Islamic State and the Crisis of Marja'iyat in Iran", by Maziar Behrooz, originally published in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East (Vol XVI, No. 2, 1996). Behrooz is a visiting lecturer in history at the University of California, Berkeley.)". Iranian.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Leader Appoints New Chief Commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Army", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 11 September 2005, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "IR Leader appoints new IRGC commander", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 2 September 2007, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "Leader Appoints Sheikh Sadegh Amoli Larijani as Head of the Judiciary Branch", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 14 August 2009, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "Leader Re-Appoints Ayatollah Amoli Larijani as Head of the Judiciary Branch", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 14 August 2014, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- Gen. Ashtari Appointed as Iran's New Police Chief, Fars News Agency, 9 March 2015, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "Leader Appoints New IKRF Head", Financial Tribune, 6 April 2015, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "Leader Appoints Hujjat-ul Islam Raeesi as the Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 7 March 2016, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "Leader of the Islamic Revolution Appoints New IRIB Chief", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 11 May 2016, archived from the original on 26 March 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- Erdbrink, Thomas, Iran’s Supreme Leader Shakes Up Military Command Archived 27 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times, 28 June 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Ayatollah Khamenei's Edict Appointing Dr. Velayati as the Head of the Islamic Azad University", The Office of the Supreme Leader, 7 March 2016, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 11 June 2017
- "Al-Azhar Chancellor, Religious Leaders Hail Ayatollah Khamenei's Fatwa | AhlulBayt Islamic Mission (AIM)". Aimislam.com. 4 October 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Administrator. "The Official Website of The Amman Message - Grand Ayatollah Al-Sayyid Ali Khamenei". ammanmessage.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012.
- "Mehr News Unity top priority of world of Islam: Leader". Mehr News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015.
- "An Iran option the US prefers to ignore". Asia Times. 17 March 2006.
- "Iran, holder of peaceful nuclear fuel cycle technology". Mathaba.net, IRNA. 25 August 2005. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Remarks by President Obama in Address to the United Nations General Assembly". the WHITE HOUSE President Barack Obama. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Legal Aspects–Fatwa against Nuclear Weapons". nuclearenergy.ir. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015.
- "Supreme Leader's Message to International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament". 17 April 2010. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013.
- "حرمت سلاح کشتار جمعی". Official Website of Ayatollah Khamenei–Fatwas Section. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015.
- "Nuclear Fatwa: Religion and Politics in Iran's Proliferation Strategy". washingtoninstitute.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
- "Jame'eye Baaz - The Flexibility of Khamenei's So-Called 'Nuclear Fatwa'". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
- "Iran says nuclear fatwa exists; others don't buy it". USA Today. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Kessler, Glenn (27 November 2013). "Fact Checker Did Iran's supreme leader issue a fatwa against the development of nuclear weapons?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Porter, Gareth (16 October 2014). "When the Ayatollah Said No to Nukes". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Elham, Gholam-Hossein. "Is the fatwa banning production of nuclear weapons a 'political taqiya'?". Borhan. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Spotlight on Press Tyrants: CPJ Names Ten Worst Enemies of the Press. Archived 29 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. CPJ, 3 May 2000. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Ayatullah Seyed Ali Khamenei By Azadeh Moaveni Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "ادوار نيوز|شکنجه دکتر زیدآبادی غیرقابل انکار است/ توضیحات ادوارنیوز در مورد گزارش کذب صداوسیما". Advarnews.biz. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "BBC فارسی – ايران – 'محروم کردن زندانی از درمان پزشکی، شکنجه است'". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "Iran Human Rights Documentation Center" (PDF). Iranhrdc.org. 26 December 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Copyright: gooya.com 2010. "gooya news :: politics : شکنجه اکبر گنجی در بیمارستان، گزارش سازمان عفو بین الملل". News.gooya.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "MIDDLE EAST - Iran journalist jailed for 23 months". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012.
