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For other uses, see Khanate (disambiguation).

Khanate or Khaganate is a Turko-Mongol word used to describe a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan. In modern Turkish, the word used is kağanlık or hanlık and in modern Azeri of the republic of Azerbaijan, xanlıq. In Mongolian the word khanlig is used, as in "Khereidiin khanlig" meaning the Khanate of the Khereid. This political entity is typical for people from the Eurasian Steppe and it can be equivalent to tribal chiefdom, principality, kingdom or even empire.

Mongol khanates (or khaganates)[edit]

After Genghis Khan established appanages for his family in the Mongol Empire during his rule (1206-1227),[1] his sons, daughters,[2] and grandsons inherited separate sections of the empire. The Mongol Empire and Mongolian khanates emerging from those appanages[3] are listed below. Furthermore, the proto-Mongols also established some khanates (or khaganates) such as the Rouran Khaganate.

The Oirats established the following khanates in the 17th century:

Turkic khanates[edit]

Central Asian Turkic khanates[edit]

17th century divided into several minor khanates without importance, real power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic Islamic religious leaders; title changed to Amir Khan in 1873, annexed by China in 1877.

18th to early 19th century Khanates of the Caucasus in the Qajar empire[edit]

Khanates of the Iranian Azerbaijan[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Peter Jackson 2000, p. [1]
  2. ^ Jack Weatherford - The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire, Crown Publishing Group, 2011
  3. ^ Thomas T. Allsen, "Sharing Out the Empire: Apportioned Lands under the Mongols", in Nomads in the Sedentary World, ed. Anatoly M. Khuzanov and André Wink (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 2001): 172–190