Khartoum massacre

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Khartoum Sudan massacre
Martyrs of Khartoum massacre.jpg
Victims of the massacre
Date3 June 2019
LocationKhartoum in front of the Military HQ
Typemass murder
Motiveclearing the sit-in camp in order to rule Sudan
Targetunarmed Sudanese protesters
Deaths118 (per opposition)[1][2]
62 (per authorities)[1]
Non-fatal injuriesmore than 650[citation needed]
Rapes 70[3][4]
SuspectsRapid Support Forces (RSF),[5] Janjaweed militias[4] and TMC security forces[4]

The Khartoum massacre occurred on Monday, 3 June 2019, when the military armed forces of the Sudanese Transitional Military Council, headed by the Rapid Support Forces, the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia,[6] used heavy gunfire and teargas aiming at dispersing a sit-in by protestors in Khartoum, killing more than 100 people,[7] with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers.[8][9][10] At least forty of the bodies had been thrown in the River Nile.[11] Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested, many families were terrorized in their home estates across Sudan,[12][8] and the RSF raped 70 women and men.[3][4] The Internet was almost completely blocked in Sudan in the days following the massacre, making it difficult to estimate the number of victims.[13][14]

Background[edit]

Sudanese protests started in December 2018 after which the military removed Omar al-Bashir and established a Transitional Military Council which is headed by the Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan.

On 11 April 2019, the military removed al-Bashir from power in a coup d'état and created a Transitional Military Council (TMC). Following intense protests, Awad Ibn Auf announced his resignation and said that he had chosen Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan to lead the TMC.[15][16] Protesters supported by the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA)[17][18] and democratic opposition groups engaged in street demonstrations, calling on the ruling Transitional Military Council to "immediately and unconditionally" step aside in favor of a civilian-led transitional government, and urging other reforms in Sudan.[19] For about two months the TMC engaged the SPA in dialogue and discussion on how to shift to a transitional government, disagreeing over whether the transitional government should be civilian-led or military-led.[20] There were many attempts to disperse protesters and clear the sit-in in front of the Military HQ in Khartoum.[21][22][23]

On 30 May, the SPA expressed concern that a lethal attack by the TMC was intended, stating that on 29 May, "two citizens including a pregnant lady were shot dead by the TMC forces." The SPA warned that military trucks of NISS, the RSF and other state security forces were accumulating around the area of the sit-in.[24] On 1 June, the SPA said that it had reason to believe that the TMC was "planning and working to end the peaceful sit-in at the headquarters with excessive force and violence" after three people were killed in incidents on the fringes of the demonstration during the previous week.[25]

Massacre[edit]

On 3 June 2019 the military armed forces of the TMC headed by the Rapid Support Forces, the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia and NISS, together with other TMC forces[26] used heavy gunfire and teargas as well as sound bombs aiming at dispersing the sit-in killing more than 100[7] people with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers.[27]

Estimating the numbers of victims was difficult in the days following the massacre because of Internet blockage and the presence of security forces. The Internet in Sudan was almost completely blocked during and following the massacre,[13][14] Janjaweed militias had wide presence throughout Khartoum and prevented documenting the number of victims.[28].

As of the evening of 4 June 2019, there were reports of a large number of victims in the field of the sit-in with difficulty evacuating them. There were several reports of bodies thrown into the Nile.[29] Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested and many families were terrorized in their home estates across Sudan.[30] Seventy women and men were raped by the RSF according to doctors in Khartoum hospitals.[3]

On 9 June, witnesses reported the smell of rotten corpses coming from drainage channels and suspected that soldiers had thrown victims there.[citation needed]

In total, more than 200 military vehicles were used in the attack, with more than 10,000 soldiers and other unidentified personnel in police uniforms.[citation needed]

Timeline[edit]

The following is a timeline of what took place in the Khartoum sit-in camp:

  • 4:30 am: Janjaweed militias and NISS with other TMC forces started surveying the area of the sit-in camp in preparation for the attack.[31]
  • 4:55 am: Around 100 military vehicles belonging to Janjaweed militias, armed with heavy military firearms, including anti-aircraft weapons and carrying hundreds of armed soldiers. These soldiers were carrying weapons and sticks when they surrounded the Military HQ in Khartoum. The cars prevented the unarmed civilians from entering the Military HQ. Simultaneously, another 100 white pickup trucks without number plates, full of soldiers in police uniforms, arrived. Other Janjaweed soldiers were also seen in huge numbers along Nile Street.
  • 6:00 am - onward: The joint forces started the attack on the sit-in camp using live bullets, sound bombs and teargas, storming the civilians from all directions, leaving a narrow path for protesters to exit. The militia started burning the tents and shooting indiscriminately, leaving hundreds dead and injured and throwing many bodies into the Nile.[17]

