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The Khawarij (collective plural Arabic: الخارجية, translit. al-Khārijiyyah; multiple plural: Arabic: خوارج, translit. Khawārij; singular Arabic: خارجي, translit. Khāriji; literally "those who went out") are members of a sect that appeared in the first century of Islam and has manifested throughout the centuries since. It deviated from mainstream Islam and was known for killing Muslims under allegations of takfir (excommunication). It broke into revolt against the authority of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib after he agreed to arbitration with his rival, Muawiyah I, to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657). A Khariji later assassinated Ali, and for hundreds of years, the Khawarij were a source of insurrection against the Caliphate. Descendants of the original Khawarij survive today in small numbers, in more moderate forms.
The Khawarij opposed arbitration as a means to choose a new ruler on the grounds that "judgement belongs to God alone". They considered arbitration a means for men to make decisions while the victor in a battle was determined by God. They believed that any Muslim -- even if not Quraysh or even Arab -- could be the leader of the community (imam) if he was morally irreproachable, but if the leader sinned, it was the duty of Muslims to oppose and depose him.
The Kharijites developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shiʿa Muslims. They were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to Takfir (declaring self-described Muslims were non-Muslims). In modern times, the Islamic State and some other extremist groups have been called Kharijites.
Their name was used by their opponents from the fact that they left or "seceded" from Ali's army. They, however, called themselves not Khawarij but the Shurah, (Arabic: الشراة, translit. Ash-Shurāh),[A] meaning "buyers" and understood within the context of Islamic scripture (Quran 2:207) and philosophy to mean "those who have traded the mortal life (al-Dunya) for the other life [with God] (al-Aakhirah)".
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Beliefs and practices
- 4 Principal groups
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The name comes from the Arabic root خ ر ج (KH-R-J), which has the primary meaning "to go out", as in the basic word خَرَجُ (kharaju), meaning "to go out", "to walk out", "to come out", etc.
The origin of Kharijism lies in the first Islamic civil war, the struggle for political supremacy over the Muslim community in the years following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. One source describes Khawarij as "bedouin nomads" who opposed the "centralization of power in the new Islamic state that curtailed the freedom of their tribal society."
The Khawarij initially supported the authority of Ali the son-in-law and cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. They later rejected his leadership after he agreed to arbitration with Muawiyah rather than combat to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657).
In 657, Ali's forces met Muawiyah's at the Battle of Siffin. Initially, the battle went against Muawiyah but on the brink of defeat, Muawiyah directed his army to hoist Qurans on their lances. That initiated discord among some of those who were in Ali's army. Muawiyah wanted to put the dispute between the two sides to arbitration in accordance with the Qur'an. A group of Ali's army mutinied demanding for Ali to agree to Muaiyah's proposal. As a result, Ali reluctantly presented his own representative for arbitration. The mutineers, however, put forward Abu Musa al-Ashaari against Ali's wishes.
Muawiyah put forward 'Amr ibn al-'As. Abu Musa al-Ashari was convinced by Amr to pronounce Ali's removal as caliph even though Ali's caliphate was not meant to be the issue of concern in the arbitration. The mutineers saw the turn of events as a fundamental betrayal of principle, especially since they had initiated it; a large group of them repudiated Ali.
Citing the verse "No Command but God's" (Quran 6:57), an indication that a caliph is not a representative of God, this group turned on both Ali and Muawiya, opposing the rebellion against one whom they considered to be the rightful caliph and Ali accepting to subject his legitimate authority to arbitration, thus giving away what was not his but the people's. They became known as Kharijites. The Arabic plural is khawārij, the singular khārijī itderived from the verb kharaja (to come out, to exit).
Alī's cousin and a renowned Islamic jurist, Abdullah ibn Abbas, pointed out the grave theological errors made by the Kharijites in quoting the Qur'an, and managed to persuade a number of Kharijites to return to Alī based on their misinterpretations. ʻAlī defeated the remaining rebels in the Battle of Nahrawan in 658 but some Kharijites survived.
For hundreds of years the Khawarij continued to be a source of insurrection against the Caliphate. and they aroused condemnation by mainstream scholars such as 14th-century Muslim Ismail ibn Kathir who wrote:
If they ever gained strength, they would surely corrupt the whole of the Earth, Iraq and Shaam [Syria] – they would not leave a baby, male or female, neither a man or a woman, because as far as they are concerned the people have caused corruption, a corruption that cannot be rectified except by mass killing.
In a similar vein, the 10th century Islamic scholar Abu Bakr al-Ajurri said:
"None of the scholars, in either past or recent times, ever disagreed that the Khawarij are an evil group, disobedient to Allah Almighty and to His Messenger - Peace Be Upon Him. Even if they pray, fast, or strive in worship, it does not benefit them, and even if they openly enjoin good and forbid evil it does not benefit them, as they are a people who interpret the Quran according to their desire."
