The Trophy was established by Sovetsky Sport in 2002. Presentation of the award and the ceremony are held by Sovetsky Sport every summer in Moscow after the conclusion of the NHL playoffs, and is covered by Russian national and international media.
It is voted on by all active Russian NHL players. Although Russian players first entered the NHL in large numbers in the late 1980s, the trophy was first awarded in 2003. Detroit's Sergei Fedorov was the first recipient of the award.
The following is a list of all the Kharlamov Trophy winners since the award's inception:
- 2003 Sergei Fedorov (Inaugural winner)
- 2004 Ilya Kovalchuk
- 2005 Not awarded due to 2004–05 NHL lockout
- 2006 Alexander Ovechkin
- 2007 Alexander Ovechkin
- 2008 Alexander Ovechkin
- 2009 Alexander Ovechkin
- 2010 Alexander Ovechkin
- 2011 Pavel Datsyuk
- 2012 Evgeni Malkin
- 2013 Pavel Datsyuk
- 2014 Alexander Ovechkin