- "0009.ws | Free Website Hosting with PHP". Mowjcamp.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "Iran's Press Law". Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "The 72 Who Rule The World". Forbes. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
- "Ayatollah Khamenei's Journey". 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
- "Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei embroiled in German car dealer row". The Daily Telegraph. 2 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016.
- Khamenei controls massive financial empire built on property seizures Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., reuters.com. Retrieved 2 September 2015
- Steve Stecklow, Babak Dehghanpisheh and Yeganeh Torbati (November 11, 2013). "Assets of the Ayatollah: The economic empire behind Iran's supreme leader -- Khamenei controls massive financial empire built on property seizures". Reuters. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- "Leader outlines elections guidelines, calls for transparency". 15 October 2016. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017.
- 'Investigate if Khamenei fit to rule' Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press, 15 August 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, "Clerics' Call for Removal Challenges Iran Leader" Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 16 August 2009
- "BBC فارسی – ايران – گزارش نیویورک تایمز از 'درخواست گروهی از روحانیون برای عزل رهبر'". BBC. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Fathi, Nazila (7 January 2008). "Ahmadinejad loses favor with Khamenei, Iran's top leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Abdo, Geneive (26 April 2011). "Clash Over Mashaei Reveals Fissures Within the Iranian Regime". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Ahmadinejad gets key endorsement as Iran president, China Daily, 4 August 2009
- Ayatollah Ali Khamenei backs Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in address at Friday prayers, The Telegraph, Damien McElroy, 19 June 2009
- Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (5 May 2011). "Ahmadinejad allies charged with sorcery". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Dareini, Ali Akbar (20 April 2011). "Iranian lawmakers warn Ahmadinejad to accept intelligence chief as political feud deepens". StAlbertGazette.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Daragahi, Borzou (2 May 2011). "Spy flap weakens Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". Los Angeles Times. Beirut. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Peterson, Scott (9 May 2011). "Iran's Ahmadinejad survives worst storm of his presidency". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (6 May 2011). "Iran's supreme leader tells Ahmadinejad: accept minister or quit". The Guardian.
- Erdbrink, Thomas (8 May 2011). "Iran's Ahmadinejad affirms Khamenei decision, tensions remain". The Washington Post.
- "Iran calls off Ahmadinejad parliament probe". Al Jazeera. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Khamenei puts stop to Ahmadinejad's return". 27 September 2016.
- "Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei blocks Ahmadinejad's comeback".
- Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (28 September 2016). "Ahmadinejad blocked from running in Iran presidential elections" – via The Guardian.
- Al-awsat, Asharq (27 September 2016). "Ahmadinejad Prohibited to Run for President...based on Khamenei's Orders - ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English".
- The Significance of Iran's December Elections[permanent dead link] Mehdi Khalaji 11 December 2006
- "Iran: Leader calls for acceleration of privatization program". Payvand.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
-  Archived 8 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Thug" Crackdown Operation under Way in Iran (ROOZ :: English)". Roozonline.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- "Khamenei: Iran's Nuclear Program Important to Nation's Future". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iran says will not halt uranium enrichment | International". Reuters. 18 February 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iran leader defends government handling of economy". Reuters. 30 April 2008. Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Middle East Online". Middle East Online. 30 April 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iranians turn threats into opportunities: Leader". tehran times. 1 May 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Irna". Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Barnard, Anne (22 August 2006). "Iran looks to science as source of pride". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 26 May 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Science over ethics? – Channel 4 News". Channel 4. 8 March 2006. Archived from the original on 19 April 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Students, Scientific Olympiad Winners Meet the Leader". The Islamic Revolution Cultural-Research Institute for Preserving and Publishing Works by Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenie. 31 October 2004. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Tim Hume (10 November 2011). "Iran bans 'underground university,' brands it 'extremist cult'". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- UN Doc. E/CN.4/1993/41, Commission on Human Rights, 49th session, 28 January 1993, Final report on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran by the Special Representative of the Commission on Human Rights, Mr. Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, paragraph 310.