Among the hadith that refer to the Kharijites (according to some sources) include:
Beliefs and practices
Among the surviving Kharijites, three of them gathered in Mecca to plot a tripartite assassination attempt on Muawiyah I, 'Amr ibn al-'As and Ali. The assassination attempts were to occur simultaneously as the three leaders came to lead the morning prayer (Faj'r) in their respective cities of Damascus, Fustat and Kufa. The method was to come out of the prayer ranks and strike the targets with a sword dipped in poison.
Muawiya escaped the assassination attempt with only minor injuries. Amr was sick and the deputy leading the prayers in his stead was martyred. However, the strike on Ali by the assassin, Abdur-Rahmaan ibn-Muljim, proved to be fatal. Ali was gravely injured with a head wound and succumbed to his injuries a few days later.
The circumstances in which Ali was attacked is subject to debate; some scholars maintain that he was attacked outside the mosque, others state that he was attacked while initiating the prayer and still others reiterate that ibn-Muljim assaulted him midway through the prayer while Ali was prostrating.
All the assassins were captured, tried and sentenced to death in accordance with Islamic laws.
The Ibadis, descendants of the Kharijites, form a significant part of the population of Oman (where they first settled in 686), and there are smaller concentrations of them in the M'zab of Algeria, Jerba in Tunisia, Jebel Nafusa in Libya, and Zanzibar.
In particular, the groups share the Kharijites' radical approach whereby self-described Muslims are declared unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death and their disinterest in Quranic calls for moderation.
According to some Muslims (such as Abu Amina Elias), Kharijites will "continue to cause strife" in the Muslim community until End Times, and cite a hadith (# 7123) from Sahih al-Bukhari in support of this.
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|1 Including Haruriyyah, Najdat, Sufriyya, Wahhabism, Qutbism, Ahmadiyya
2 Including Assassins, Alevis, Druzes & Alawites
3 Including Ibadiyya
Early Muslim governance
The Kharijites considered the caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar to be rightly guided but believed that Uthman ibn Affan had deviated from the path of justice and truth in the last days of his caliphate, and hence was liable to be killed or displaced. They also believed that Ali committed a grave sin when he agreed on the arbitration with Muawiyah. In the Battle of Siffin, Ali acceded to Muawiyah's suggestion to stop the fighting and resort to negotiation.
A large portion of Ali's troops (who later became the first Kharijites) refused to concede to that agreement. They considered that Ali had breached a Qur'anic verse: The decision is only for Allah (6:57), which the Kharijites interpreted to mean that the outcome of a conflict can be decided only in battle (by God), not in negotiations (by human beings).
The Kharijites thus deemed the arbitrators (Abu Musa Ashaari and Amr Ibn Al-As), the leaders who appointed these arbitrators (Ali and Muawiyah I) and all those who agreed on the arbitration (all companions of Ali and Muawiyah]) as kuffar (disbelievers), as they had breached the rules of the Qur'an. They believed that all participants in the Battle of Jamal, including Talha, Zubayr ibn al-Awam (both being companions of Muhammad) and Aisha had committed a kabira (major sin). 
Doctrinal differences with other sects
Kharijites differ with both Sunni and/or Shiʿa on some points of doctrine:
- Sunnis accept Ali as the fourth rightly-guided Caliph and also accept the three Caliphs before him, who were elected by their community. Shi'a believe that the imaamate was the right of Ali, and the rule of the first three Rashidun caliphs was unlawful. Kharijites insist that the caliph need not be from the Quraysh tribe, but any pious Muslim nominated by other Muslims was eligible to be the caliph.
- Unlike Sunni and Shia, Kharijites believed that Muslims had the right and duty to revolt against any ruler who deviated from their interpretation of Islam, or, according to other interpretations, failed to manage Muslim's affairs with justice and consultation or committed a major sin.
- Kharijites reject the doctrine of infallibility for the leader of the Muslim community in contrast to Shi'a but in agreement with Sunnis.
Kharijites believed that the act of sinning is analogous to kufr (disbelief) and that every grave sinner was regarded as a kafir (disbeliever) unless he repents. They invoked the doctrine of qadar or free will in opposition to that of jabr or predestination in their opposition to the Ummayad caliphate, which held that Umayyad rule was ordained by God.
According to Islamic scholar and Islamist pioneer Abul Ala Maududi, using the argument of "sinners are unbelievers", Kharijites denounced all the above Sahabah (companions of Muhammad) and even cursed and used abusive language against them. Other non-Kharijite Muslims were also declared disbelievers because they were not free of sin but also because they regarded the above-mentioned Sahabah as believers and religious leaders, even inferring Islamic jurisprudence from the hadith narrated by them.
- the strong desire of Kharijites for martyrdom and dying for the sake of God
- detailed descriptions of how Kharijites defined a just and pious ruler
- their universal tendency to blame the self for failing to establish the previous two categories.
- Azariqa, the followers of Abu Rasheed Nafi ibn al-Azraq
- Najdat, the followers of Najdah ibn 'Amir
- Ajardites, the followers of Abd al-Karim ibn Ajrad
- Ibadites, the followers of Abd Allah ibn Ibad
- Sufris, the followers of Ziyad ibn al-Asfar and Umran ibn Hattan
- Not to be confused with shūrā.
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