The Caravan raids refer to a series of raids in which the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his companions participated. The raids were generally offensive and carried out to gather intelligence or seize the trade goods of caravans financed by the Quraysh. The raids were intended to weaken the economic and in turn the offensive capabilities of Mecca by Muhammad. However, many of the early converts, who themselves were members of the Quaraysh, saw this as means of vengeance against the persecution they endured in Mecca. The Meccans had sold property Muslims left behind after the Hijra and invested it in the caravans. In Medina's opinion, this was against Arab custom.[non-primary source needed] The Muslims felt that the raids were justified and that God gave them permission to defend against the Meccans' persecution of Muslims.[page needed][full citation needed]
- 1 Background
- 2 Al-Is Caravan raid
- 3 Second raid
- 4 Kharrar raid (3rd raid)
- 5 Invasion of Waddan
- 6 Buwat caravan raid (5th raid)
- 7 Sixth raid
- 8 Nakhla raid
- 9 Nejd caravan raid (8th raid)
- 10 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha in Al-Is (9th raid)
- 11 Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah (10th raid)
- 12 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari, Batn Edam (11th raid)
- 13 Permission to fight
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Notes (main sources used)
Muhammad's followers suffered from poverty after fleeing persecution in Mecca and migrating with Muhammad to Medina. Their Meccan persecutors seized their wealth and belongings left behind in Mecca.
Beginning in January 623, some of the Muslims resorted to the tradition of raiding the Meccan caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea from Mecca to Syria. Communal life was essential for survival in desert conditions, as people needed support against the harsh environment and lifestyle. The tribal grouping was thus encouraged by the need to act as a unit. This unity was based on the bond of kinship by blood.[clarification needed] People of Arabia were either nomadic or sedentary, the former constantly traveling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. The survival of nomads (or Bedouins) was also partially dependent on raiding caravans or oases, thus they saw this as no crime.
Earliest Quran verse about fighting
According to William Montgomery Watt and the Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir, the Quran verse [Quran 22:39] was the earliest verse permitting Muslims to fight. However, he says there was a "disinclination" among the Muslims to follow the permission to fight, but they were given an incentive, after the Muslims were told that God prefers fighters to those who sit still and remain at home, and that for fighters there is a reward in paradise (Jannah).
Al-Is Caravan raid
|This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
According to Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar), a modern Islamic hagiography of Muhammad written by the Indian Muslim author Safi ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, Muhammad ordered the first caravan raid led by Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (Muhammad's uncle) seven to nine months after the Hijra. A party of thirty to forty men assembled at the seacoast near al-Is, between Mecca and Medina, where Amr ibn Hishām (Abu Jahl), the leader of the caravan was camping with three hundred Meccan riders.
Hamza met Abu Jahl there with a view to attack the caravan, but Majdi bin Amr al-Juhani, a Quraysh who was friendly to both the parties intervened between them; so, both parties separated without fighting. Hamza returned to Medina and Abu Jahl proceeded towards Mecca. Muhmmad also entrusted the first flag of Islam to Kinaz bin Husain an Ghanawi.
Islamic primary sources
It is mentioned in Ibn Hisham and Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad (the earliest surviving biography of Muhammad from the 7th century), that for these caravan raids Muhammad gave permission to "plunder" the caravans of theirs enemies and seize their goods and property(s) and said:
|“||Go forth against this caravan; it may be that Allah will grant you plunder
[Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 95, translation by Folio Society]
The Muslim scholar Al-Waqidi also mentions in his Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi ("Book of History and Campaigns") that Muhammad said: "This caravan of the Quraysh holds their wealth, and perhaps God will grant it to you as a plunder".
|Second Raid on Meccan Caravans: Buwat|
|Muslims of Medina||Quraish of Mecca|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Ubaydah ibn al-Harith||Abu Sufyan|
|Casualties and losses|
|Unknown (Arrows fired)||Unknown (1 arrow fired)|
About a month after Hamzah's unsuccessful bid to plunder, Muhammad entrusted a party of sixty Muhajirun led by Ubaydah to conduct another operation at a Quraysh caravan that was returning from Syria and protected by two hundred armed men. The leader of this caravan was Abu Sufyan ibn Harb.