- "Aide to Ahmadinejad sentenced to a year in jail for insulting Khamenei". Archived from the original on 21 September 2016.
- "Journalist Gets 35 Lashes, Jail For Insulting Ayatollah". Archived from the original on 12 October 2016.
- False Freedom: Online Censorship in the Middle East and North Africa Archived 11 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Human Rights Watch, 2005, page 56
- Blogger jailed in Iran is dead, lawyer says Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine., CNN, 19 March 2009
- Activist sentenced to jail, exile and fine in Iran Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Gulf News (AP reprint), 16 December 2010
- Briton among eight jailed in Iran for web insults Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine., The Guardian, Saeed Kamali Dehghan, 27 May 2014
- Iranian man sentenced to death for 'insulting Islam' through messaging app Archived 19 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Independent, 30 March 2017
- "Middle East | Punch-up over press law". BBC News. 6 August 2000. Archived from the original on 24 June 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Abdo, Geneive (7 August 2000). "Supreme Leader Backs Conservatives, Angering Parliament Refomers : Ayatollah Kills Effort To Remove Press Curbs". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Yadegari, Shahrokh. "Introduction to Persian Traditional Music". "Beyond the Veil". Archived from the original on 14 January 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "صدا و سیمای جمهوری اسلامی ایران". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.
- Inhorn, Marcia C. (January 2006). "Fatwas and ARTs: IVF and Gamete Donation in Sunni v. Shia Islam (Id. vLex: VLEX-418643)". The Journal of Gender, Race & Justice – Nbr. 9-2, January 2006 (c/o Vlex.com). Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Stem Cell Research Is Consistent With Shiite Islam". Muslimvoices.org. 9 December 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "انتقاد رهبر ایران از تلاش برای تغییر قوانین زنان". Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Jeffrey, Terence P (14 January 2008). "Iran's Ayatollah: West Abuses Women, Islam Honors Them". Cybercast News Service. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "بیانات در دیدار دانشجویان دانشگاههای استان یزد (Address to the Students of Universities in Yazd Province)". Official Website for Khamenei Speeches and Works. 3 January 2008. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Backlash: Gender Segregation in Iranian Universities". Isa-global-dialogue.net. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Lizzie Dearden (21 March 2017). "Iran's Supreme Leader claims gender equality is 'Zionist plot' aiming to corrupt role of women in society". The Independent. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017.
- "بيانات رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامى در ديدار گروه كثيرى از زنان نخبه در آستانهى سالروز ميلاد حضرت زهراى اطهر (سلاماللَّهعليها)". Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Article 91 of the Constitution of Iran (1979)
- Article 157 of the Constitution of Iran (1979)
- "Strategic Insights – Iranian Politics After the 2004 Parliamentary Election". United States Navy. 20 February 2004. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Ramin Mostaghim. "Iran's top digs in heels on election". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009.
- Supreme Leader Urges Mousavi to Proceed Through Legal Channels Archived 4 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (Khamenei web site), 14 June 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- "Timeline: 2009 Iran presidential elections". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016.
- "Middle East - UK investigates Iran charge claim". BBC.
- "Iran's Supreme Leader Blasts Alleged 'Western Meddling' in Iran". Voice of America. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "رهبر انقلاب در دیدار اعضای مجلس خبرگان:مجلس خبرگان باید انقلابی بماند/ مقایسه رفتار نجیبانه راینیاورندگان انتخابات اخیر با رفتار نانجیبانه فتنهگران ۸۸/ نبودن آقایان مصباح و یزدی برای مجلس خبرگان خسارت است" [Supreme Leader meets members of the Assembly of Experts: Assembly of Experts should be revolutionary / compare gentlemanly behavior of those losing in recent elections with indecent behavior troublemakers in '09/ absence of Mr. Mesbah Yazdi is a loss for the Assembly of Experts] (in Persian). Tehran. Fars News Agency. 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "BBC Mundo | Irán: advertencia con petróleo". BBC News. 4 June 2006. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Majd, The Ayatollah Begs to Differ, (2008), p.59
- "Iran Will Close Strait of Hormuz If Attacked, Fars Reports". LiveLeak Liveleak.com. 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Karimi, Nasser (14 September 2007). "Iran leader: Bush will be tried". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Imam Khamenei: US trying to save Israel". Liveleak.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iran sees no change in U.S. policy: Khamenei | International". Reuters. 21 March 2009. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Iran's supreme leader accuses U.S. of terrorism | CTV News". Winnipeg.ctv.ca. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Khamenei threatens Israel with 'lightning' revenge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014.
