Khartoum at night
|Nickname(s): Triangular Capital|
|• Governor||Abdel Rahim Mohammed Hussein|
|Demonym(s)||Khartoumese, Khartoumian (the latter more properly designates a Mesolithic archaeological stratum)|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed (UTC+3)|
Khartoum (// kar-TOOM) is the capital and second largest city of Sudan and Khartoum state. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran" المقرن, meaning the confluence. The main Nile continues to flow north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.
Divided by the Niles, Khartoum is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated overall population of over five million people, consisting of Khartoum proper, and linked by bridges to Khartoum North (الخرطوم بحري al-Kharṭūm Baḥrī) and Omdurman (أم درمان Umm Durmān) to the west.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Architecture
- 9 Culture
- 10 Photo Gallery
- 11 Twin cities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The origin of the word Khartoum is uncertain. One theory argues that khartoum is derived from Arabic khurṭūm خرطوم meaning 'trunk' or 'hose', probably referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles. Captain J. A. Grant, who reached Khartoum in 1863 with Captain Speke's expedition, thought that the name was most probably from the Arabic قرطم qurtum, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), which was cultivated extensively in Egypt for its oil to be used as fuel. Some scholars speculate that the word derives from Agartum in the Nubian language, which stands for "the abode of Atum"; the Nubian and Egyptian god of creation. Other Beja scholars suggest Khartoum is derived from "Hartooma" which means meeting in the Beja Language. Additionally, the dream interpreting magicians in Genesis 41:8 are referred to as "חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י " ([the] Khartoumei) suggesting that in ancient times the word already existed.
Khartoum was established 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of the ancient city of Soba in 1821 by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan into his realm. Originally, Khartoum served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army, but the settlement quickly grew into a regional centre of trade. It also became a focal point for the slave trade. Later, it became the administrative center of Sudan and official capital.
Troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad started a siege of Khartoum on 13 March 1884, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon. The siege ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian garrison. The heavily damaged city fell to the Mahdists on 26 January 1885 and all its inhabitants were put to death.
Modern history (20th–21st centuries)
In 1973, the city was the site of an anomalous hostage crisis in which members of Black September held ten hostages at the Saudi Arabian embassy, five of whom were diplomats. The US ambassador, the US deputy ambassador, and the Belgian chargé d'affaires were murdered. The remaining hostages were released. A 1973 United States Department of State document, declassified in 2006, concluded "The Khartoum operation was planned and carried out with the full knowledge and personal approval of Yasser Arafat."
The first oil pipeline between Khartoum and the Port of Sudan was completed in 1977.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Khartoum was the destination for hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing conflicts in neighboring nations such as Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Uganda. Many Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees assimilated into society, while others settled in large slums at the outskirts of the city. Since the mid-1980s, large numbers of refugees from South Sudan and Darfur fleeing the violence of the Second Sudanese Civil War and Darfur conflict have settled around Khartoum.
In 1991, Osama bin Laden purchased a house in the affluent al-Riyadh neighborhood of the city and another in Soba. He lived there until 1996 when he was banished from the country. Following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, the United States accused bin Laden's al-Qaeda group and launched cruise missile attacks (20 August) on the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in northern Khartoum. The destruction of the factory produced diplomatic tension between the U.S. and Sudan. The ruins of the factory are now a tourist attraction.
After the sudden death of SPLA head and vice-president of Sudan, John Garang, at the end of July 2005, there were three days of violent riots in the capital. The riots finally died down after Southern Sudanese politicians and tribal leaders sent strong messages to the rioters. The situation could have been much more dire; even so, the death toll was at least 24, as youths from southern Sudan attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces.
The Organisation of African Unity summit of 18–22 July 1978 was held in Khartoum, during which Sudan was awarded the OAU presidency. The African Union summit of 16–24 January 2006 was held in Khartoum.
The Arab League summit of 28–29 March 2006 was held in Khartoum, during which the Arab League awarded Sudan the Arab League presidency.
On 10 May 2008 the Darfur rebel group of the Justice and Equality Movement moved into the city where they engaged in heavy fighting with Sudanese government forces. Their soldiers included minors and their goal was the toppling of Omar al-Bashir's government, though the Sudanese government succeeded in beating back the assault.
On 23 October 2012 an explosion at the Yarmouk munitions factory killed two people and injured another person. The Sudanese government has claimed that the explosion was the result of an Israeli airstrike.
Sudan, in northeast Africa, measures about one-fourth the size of the United States. Its neighbors are Chad and the Central African Republic on the west, Egypt and Libya on the north, Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east, and South Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo on the south. The Red Sea washes about 500 mi of the eastern coast. It is traversed from north to south by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders.
Khartoum is located in the middle of the populated areas in Sudan almost northeast center of the country between 16 degrees latitude north and 15 degrees latitude south and longitude 21 degrees west and 24 degrees longitude east, and expands an area amounting to 20,736 km (12884 Mile) square between the West Bank of the River Nile, from North Khartoum Bahri, Shendi, River Nile State, from both the East Kassala, Kassala State, Port Sudan, Red Sea State and North East Blue Nile, from the West White Nile, Omdurman, North Kordofan and Northwest Omdurman, Northern State, from South Wad Madani, Al Jazirah (state) and Southwest Ed Dueim, White Nile State.