According to local resident and PhD student Mohammed Elnaiem, the first phase of the attack included discussion between RSF members and the regular army, and in the second phase, the army vehicles departed while RSF vehicles "drove through the barricades.[32] After the main attack, the RSF shot wounded protestors in three Khartoum hospitals.[32]

Sit-ins in Port Sudan, el-Gadarif and Sinja were also "raided and attacked by the RSF" on 3 June.[32]

Victims[edit]

On 12 June 2019, the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate published a list of 104 people that were killed on or after 3 June, including 12 children.[33] The majority of the victims were killed by gunfire, while others were stabbed to death, burned, had their skulls crushed after being run over by Janjaweed pickup trucks. The list below includes the name of the victim (some unidentified), the date of death, age, hospital and cause of death as indicated by the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate:[34]

No. Name Date of death Age Hospital Cause of death
1 Abdel Salam Keisha Adel Salam 3rd June 25  El Mualim Hospital Gunshot
2 Mujtaba Salah Ahmed al-Hadi 3rd June No data Sit-in Field Clinic Gunshot
3  Ali Mohammed al-Noor 3rd June 25  El Mualim Hospital Gunshot
4 Said Mohammed Said 3rd June 39 Ibrahim Malik Teaching Hospital Gunshot
5 Mohammed Hashem Salah Matar (also: Mohamed Mattar)[35] 3rd June 26 No data Gunshot
6 Salah Uddin Said al-Dawleh Abdurrahman Ali Taha 3rd June 26 El Mualim Hospital Gunshot
7 Al-Numan Ragab Kafi 3rd June 29 Bashair Teaching Hospital Gunshot
8  Ahmed Mohammed Al-Faki 3rd June 29 El Mualim Hospital Gunshot
9 Faiza Ahmed Othman 3rd June 60 Al Jawda Hospital Gunshot
10 Murad al-Tijani Mohammed Haj al-Khader 3rd June 6 Alazhari Gunshot
11 Huzaifa Mohammed Abdullah 3rd June 15 El Mualim Hospital Gunshot
12 Burai Mutasem Saifuddin 3rd June 18 Royal Care International Hospital Gunshot
13 Faisal Abdel Aziz Abdullah 3rd June 38 Royal Care International Hospital Gunshot
14 Abbas Farah Abbas 3rd June 27 Royal Care International Hospital Gunshot
15  Ismail Ali Abdel Hadi 3rd June 42 Royal Care International Hospital Gunshot
16 Adam al-Doma 3rd June 40 EL Mualim Hospital Gunshot
17 Mahmoud Abdullah al-Amir 3rd June 22 Al-Arbaeen Specialized Hospital Gunshot
18 Daw al-Beit Ibrahim Mokhtar 3rd June 28 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot
19 Othman Abdeen Mahmoud 3rd June 28 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot
20 Hanafi Abdel Shakour Hanafi 3rd June 22 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Skulls crushed after being run over by pickup truck
21 Khater Hussien Khater 3rd June 21 Al-Arbaeen Specialized Hospital Gunshot
22 Othman Mohammed Qasem al-Said 3rd June 20 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot
23 Munzer Yousef al-Amin 3rd June 28 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot and crushed skulls
24 Abdelwahab al-Said 3rd June 54 Mohamed bin Saleh Al Rajhi Charity Hospital Gunshot
25  Saad Mansour Abdeen 3rd June 20 Libya Omdurman Gunshot
26 Amro Ibrahim 3rd June 25 Asia Hospital Stabbed to death
27 Oday Bashir Noori 3rd June 14 Al-Arbaeen Specialized Hospital Gun
28 Walid Bakheet al-Taib 3rd June 35 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot
29  Ibrahim Musa 3rd June 51 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Body Crushed after being run-over by pickup truck
30 Othman Ibrahim Hussein 3rd June No data Bashair Teaching Hospital No data
31  Mudther Idris Mohammed Zein 3rd June 26 Bashair Teaching Hospital Gunshot
32  Eid Farouq Ahmed 3rd June 32 Al Tamayoz Hospital No data
33 Othman Hasab-allah Sadiq 3rd June 16 Al Injaz Sudanese German Specialized Hospital No data
34 Mohammed Fathi Ali Ibrahim 3rd June 13 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) No data
35 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data Omdurman Hospital No data
36 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data El Mualim Hospital No data
37 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data El Mualim Hospital No data
38 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile
39 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data Royal Care International Hospital No data
40 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data Royal Care International Hospital No data
41 Unidentified Person 3rd June No data Sit-in Field Clinic No data
42 Ahmed Jaafar Mustafa Khogaly 3rd June No data Sit-in Field Clinic No post mortem was done
43  Awad Said Atayia 3rd June No data Al Droshab Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile
44 Mahmoud Ahmed Abdelqayoum 3rd June No data Sit-in Field Clinic No post mortem was done
45 Yaser 3rd June No data Sharg Alneel Hospital Gunshot
46  Al-Wasileh Nader 3rd June No data Sharg Alneel Hospital Gunshot
