Kharatara Gaccha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Kharatara Gaccha is one of Shvetambara Murtipujaka Gacchas. It is also called Vidhisangha (the Assembly) {no citations} as they follow sacred texts literally[1][2], this leading to following the Tripadi and the meditation based on this principle. These preachers have not ever been dogmatic, hence following the principle of Anekantavada. As the preaching were not being followed, Jineshvara revived this tradition.

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

Dada Gurus of Kharatara Gaccha; Jinadatta Suri (centre), Jinakushal Suri (right) and Jinachandra Suri Manidhari (left)

It was founded by Vardhamana Sūri[2] (till 1031). His pupil, Jineshvara, got honorary title 'Kharatara' (Sharp witted or Fierce) because he defeated Suracharya, leader of Chaityavasis in public debate in 1023 1017 at Anahilvada Patan in the presence of Durlabha-Raja. So the Gaccha also got his title.[2] Khartara also means that "which is beyond" (tara) "purity" (khara), that is, being upright with the absolute truth, by following the religious scriptures without deviation (Jain Agamas) as it is.

Jinavallabha was the guru of Jinadatta Suri so the tradition that regards Jinadatta Suri (1075-1154) as a founder of Gaccha is totally false.[2][3] However, he was the first Dada Guru and revived the lost teachings of Tirthankaras, which is the basis of Tripadi.

Well known ascetics[edit]

  • In the Khartara tradition, there have been numerous influential and masterly ascetics, who researched and developed extensively in the fields of literature, astrology, history, Ayurveda, right way of perception among various topics that they explored. This includes the right way of meditation, Satya Sadhna[4], which has been followed by all the ascetics within and beyond the Khartara tradition. These books were not only for Jainism, or even for India, they were meant for the whole world. Jineshvara Sūri, in one of his rules, penned down that every fourth Shreepujya (lead acharya) who is bestowed the virtuous position will be called Jinachandra Sūri, and this 1000 year old tradition is still being followed even now.

Jinavallabha realised the difference between texts and words of teachers and put emphasis on sacred texts in Kharatara doctrine in the eleventh century. He wrote the Crown of Assembly.[1]

The following four are known as Dada Guru in the sect and are venerated as spiritual guides.[5]

  • Jinadatta Sūri (1075-1154 CE), is the most famous ascetic of Gaccha who won converts in Sindh. After his death at Ajmer, a monument was erected there and the place is known as Dadabari.[1][5]
  • Maṇidhārī Jinachandra Sūri (1140-1166 CE)[5]
  • Jinakushal Sūri (1279–1331) gained many converts in western India.[1][5]
  • Jinachandra Sūri II (1537–1612) visited Lahore in 1591, where he convinced Akbar to stop Muslim attack on Jain temples.[1][5]

Doctrines[edit]

Kharatara ascetics follow every word of the sacred texts. They follow basic Shvetambara canon and works of other Kharatara teachers,[1] thereby following the Satya Sadhna[4] meditation technique as well.

Adherents[edit]

Ascetics: 193 nuns, 19 monks in 1986 [1] or 50-75 monks and 300 nuns [2]

Main Centre[edit]

Rajasthan[1] and West Bengal.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Overview of world religions-Jainism-Kharatara Gaccha". philtar.ac.uk/encyclopedia/index.html. Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Glasenapp, Helmuth (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 389. ISBN 9788120813762. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  3. ^ John E. Cort (22 March 2001). Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India: Religious Values and Ideology in India. Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-19-803037-9. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Satya Sadhna". www.satyasadhna.com. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Dada Guru". HereNow4u. Retrieved 12 June 2016.