Khartoum features a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWhw) with a dry season occurring during winter, typical of the Saharo-Sahelian zone which marks the progressive passage between the Sahara Desert, vast arid areas and the Sahel, vast semi-arid areas. The climate is extremely arid for most of the year with about nine months where average rainfall is lower than 5 mm (0.20 in). The very long dry season is itself divided into a hot, very dry season between November and March as well as a very hot, dry season between April and June. During this part of the year, hot, dry continental trade winds from deserts sweep over the region such as the harmattan (a northerly or northeasterly wind):, the weather is stable and very dry. The very irregular, very brief, rainy season lasts about 1 month as the maximum rainfall is recorded in August with about 75 mm (3.0 in). The rainy season is characterized by a seasonal reverse of wind regimes, when the Intertropical Convergence Zone goes northerly. Average annual rainfall is very low, with only 121.3 mm (4.78 in) of precipitation. Khartoum records on average six days with 10 mm (0.39 in) or more and 19 days with 1 mm (0.039 in) or more of rainfall. The highest temperatures occur during two periods in the year: the first at the late dry season, when average high temperatures consistently exceed 40 °C (104 °F) from April to June, and the second at the early dry season, when average high temperatures exceed 39 °C (102 °F) in September and October months. Khartoum is one of the hottest major cities on Earth, with annual mean temperatures hovering around 30 °C (86 °F). The city also had hot winters. In no month does the average monthly high temperature fall below 30 °C (86 °F). This is something not seen in other major cities with hot desert climates such as Riyadh, Baghdad and Phoenix. Temperatures cool off enough during the night, with Khartoum's lowest average low temperature of the year just above 15 °C (59 °F).
|Climate data for Khartoum (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||39.7
|Average high °C (°F)||30.7
|Average low °C (°F)||15.6
|Record low °C (°F)||8.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.0||0.9||0.9||4.0||4.2||3.4||1.2||0.0||0.0||14.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||27||22||17||16||19||28||43||49||40||28||27||30||29|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||316.2||296.6||316.2||318.0||310.0||279.0||269.7||272.8||273.0||306.9||303.0||319.3||3,580.7|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||10.2||10.5||10.2||10.6||10.0||9.3||8.7||8.8||8.1||9.9||10.1||10.3||9.8|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation, NOAA (extremes and humidity 1961–1990)|
|Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)|
|2008 Census Preliminary||3,639,598||5,274,321|
After the signing of the historic Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLA), the Government of Sudan has begun a massive development project. In 2007, the biggest projects in Khartoum were the Al-Mogran Development Project, two five-star hotels, a new airport, Mac Nimir Bridge (finished in October 2007) and the Tuti Bridge that links Khartoum to Tuti Island.
In the 21st century, Khartoum has developed based on Sudan's oil wealth. The center of the city has tree-lined streets. Khartoum has the highest concentration of economic activity in the country. This has changed as major economic developments take place in other parts of the country, like oil exploration in the South, the Giad Industrial Complex in Al Jazirah state and White Nile Sugar Project in Central Sudan, and the Merowe Dam in the North.
Among the city's industries are printing, glass manufacturing, food processing, and textiles. Petroleum products are now produced in the far north of Khartoum state, providing fuel and jobs for the city. One of Sudan's largest refineries is located in northern Khartoum.
The Souq Al Arabi is Khartoum's largest open air market. The "souq" is spread over several blocks in the center of Khartoum proper just south of the Great Mosque (Mesjid al-Kabir) and the minibus station. It is divided into separate sections, including one focused entirely on gold.
Al Qasr Street and Al Jamhoriyah Street are considered the most famous high streets in Khartoum State.
Afra Mall is located in the southern suburb Arkeweet. The Afra Mall has a supermarket, retail outlets, coffee shops, a bowling alley, movie theaters, and a children's playground.
In 2011, Sudan opened the Hotel Section and part of the food court of the new, Cornithia hotel Tower. The Mall/Shopping section is still under construction.
Khartoum is the main location for most of Sudan's top educational bodies.In Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, there are four main levels of education. First: kindergarten and day-care. It begins in the age of 3-4, consists of 1-2 grades, (depending on the parents). Second: elementary school. the first grade pupils enter at the age of 6-7 .and It consists of 8 grades, each year there is more academic efforts and main subjects added plus more school methods improvements. By the 8th grade a student is 13–14 years old ready to take the certificate exams and entering high school. Third: upper second school and high school. At this level the school methods add some main academic subjects such as chemistry, biology, physics, geography, etc... there are three grades in this level. The students ages are about 14-15 to 17-18. Higher Education: there are many universities in Sudan such as the university of Khartoum, even foreigners attend universities here, because the reputation of the universities are very good and the living expenses are low compared to other countries. After all, the education system in Sudan went through many changes in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
- Khartoum Old High Secondary School for Boys
- Khartoum Old High Secondary School for Girls
- The British Educational Schools (BES)
- Khartoum American School, KAS, established in 1957.