47  Rana Joun (she was pregnant) 3rd June No data Royal Care International Hospital Gunshot
48 Mustafa al-Taj Mohammed Othman 4th June 19 Rabak - block 5 Gunshot
49 Burai Adam Yousef 4th June 19 Rabak - block 10 Gunshot
50 Al-Haj Suleiman 4th June 16 Rabak Gunshot
51 Moaz Abdullah 4th June 20 Rabak - block 3 Gunshot
52 Ayoub Mohammed Abkar 4th June 20 Rabak - block 21 Gunshot
53 Naji Khandouqy Eissa 4th June 8 Rabak - block 5 Gunshot
54  Mohanad Mohammed Fuad 4th June 14 Hilt Koko Gunshot
55  Haitham Anwar 4th June 15 Royal Care International Hospital Gunshot
56 Musaab Said Shagheel 4th June 23 Bashair Teaching Hospital Gunshot
57  Mohammed Abdel Mahmoud Fadel Al-Mawla Said 4th June 32 Best Care Hospital Gunshot
58 Ezuddin Mohammed Bushra 4th June 41 Bashair Teaching Hospital Stabbed to death
59 Sadiq al-Haj Ahmed Abkar 4th June 17 Bashair Teaching Hospital Stabbed to death
60 Omar Mohammed Hussein Bahar 4th June 23 Al-Bagair Stabbed to death
61  Al-Amin Ismail Al-Amin 4th June 27 Um bada Hospital Gunshot
62 Hussam Said Al-Yazal 4th June 40 Best Care Hospital Gunshot
63 Lawal William Pak 4th June No data No data Gunshot
64  Jaddu Mohammed Barka Hamdan 5th June 22 Best Care Hospital Stabbed to death
65  Mujahed Jumaa Ramadan 5th June 24 Sharg Alneel Hospital Stabbed to death
66 Mohammed Al-Sir Khamees Ibrahim 5th June 22 Bashair Teaching Hospital Stabbed to death
67 Amer Adam Yousef Abdelkarim 5th June 17 Bashair Teaching Hospital Stabbed to death
68  Jumaa Ismail Ahmed Sharafuddin 5th June 35 Bashair Teaching Hospital Stabbed to death
69 Mohammed Idris al-Fakki Jaddu 5th June 24 Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot
70 Baderuddin Rabei Mohammed Ali 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile
71 Unidentified Person 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Gunshot
72 Unidentified Person 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Gunshot
73 Saber al-Tijani Abdurrahman 5th June No data No data Gunshot
74 Al-Nazeer Abdurrahman 5th June No data No data Gunshot
75 Unidentified Person 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Gunshot and body ( stone was tied to his leg) was pulled from the Nile
76 Yaser Ali Mohammed Abdullah 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Gunshot and body ( stone was tied to his leg) was pulled from the Nile
77 Unidentified Person 5th June No data No data Gunshot
78  Mujahed Ezuddin Mohammed Naser 5th June No data Al-Shifa Hospital Gunshot
79 Othman Said Ahmed 5th June No data No data Gunshot
80 Mohammed Al-Mujtaba Abdurrahman Daweina 5th June No data No data Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile
81 Mustafa Suleiman Abdullah Raoumeh 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Gunshot
82 Ali Fadel Al-Ati Ali 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Gunshot
83 Ali Saboun Hassan 5th June No data Um bada Hospital Gunshot
84 Sadiq Ibrahim Othman 5th June No data Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum) Gunshot
85 Unidentified Person 5th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile
86 Mohammed Taj al-Sir Mohammed 6th June No data Bashair Teaching Hospital Stabbed to death
87 Abdel Aziz Said Amin 6th June No data Sharg Alneel Hospital Stabbed to death
88  Ghaboush Mubarak Adam 6th June No data Um bada Gunshot
89 Essam Mohammed Noor (Police officer) 7th June No data Kiled inside his house in Um bada Stabbed to death
90 Amro Anas Mohammed Al-Safi (Child) 8th June No data Omdurman Gunshot
91 Walid Abdurrahman Salem 8th June 37 Bahri Gunshot
92 Ayman Ousama 9th June 17 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Gunshot
93 Jaber-allah Mohammed Muala 7th June 20 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Stabbed to death
94 Al-Maleeh Mohammed Muala 7th June 18 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Stabbed to death
95 Tajuddin al-Awal Darman 7th June 30 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Stabbed to death
96 Mohammed Suleiman Galfour 7th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Gunshot
97 Mohammed Abdullah Mohammed 8th June 21 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Gunshot
98  Ibrahim Saleh Omar 8th June No data Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Stabbed to death
99 Othman Ibrahim Ishaq al-Qouni 10th June 12 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Hit by a machete
100 Al-Hasan 10th June No data Royal Care International Hospital 90% burns from the 3rd of June
101 Samuel Emanuel 10th June No data No data No post mortem was done
102 Zamran Hasan Yousef 10th June 21 Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary Skulls crushed
103  Magdy Adam Babaker 10th June 22 Bashair Teaching Hospital Gunshot
104  Al-Moez Suleiman 10th June No data Royal Care International Hospital Hit by the gun on the head - 3rd June


