Kháng language

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Mang U’
Native to Vietnam
Region Sơn La and Lai Châu provinces
Ethnicity Khang
Native speakers
14,000 (2009 census)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kjminclusive code
Individual code:
xao – Khao[1]
Glottolog khan1274[3]

Kháng (Chinese: 抗语), also known as Mang U’, is an Austroasiatic language of Vietnam. It is closely related to the Bumang language of southern Yunnan, China.


Paul Sidwell (2014)[4] classifies Khang as Palaungic, although Jerold Edmondson (2010) suggests it is Khmuic.

Kháng is most closely related to Bumang (Edmondson 2010).


Kháng speakers are an officially recognized ethnic group in Vietnam,[5] and officially numbered 10,272 in 1999.

The Kháng are distributed in the following districts of northwest Vietnam in Sơn La Province and Lai Châu Province:[6]


  1. ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  2. ^ Kháng at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Khao[1] at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khang". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2014. "Khmuic classification and homeland". Mon-Khmer Studies 43.1:47-56
  5. ^ "Documenting and Preserving the Khang Language in Vietnam". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  6. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. (2010). "The Kháng language of Vietnam in comparison to Ksingmul (Xinh-mun)" (PDF). In McElhanon, Kenneth A.; Reesink, Ger. A Mosaic of languages and cultures: studies celebrating the career of Karl J. Franklin. SIL e-Books. SIL International, Dallas. p. 140. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Dao Jie 刀洁. 2007. Bumang yu yanjiu 布芒语研究 [A study of Bumang]. Beijing: Minzu University.
  • Ferlus, Michel. 1996. Langues et peuples viet-muong [Viet-Muong languages and peoples]. Mon-Khmer Studies Journal (MKS) 26. 7–28
  • Mikami, Naomitsu. 2003. "A Khang phonology and wordlist." Reports on Minority Languages in Mainland Southeast Asia, ed. by Ueda Hiromi, 1–42. Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim. Osaka: Faculty of Informatics, Osaka Gakuin University.
  • Schliesinger, Joachim. 1998. Hill tribes of Vietnam. Vol. Vol. 2. 2 vols. Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd.
  • Thông Tấn Xã Việt Nam [Vietnam News Agency]. 2006. Việt Nam Hình Ảnh Cộng Dồng 54 Dân Tộc [Vietnam Image of the Community of 54 Ethnic Groups]. Hanoi: The Vna Publishing House.

External links[edit]