Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology

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National Science Center, Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology

The National Science Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) (Ukrainian: Національний науковий центр «Харківський фізико-технічний інститут», formerly Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology) is the oldest and largest physical science research centre in Ukraine.[1] Today it is known as a science center as it consists of several institutes that are part of the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology science complex.

History[edit]

Group photo of the KIPT physicists in 1934
Commemoritve plaque about the nuclear fission conducted in 1932

The institute was founded on 30 October 1928, by the Government of Soviet Ukraine[2] on an initiative of Abram Ioffe on the northern outskirts of Kharkiv (in khutir Piatykhatky) as the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology for the purpose of research on nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. Note that Kharkiv at that time was the capital of Soviet Ukraine. An opening of the institute precisely in Kharkiv had an ideological implication: At height of being defeated by the Russian Red Army, the "samostiynyky"[a] of various modifications who laid at the basis of Ukrainian national consciousness their culture of the past, the Soviet Ukraine has implemented new culture based on advanced achievements of the human intellect and modern technologies rather than on sharovary (Ukrainian traditional dress), folk songs, and oseledets (Ukrainian Cossack hairstyle).[2]

From the moment of its creation, the institute was run by the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry.[2]

On 10 October 1932 the first experiments in nuclear fission in the Soviet Union were conducted here. The Soviet nuclear physicists Anton Valter, Georgiy Latyshev, Cyril Sinelnikov, and Aleksandr Leipunskii used a lithium atom nucleus. Later the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology was able to obtain liquid hydrogen and helium. They also constructed a radar station, and the institute became a pioneer of the Soviet high vacuum engineering which was developed into an industrial vacuum metallurgy.

During the Stalin epoch, this was where the UPTI Affair occurred in 1938: three leading physicists of the Kharkiv Institute (Lev Landau, Yuri Rumer and Moisey Korets) were arrested by the Soviet secret police.[3]

The Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology was the "Laboratory no. 1" for nuclear physics, and was responsible for the first development of a nuclear bomb in the former USSR.

Directors[edit]

Important institutes[edit]

Science and education institutions in Pyatykhatky.

Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology[edit]

Other institutes[edit]

Notable alumni[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a ridiculed name for Ukrainians in Russia

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History | ННЦ ХФТИ". www.kipt.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Taravarov, Ya. Landau in a field of negative values (Ландау в области отрицательных значений). Vokrug Sveta. 15 December 2008.
  3. ^ (in Ukrainian) Landau, atom splitting and secret bunker. Yak in the crackdown of Stalinist repressions in Kharkiv they set up "Kremnіevu Valley", Ukrayinska Pravda (12 February 2021)
  4. ^ J. N. Rjabinin, L.W. Schubnikow, Magnetic properties and critical currents of superconducting alloys, Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, vol .7, no.1, pp. 122-125, 1935.
  5. ^ J. N. Rjabinin, L.W. Schubnikow, Magnetic properties and critical currents of supra-conducting alloys, Nature, 135, no. 3415, pp. 581-582, 1935.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°05′24″N 36°15′00″E / 50.090°N 36.250°E / 50.090; 36.250