The list of victims will be updated as information becomes available from the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate.

Responsibility[edit]

Transitional Military Council and Janjaweed Militia[edit]

The military armed forces of the Transitional Military Council, headed by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF, derived from Janjaweed militias) led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemedti"),[36] the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia, are widely attributed as being responsible for the attack. The Daily Beast attributed responsibility directly to RSF under Hemedti's command, based on videos, testimonies by witnesses and interviews with civilian activists.[37]

International influences[edit]

İyad el-Baghdadi, a human rights activist who became famous during the Arab Spring, argued that the governments of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt supported the carrying out of the massacre.[38] Some of the military vehicles and equipment used in the massacre were manufactured in the UAE.[39][38] The late May visits by TMC leader al-Burhan to the Egyptian president el-Sisi and to the de facto ruler of the UAE, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and of the TMC deputy leader Dagalo to Mohammad bin Salman, the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, were interpreted by el-Baghdadi as encouragements for the TMC to cancel negotiations with the opposition and to carry out a massacre.[38] El-Baghdadi situates this in the general context of Saudi, UAE and Egyptian leaders being afraid of democratic movements.[38] Mahmoud Elmutasim, a political activist and doctor who graduated from the University of Khartoum, stated that Saudi Arabia and the UAE are opposed to the existence of democracies in the Middle East, since if "the idea of democracy itself [should] ever take root, or become widespread in the Middle East," then it would constitute a threat to the governmental systems of Saudi Arabia and the UAE.[39]

The New Arab and Middle East Eye similarly argued that "The blooded assault was launched shortly after top Sudanese generals visited Riyadh, Abu Dhabi and Egypt to secure support for their takeover, with observers arguing the transitional military council received a green light from the three powerful Arab states for their move".[40][41][42]

Protesters carrying an injured woman

Aftermath[edit]

On Monday 4 June, TMC canceled all agreements reached during talks with the main opposition alliance on setting up a transitional administration. The sides had agreed on forming a parliament and a government that would prepare for elections after three years.[43] The leaders of the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces (DFCF) opposition alliance, said an open-ended civil disobedience campaign would continue to try to force the council from power.[44][43][45] The leaders also added that there is no room for negotiations," as military leaders attempted to do damage control in the face of international criticism of Monday's indiscriminate killings.[4][44]

On Tuesday, Khartoum was tense with many roads barricaded by protesters, shops shut and streets mostly empty. Rapid Support Forces (RSF) vehicles were patrolling the streets in Omdurman, on the other side of the River Nile from Khartoum and firing into the air.[25][46]

On Tuesday the United Nation Security Council met on at the request of Britain and Germany to hear a briefing from UN envoy Nicholas Haysom, who has been working with the African Union (AU) on a solution to the crisis in Sudan. But China, backed by Russia, blocked a bid to condemn the killing of civilians and issue an urgent call from world powers for an immediate halt to the violence.[47]

On Wednesday 5 June, the DFCF called on all countries and international organizations to stop dealing with Sudan's Transitional Military Council. They also called on the international community to start looking into "the ongoing violations and crimes committed by (TMC) in all cities and towns and to stop it immediately." As reported by the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors (CCSD), an organization of medical volunteers, dozens of bodies were pulled from the Nile Wednesday and doctors said they had been weighed down with rocks in an attempt to hide the true death toll.[44][11][48][49]