- "Ali Khamenei". Counter Extremism Project. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016.
- "U.S. 'disturbed' by Iranian leader's criticism after deal". MSN. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015.
- "Kerry says Iran vow to defy U.S. is 'very disturbing'". AOL Article. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
- Ali Arouzi. "Iran's Ayatollah Vows Opposition to 'Arrogant' U.S. Despite Nuke Deal". NBC News. Archived from the original on 20 July 2015.
- "Nuclear deal will not change Iran's relations with U.S.: supreme leader". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015.
- Carol Morello. "Ayatollah says nuclear deal will not change Iran's relations with U.S." The Washington Post.
- "Iran nuclear: Ayatollah Khamenei chastises 'arrogant' US". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- Tom Brooks-Pollock. "Iran nuclear deal: Ayatollah Khamenei says hostile policies towards 'arrogant' America will not change". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
- "Kerry says Iran vow to defy U.S. is 'very disturbing'". Yahoo News. 21 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016.
- BBC News, Middle East, Iran condemns attacks on US Archived 27 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 17 September 2001
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (11 August 2015). "Why Iran's Anti-Semitism Matters". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- Richter, Elihu D.; Alex Barnea (Summer 2009). "Tehran's Genocidal Incitement against Israel". The Middle East Quarterly. XVI (3): 49–51. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Khamenei: 'Tumor' of Israel is world's biggest problem Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Ynet News. 19 August 2012
- Iranian Leader: Israel A "Cancerous Tumor" Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. CBS News. 4 March 2009
- Israel a ‘cancerous tumor’ and Middle East’s biggest problem, Iranian supreme leader says Archived 23 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Times of Israel. 19 August 2012
- "Kerry Calls Khamenei's 'Rabid Dog' Comment 'Inflammatory'". ABC News. 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Iran leader calls Israel 'rabid dog', urges arms for Palestinians". Reuters. 29 July 2014. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "The secret behind Leader's interpretations about the Zionist regime/ A rabid dog holding the reins of his supporters". Fars News. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "Khamenei on Twitter: No cure for barbaric Israeli regime but to be annihilated." Archived 10 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. The Jerusalem Post. 9 November 2014. 9 March 2015.
- Iran leader's call to 'annihilate' Israel sparks fury as nuclear deadline looms Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. CNN. 10 November 2014.
- Iran's Khamenei: No Cure for Barbaric Israel but Annihilation Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. The Slatest. 9 November 2014
- Iran's supreme leader Khamenei tweets reasons to 'eliminate' Israel Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Global News. 10 November 2014
- Mostaghim, Ramin; Borzou Daragahi (20 September 2008). "Iran leader talks tough on Israel". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 5 November 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "Expressing friendship with the people of Israel [is] false, irrational and absurd". Tabnak (in Persian). Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "Iran's Supreme Leader vows 'no retreat' as nuclear talks begin". The Daily Telegraph. 20 November 2013. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013.
- Edalat, Abbas (5 April 2007). "The US can learn from this example of mutual respect". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
- Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei blasts Israel in sermon. The Times.
- "Ayatollah Khamenei says Iran will back 'any nations, any groups' fighting Israel". The Washington Post.