The Muslim party went as far as Thanyatul-Murra, a watering place in Hejaz. No fighting took place, as the Quraysh were quite far from the place where Muslims were in the offing to attack the caravan. Nevertheless, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas shot an arrow at the Quraysh. This is known as the first arrow of Islam. Despite this surprise attack, no fighting took place and the Muslims returned empty-handed. It is believed that Ubaydah was the first to carry the banner of Islam; others say Hamzah was the first to carry the banner .
|“||I heard Sa'd saying, "I was the first amongst the 'Arabs who shot an arrow for Allah's Cause. We used to fight along with the Prophet".Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:74||”|
Kharrar raid (3rd raid)
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas was ordered to lead the third raid. His group consisted of about twenty Muhajirs. This raid was done about a month after the previous. Sa'd, with his soldiers, set up an ambush in the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited to raid a returning Meccan caravan from Syria. But the caravan had already passed and the Muslims returned to Medina without a fight.
Invasion of Waddan
The fourth raid, known as the invasion of Waddan, was the first offensive in which Muhammad took part personally with 70, mostly Muhajir,troops. It is said that twelve months after moving to Medina, Muhammad himself led a caravan raid to Waddan (Al-Abwa). The aim was to intercept the caravans of the Quraysh. The raid party did not meet any Quraysh during the raid.
But the caravan of the Banu Damrah was raided. Negotiations began and the two leaders signed a treaty of non-aggression. Banu Damrah pledged to not attack Muslims or side with the Quraysh; and Muhammad pledged to not attack the caravans of Banu Damrah or seize their goods.
According to Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Zurqani, the provisions of the pact/treaty go as follows:
This document is from Muhammad, the messenger of Allah, concerning the Banu Darmah. In which he (Muhammad) established them safety and security in their wealth and lives. They can expect support from the Muslims, unless they betray this agreement and break this treaty. They are also expected to respond positively if the prophet sought their help.
Buwat caravan raid (5th raid)
The fifth raid, known as the invasion of Buwat, was also commanded by Muhammad. A month after the raid at al-Abwa, he personally led 200 men including Muhajirs and Ansars to Bawat, a place on the caravan route of the Quraysh merchants. A herd of 1,500 camels, accompanied by 100 riders under the leadership of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a Quraysh.
According to Muslim scholars Ibn Hisham and Ibn Ishaq's the purpose of these raid were to plunder this rich Quraysh caravan, it is mentioned in their biography of Muhammad (the earliest surviving biography of Muhammad from the 7th century) that for these caravan raids Muhammad gave permission to "plunder" the caravans of theirs enemies and seize their goods and property(s) and said: "Go forth against this caravan; it may be that Allah will grant you plunder. The Muslim scholar Al-Waqidi also mentions the same.
No battle took place and the raid resulted in no booty. This was due the caravan taking an untrodden unknown route. Muhammad then went up to Dhat al-Saq, in the desert of al-Khabar. This was the first raid where a few Ansars took part. The caravan was led by 100 Quraysh and 2,500 camels were with them.
Two or three months after Muhammad's return from Buwat, he appointed Abu Salamah Ibn Abd al-Assad to take his place in Medina while he was away commanding another raid. Between 150 and 200 followers joined this operation to al-Ushayra, Yanbu in either the month of Jumada al-awwal or Jumada al-Thani.
They had 30 camels that they rode upon by turns. When they arrived at al-Usharayh, they expected to raid a rich Meccan caravan heading towards Syria led by Abu Sufyan. Muhammad already had the knowledge of this caravan’s departure from Mecca and waited for about a month for this caravan to pass. But the Meccan caravan had already passed.
In this operation, Muhammad entered into an alliance with Banu Madlaj, a tribe inhabiting the vicinity of al-Ushayra. He also concluded another treaty that was made with Banu Damrah previously. All those treaties established good political connections for him.