On Thursday 6 June, the African Union Peace and Security Department issued a statement suspending the participation of Sudan in all AU activities with immediate effect - "until the effective establishment of a civilian-led transitional authority," which it described as the only way to "exit from the current crisis".[50][51]

On Sunday 9 June 2019, normally a regular working day in Sudan, protesters launched a civil disobedience campaign aiming at removing the TMC. Four people were shot dead by the TMC forces in Khartoum.[52][53] As roads were blocked, almost all formal and informal businesses were closed, including, banks, public transport and Khartoum International Airport, where several airlines cancelled their Sudan flights following the massacre and passengers were left waiting outside airport's departures terminal.[54][55][56][57] The general strike was followed by about 60–100% of workers, varying between sectors, for a total of 3 days[58][59] and was followed on 12 June by an agreement between the TMC and the opposition to free political prisoners, stop the strike, and resume negotiations.[59]

An online social media trend with the hashtag #BlueForSudan started several days after the massacre, representing solidarity for the protest movement, with blue signifying the favourite colour of Mohamed Mattar, one of the victims of the massacre.[35]

Reactions[edit]

The United Nation Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, condemned the use of excessive force by Sudan's security agents and said he was "alarmed" by reports that forces had opened fire inside a hospital.

 Norway,  United Kingdom,  United States – On 4 June, the Troika issued a statement on developments in Sudan.[60] "The Troika condemns the violent attacks in Sudan on 3rd June, which resulted in the killing and injuring of many peaceful civilian protesters. By ordering these attacks, the Transitional Military Council has put the transition process and peace in Sudan in jeopardy. We call for an agreed transfer of power to a civilian-led government as demanded by the people of Sudan. We welcome the statement of the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) and support the important role of the AU in solving the crisis in Sudan, including its demand for an immediate handover to a civilian-led government". "The Troika also expresses its serious concern over the TMC’s announcement that it will cease negotiations with the Forces for Freedom and Change, retract all previous agreements with them on formation of an interim government, and will hold elections within nine months. The people of Sudan deserve an orderly transition, led by civilians, that can establish the conditions for free and fair elections, rather than have rushed elections imposed by the TMC’s security forces".[61][62]

 African Union – On 3 June, issued the following statement "The Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki strongly condemns the violence that erupted today which led to reported deaths and several civilian injuries. In this regard, he calls for an immediate and transparent investigation in order to hold those all responsible accountable. The Chairperson calls on the Transitional Military Council to protect the civilians from further harm". "the Chairperson calls on all international partners to reinforce common efforts towards the immediate cessation of the violence and rapid resumption of negotiations for a political settlement.[63]

 Germany – On 3 June, through the German Foreign Ministry's deputy spokesman Christofer Burger “There can be no justification for this violence and it must stop immediately.[64]

 France – On 3 June, the French Government through the Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs Spokesperson has expressed and reiterates its utter condemnation of the violence committed in the brutal crackdown on peaceful demonstrations, which has resulted in very numerous casualties over the past few days. It demands that the perpetrators of this violence be brought to justice and that an independent investigation be undertaken by the Sudanese authorities.[65]

The Mo Ibrahim Foundation stated on 7 June,

The Mo Ibrahim Foundation is deeply concerned by the situation in Sudan, which has recently taken a turn for the worse, with a brutal armed crackdown on peaceful protestors, claiming the lives of an alarming number of civilians in recent days, and crushing hopes for a democratic transition. The TMC, which toppled Omar al-Bashir in April, claimed they were taking over to protect the protesters. Now they have unleashed the unruly Rapid Support Forces (Janjaweed 2.0) on the Sudanese people. The African Union is right to suspend Sudan’s membership, pending the transfer to civilian rule. The international community has been largely slow and hesitant on support to the democratic aspirations of the Sudanese people. Unfortunately, some regional powers, led by Saudi Arabia, appear to side with the military, with disastrous results. China is damaging its standing and its reputation in Africa by blocking the UN Security Council resolution condemning TMC’s violence. We have not seen a single tweet from the White House in support of the people of Sudan and of democracy. The Foundation hopes that the global community will unite to use all possible means to encourage all parties to re-establish political negotiations, leading as soon as possible to a civilian-led government, in order to organise free and fair elections in an open political space. Democratic civilian rule is the only way to ensure sustainable good governance for all the people of Sudan, and stability in this volatile region.[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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