- "Iran leader urges destruction of 'cancerous' Israel". CNN. 15 December 2000. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
- Karami, Arash (9 September 2015). "Khamenei: Israel will no longer exist in 25 years". Al Monitor. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Rawling, Noah (10 September 2015). "Iran's Supreme Leader Says Israel Won't Exist in 25 Years". ADHD. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Koski, Justin (10 September 2015). "Israel's Netanyahu Returns Fire After Iran Supreme Leader's Death Threat". Western Jounrnalism. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "The best 2015 year sentence of Iranian leader in view of Iranian people was selected". Jahan News Agency. 17 March 2016. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "Iranian leader backs Palestinian liberation from Israel 'tumor'". i24NEWS. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- Osman, Marwa. "6th International Conference in Support of the Palestinian Intifada". American Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- Iran's Khamenei questions 'certainty' of Holocaust Archived 1 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Jerusalem Post 21 March 2014
- "Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei Says Reality of Holocaust is 'Uncertain'". Jewish & Israel News.
- Suzanne Maloney (21 March 2014). "Oops, He Did It Again: Iran's Supreme Leader Questions the Holocaust". The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
- Akbar Ganji (1 November 2013). "Ayatollah Khamenei and the Destruction of Israel". Boston Review. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016.
- Flood, Alison (27 February 2015). "Ayatollah Khamenei reveals himself as an '#AvidReader' of fiction". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Ganji, Akbar (2013). "Who Is Ali Khamenei? The Worldview of Iran's Supreme Leader". Foreign Affairs. 92 (5): 24–48. JSTOR 23527515.
- "Khamenei sermon in Arabic". Irannegah.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Khamenei speaking Azeri about poetry". Irannegah. Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Khamenei, Ali. "The History of Palestine and Its Occupation", Tehran Friday prayer sermons, 18 December 1999. Published 4 March 2008, Khamenei.ir – the Supreme Leader Seyed Ali Khamenei's official website. Retrieved 6 April 2009
- MacFarquhar, Neil (15 June 2009). "In Iran, an Iron Cleric, Now Blinking". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- "Iran's Khamenei praises Egyptian protesters, declares 'Islamic awakening'". 4 February 2011. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Sadiki 2014, p. 534
- Discourse on Patience: Lectures of ... Google Books Google Books. 1994. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Khamenei, Ali; Shariati, Ali; Sharīʻatī, ʻalī (1991). Iqbal: Manifestation of the Islamic ... – Google Books. ISBN 978-1-871031-20-1. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Replies to Inquiries about the ... – Google Books. 1997. ISBN 978-964-472-000-0. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Khamenei, Seyyed Ali (1984). Lessons from the Nahjul-Balaghah – Google Books. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Lessons from the Nahjul Balagah Archived 11 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Charter of Freedom || Imam Reza (A.S.) Network". Imam Reza. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "The Charter of Freedom". Khamenei.de. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Great Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei". Archived from the original on 4 January 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Tawhid". 3 March 2016. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- Official website
- The e-office of the Supreme Leader of Iran
- Official English-language Twitter account
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Ali Khamenei on IMDb
- "Profile: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei". BBC News. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- Ali Khamenei collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- "Ali Khamenei collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- Ali Khamenei collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post
- "Ali Khamenei collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Works by or about Ali Khamenei in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Video Archive of Ayatollah Khamenei
- Ayatollah Khamenei in the city of Ardabil reading different poems in Azerbaijani language about Imam Hussein and events in Karbala.
|New office||Deputy Minister of National Defence for Revolutionary Affairs
|President of Iran
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
|New office||Chairperson of the Expediency Discernment Council
|Supreme Leader of Iran
|Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces
|Supervisor of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
|Party political offices|
|Secretary-General of the Islamic Republican Party
|Islamic Republican Party nominee for President of Iran
|Tehran's Friday Prayer Imam
|New office||President of the Encyclopedia Islamica Foundation