After his return from the first Badr encounter (Battle of Safwan), Muhammad sent Abdullah ibn Jahsh in Rajab with 8 or 12 men on a fact-finding operation. Abdullah ibn Jahsh was a maternal cousin of Muhammad. He took along with him Abu Haudhayfa, Abdullah ibn Jahsh, Ukkash ibn Mihsan, Utba b. Ghazwan, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Amir ibn Rabia, Waqid ibn Abdullah and Khalid ibn al-Bukayr. Muhammad gave Abdullah ibn Jahsh a letter, but not to be read until he had traveled for two days and then to do what he was instructed to do in the letter without putting pressure on his companions. Abdullah proceeded for two days, then he opened the letter; it told him to proceed until he reached at Nakhla, between Mecca and Taif, lie in wait for the Quraysh and observe what they were doing. The sacred months of the Arab Pagans were the 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar according to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri
Muhammad initially disapproved of that act and suspended any action as regards the camels and the two captives on account of the prohibited months . The Arab Pagans, exploited this opportunity to accuse the Muslims of violating what is Divinely inviolable (fighting in the months considered sacred to the Arab pagans). This idle talk brought about a painful headache to Muhammad’s Companions, until at last they were relieved when Muhammad revealed a verse regarding fighting in the sacred months
|“||"They ask you concerning fighting in the sacred months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, ‘Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allâh is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allâh, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-Al-Harâm (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing." [Quran 2:217] ||”|
Aftermath after new Quran verse "revealed"
According to Ibn Kathir Muhammad refused to accept ransom until he was sure his companions were safe, he also threatened to kill the captives "For we fear for their safety with you. If you kill them, we will kill your people", Ibn Kathir cites Ibn Ishaqs 7th century biography of Muhammad as the primary source for this quote. The Muslim scholar Muhammad Husayn Haykal also mentions this and said the verse which permitted Muslims to fight in the months which were considered sacred by the Arab pagans (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) had "brought the Muslims relief", and that then Muhammad had accepted his share of the booty
Soon after his release, al-Hakam bin Kaysan, one of the two prisoners captured, became a Muslim. Mubarakpuri mentions that the Quran verse 47:20 was also sent down, dispraising the hypocrites and cowards who are scared of fighting, and exhorted Muslims to fight.
Nejd caravan raid (8th raid)
The Nejd Caravan Raid took place in Jumad at Thaniya, in the year 3 A.H. The Meccan polytheists lived on trade and as summer approached, it was time for the Meccans to leave for Syria for their seasonal trade business.
After receiving intelligence, Zayd ibn Harithah went after the caravan (after receiving orders from Muhammad), and they successfully raided it and captured 100,000 Dirham's worth of booty. Safan (the caravan leader) and his guards fled away. As a result, the Muslims foiled the Quraysh plan to find another trade route.
Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha in Al-Is (9th raid)
|Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is)|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Zaid ibn Haritha||Abu al As|
|Casualties and losses|
|0 ||Unknown number captured|
Zaid bin Haritha, at the head of a 170 horsemen, set out to a place called Al-‘Ais, intercepted a caravan of Quraish led by Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabee, Muhammad's son-in-law (Zainab bint Muhammad's husband) and captured their camels as booty.
Abu al-Aas was released at the insistence of Muhammad's daughter Zainab bint Muhammad. The whole caravan, including a large store of silver was captured and some of those who guarded it, taken prisoners.
Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah (10th raid)
The expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah, also known as the "Expedition of Fish" and "Invasion of al-Khabt", took place in October 629 AD, 8 AH, 7th month, of the Islamic calendar, or according to some scholars in 7 AH, 4th month.
Muhammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah along with 300 men to attack and chastise the tribe of Juhaynah at al-Khabat, on the seacoast, five nights journey from Medina. He was sent to observe a Quraysh caravan. There was no fighting as the enemy fled after they heard of the arrival.
This expedition is famous because the Muslims were short of supplies and food was running out, and they were fighting for survival, they suffered from famine. In the end, the Muslims found a sperm whale that came ashore and ate it for twenty days. Ibn Hisham mentions the incident in detail. This is why it is also known as the 'expedition of fish.' They brought some of the stale meat to Muhammad and he ate it too.
Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari, Batn Edam (11th raid)
Muhammad was planning on attacking Mecca, with view of securing a complete news black-out concerning his military intentions, then Muhammad despatched an 8-man platoon under the leadership of Abu Qatadah bin Rab‘i in the direction of Edam, a short distance from Medina, in Ramadan 8 A.H., in order to divert the attention of people from his main target of attacking Mecca, with which he was pre-occupied.
According to Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Hisham, and many Sunni hadith collections, a Bedouin caravan passed by and they greeted the Muslims with Assalamu Alaikum. But Abu Qatadah attacked the caravan anyway and killed the people. They returned to Muhammad with the flock they captured and told him the story.
