Names and variants
The Bhagavata Purana describes them as a previously outcast group who redeemed themselves by adopting Vaishnavism. The Manusmriti describes them as the descendants of outcast Kshatriyas. The 12th century text Rajatarangini describes the rulers of Rajapuri (modern Rajauri) as the "lord of the Khasas". The Khasa chiefs of Rajapuri freely intermarried with Kshatriya rulers of Kashmir and the Khasa chief of Lohara married daughter of Shahi Kings of Kabul. The Khasas (identified with Khasa Mallas) are also mentioned in several Indian inscriptions dated between 8th and 13th centuries CE. Bharata Nātyaśāstra mentions that the mother tongue language of Khaśas was Bāhliki language in the phrase:
Bāhlikabhāśodhīchyanāṃ Khaśāṇāṃ ca svadeśajā
The 954 AD Khajuraho Inscription of Dhaṇga states Khasa kingdom equivalent to Gauda of Bengal and Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty. The Nalanda inscription of Devapala and Bhagalpur; copper plate of Narayanpala also mentions about Khasas. The three copper plates from Pandukeshavara explains the territories of Khasas.
Khasas are thought to be connected to the medieval Khasa Malla kingdom and the modern Khas people of Nepal. The modern Khas people of Nepal have also been connected with the ancient Khasas, although their period of migration in Nepal remains ambiguous. In Nepal the Khas people first settled around present day Humla and Jumla. The Khasa kings of Nepal formed the famous Malla Kingdom, which ruled Humla from the eleventh century before collapsing and splintering into local chiefdoms during the fourteenth century.
- Sakas, ancient Scythians mentioned in Sanskrit literatures
- Kuru Kingdom
- Laxman S. Thakur (1990). K. K. Kusuman, ed. The Khasas An Early Indian Tribe. A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. pp. 285–293. ISBN 978-81-7099-214-1.
- Tho-gar yul dań yabana dań Kambodza dań Khasa dań Huna dań Darta dań...(See: Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang (1908), I.9, Sarat Chandra Das; Ancient Kamboja, 1971, p 66, H. W. Bailey.
- Kumar Pradhan (1984). A History of Nepali Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 5.
- Witzel, Dr. Michael (1976). "On the History and the Present State of Vedic Tradition in Nepal". Vasudha. 15 (12): 17–24; 35–39.
- Kelly, Thomas L.; Dunham, V. Carroll (March 2001). Hidden Himalayas (PDF). New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 9780789207227.
- Thakur, Laxman S. (1990). "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman. A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. pp. 285–293. ISBN 978-81-7099-214-1.