- Khartoum International Community School, KICS, established in 2004.
- Unity High School.
- Suliman Hussein Academy
- Comboni and St. Francis, Khartoum new high secondary school for boys
- Khartoum International preparatory school (KIPS)|Khartoum International preparatory school, established in 1928.
- Qabbas Private International Schools
- Riad English School, established 1987
The higher institutes in Khartoum
|The great higher institutes in Khartoum|
|Educational institution||Type||The website|
|University of Khartoum Founded as Gordon Memorial College in 1902, it was later renamed to share the name of the city in the 1930s.||Public university||http://www.uofk.edu|
|Academy of Engineering Sciences founded as Academy of Electrical Engineering in 2002,||private university||http://www.aes.edu.sd|
|Al-Neelain University,||Public university||http://www.neelain.edu.sd|
|Al Zaiem Alazhari University,||Public university||http://www.aau.edu.sd|
|Bahri University, formally Juba University before the separation and Juba University returned to the South.||Public university|
|Omdurman Islamic University,||Public university|
|International University of Africa,||Public university||http://www.iua.edu.sd|
|Nile Valley University,||Public university|
|Open University of Sudan,||Public university||http://www.ous.edu.sd|
|Public Health Institute, a post-graduate institution operated by the Ministry of Health||Public university||http://www.phi.edu.sd|
|Sudan University of Science and Technology, one of the leading engineering and technology schools in Sudan, founded in 1932 as Khartoum Technical Institute and has been given its present name in 1991.||Public university||http://www.sustech.edu|
|AlMughtaribeen University,||Private universities||http://www.mu.edu.sd|
|Bayan College for Science & Technology,||Private universities||http://www.bayantech.edu|
|Canadian Sudanese College,||Private universities||http://www.ccs.edu.sd|
|Comboni College for Science and Technology||Private universities||http://www.combonikhartoum.com|
|Future University of Sudan, the first specialized university for ICT inter-related studies in Sudan, founded by Dr. Abubaker Mustafa.||Private universities||http://www.futureu.edu.sd|
|National College for Medical & Technical Studies,||Private universities||http://www.nc.edu.sd|
|National Ribat University,||Private universities||http://www.ribat.edu.sd|
|University of Medical Sciences and Technology, better known as UMST, it was founded in 1996 by Prof. Mamoun Humaida as Academy of Medical Science & Technology.||Private universities|
Khartoum is home to the largest airport in Sudan, Khartoum International Airport. It is the main hub for Sudan Airways, Sudan's main carrier. The airport was built at the southern edge of the city; but with Khartoum's rapid growth and consequent urban sprawl, the airport is now located in the heart of the city. A new international airport is currently being built about 40 km (25 mi) south of the city center. There have been delays to start construction because lack of funding of the project but it is expected that the airport will be completed sometime in 2017. It will replace the current airport in Khartoum as Sudan's main airport.
The following bridges cross the Blue Nile and connect Khartoum to Khartoum North:
The following bridges cross the White Nile and connect Khartoum to Omdurman:
the following bridges cross from Omdurman: to Khartoum North:
The following bridges cross to Tuti from Khartoum states three cities
|Some roads and streets of Khartoum|
Architecture of Khartoum cannot be identified by one style or even two styles; it is as diverse as its culture, where 597 different cultural groups meet. In this article are 10 buildings of Khartoum to showcase this diversity in buildings’ shapes, materials, treatments. Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of Pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
In response to the worldwide deterioration of the environment and the increase in pollution levels, there has been a strong movement towards sustainable architecture across the globe. This movement has received attention and concern from governments as well as private sectors. In the past decades, Sudan has seen a huge surge in infrastructure and technology, which has led to many new and innovative building concepts, ideas and construction techniques. There is now a constant flow of new projects arising, thus leading to a new, transformed, modernised form of architecture. 
- Squares and public gardens
Masjids and Places of worship
The largest museum in all of Sudan is the National Museum of Sudan. Founded in 1971, it contains works from different epochs of Sudanese history. Among the exhibits are two Egyptian temples of Buhen and Semna which were originally built by Queen Hatshepsut and Pharaoh Tuthmosis III respectively but relocated to Khartoum upon the flooding of Lake Nasser.
The Republican Palace Museum opened in 2000 is located in the former Anglican All Saints' cathedral on Sharia al-Jama'a, next to the historical Presidential Palace.
The Ethnographic Museum is located on Sharia al-Jama'a, close to the Mac Nimir Bridge.
Khartoum is home to a small botanical garden, in the Mogran district of the city.
Khartoum is home to several clubs such as the Blue Nile Sailing Club, the German Club, the Greek Hotel, the Coptic Club, the Syrian Club and the International Club. There is also a football club situated in Khartoum – Al Khartoum
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- The Free Dictionary: Khartoum
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Twinning document; Khartoum; Sudan; 14/2/1979
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