Permission to fight
The permission to fight was given in many stages during Muhammad's prophetic mission:
- At first, the Muslims were only allowed to fight the Meccan Quraysh, because they were the first to oppress the Muslims in Mecca. Muslims were allowed to seize their goods, but not those tribes which the Muhammad made a treaty with.
- Then Muhammad and the Muslims were allowed to fight pagan tribes that allied with the Quraysh.
- Then Muhammad and the Muslims were allowed to fight the Jewish tribes of Medina, when these tribes violated the Constitution of Medina and their pact with the Muslims.
- Subsequently, Muhammad and the Muslims were allowed to fight the "People of the Book" (Christian and Jews). If the People of the Book paid a poll tax (jizya), then the Muslims were forbidden to fight them.
- Muslims were required to make peace with any polytheist, Jews or Christians who embraced Islam, and were required to embrace them as fellow Muslims.
- Montgomery Watt, William (21 Jan 2010). Muhammad: prophet and statesman. Oxford University Press, 1974. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-19-881078-0.
- Gabriel, Richard A. (2008), Muhammad, Islam's first great general, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 73, ISBN 978-0-8061-3860-2
- Quran 22:39–40.
"To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid;-
(They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will)." and also in sura Quran 2:190
"Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors."
- Welch, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam
- John Esposito, Islam, Expanded edition, Oxford University Press, p.4-5
- Watt (1953), pp. 16-18
- Loyal Rue, Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological,2005, p.224
- Ismāʻīl ibn ʻUmar Ibn Kathīr, Ṣafī al-Raḥmān Mubārakfūrī, Tafsir Ibn Kathir: (abridged), p. 582
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 126.
- Quran 22:39
- Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1.
What appears to be the earliest passage implies that the Emigrants wanted to fight, since it speaks of God permitting them to do so....disinclination to obey this command, for there are several references to the un-willingness of many to fight. 1 A fresh incentive is therefore given; the Muslims are told that God prefers fighters to those who sit still, that is, remain inactive at home; for the fighters there is a 'mighty hire', a reward in Paradise.(free online)
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 127.
- Mubarakpuri, When the Moon Split, p. 147.
- Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 217–218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7
- Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. ISBN 9789957051648.Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
- Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 345.
- ʻAbd al-Malik Ibn Hishām, The life of Muhammad, Apostle of Allah, p. 95, Folio Society, 1964. Translated by Michael Edwardes. Quote: "Go forth against this caravan; it may be that Allah will grant you plunder." (archive)
- Rizwi Faizer, The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi's Kitab Al-Maghazi, p. 12, ISBN 1136921141, Routledge, 2013
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:74
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 126
- Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 217–218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet, p.244. (see footnote)
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 128
- Calcutta Review, Volumes 86-87, p. 93, University of Calcutta and Indiana University, 2008. Quote: "On another occasion Muhammad himself left the town with 200 proselytes to plunder a caravan"
- Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 346.
- Mubarakpuri, When the Moon Split, p. 148.
- Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, p. 218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7
- Nakhla Raid, 2008
- Nakhla Raid Quran Verse, 2008
- Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010), The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic), Islamic Book Trust, ISBN 9781453537855Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here 
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 245, ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 246, ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8
- Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 2 (Part 2): Al-Baqarah 142 to Al-Baqarah 252 2nd Edition, p. 139, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861796765. (online)
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129
- Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 226–227, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7
- Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Imam (2003), Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 347, ISBN 978-9960-897-18-9
- Tafsir ibn Kathir, on 2:217, free online text version
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 130
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 153
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 205
- Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 6.
- Abu Khalil, Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, p. 218.
- Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 104.
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 206
- Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 106.
- Abu Khalil, Atlas of the Prophet’s biography: places, nations, landmarks, p. 218.
- Sahih Muslim, 43:7176
- Tafsir ibn Kathir Juz, Pg 94, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
- Say not to anyone who greets you: "You are not a believer;, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Text Version
- Mubarakpuri, When the Moon Split, p. 145.
Notes (main sources used)
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2002), When the Moon Split, DarusSalam, ISBN 978-9960-897-28-8
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), Darussalam Publications. Note: This is the free version available on Google Books
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8
- Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Imam (2003). Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād. Darussalam publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-9960-897-18-9.
- Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. ISBN 978-9960-897-71-4.
- Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, Smith, Elder & Co, Original from: Harvard University (according to Google books).