Etymology and history
Before the advent of Islam in Central Asia, Khatun was the title of the queen of Bukhara. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Khatun [is] a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the Göktürks and subsequent Turkish rulers."
According to Bruno De Nicola in Women in Mongol Iran: The Khatuns, 1206–1335, the linguistic origins of the term "khatun" are unknown, though possibly of Old Turkic or Sogdian origin. De Nicola states that prior to the spread of the Mongols across Central Asia, Khatun meant 'lady' or 'noblewoman' and is found in broad usage in medieval Persian and Arabic texts.
Peter Benjamin Golden observed that the title qatun appeared among the Göktürks as the title for the khagan's wife and was borrowed from Sogdian xwāten "wife of the ruler" Earlier, British Orientalist Gerard Clauson (1891–1974) defined xa:tun as "'lady' and the like" and says there is "no reasonable doubt that it is taken from Sogdian xwt'yn (xwatēn), in Sogdian xwt'y ('lord, ruler') and xwt'yn 'lord's or ruler's wife'), "which is precisely the meaning of xa:tun in the early period."
In Uzbek, the language spoken in modern-day Bukhara, in Uzbekistan, the word is spelled xotin and has come to simply refer to any woman. In Turkish, it is written hatun. The general Turkish word for 'woman', kadın, is a doublet derived from the same origin.
- Po Beg
- Börte, wife of Genghis Khan
- Töregene Khatun (d. 1246), wife of Ogedei Khan, regent of the Mongol Empire from 1241 to 1246
- Ebuskun, wife of Mutukan
- Boraqchin, wife of Batu khan
- Oghul Qaimish, wife of Guyuk Khan
- Chabi, wife of Kublai Khan
- Doquz Khatun, wife of Hulagu Khan
- Gurju Khatun, wife of Kaykhusraw II
- Buluqhan Khatun, wife of Abaqa Khan
- Kokejin/Bairam egchi, wife of Zhenjin
- Bulugan, wife of Temur Khan
- Dagi khatun, wife of Darmabala
- Radnashiri, wife of Ayurbarwada khan
- Despina Khatun
- Samur khatun, daughter of Elbeg khan
- Mandukhai Khatun, wife of Dayan Khan
- Erketü Qatun, wife of Altan Khan
- Syeda Momena Khatun, daughter of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah
- Anu Khatun, wife of Sengge and Galdan Boshugtu Khan
- Momine Khatun
- Sapnara Khatun, judge elected to the British Family Law Bar Association Committee. In 2006, she was appointed as a Recorder of the British Crown.
- Melike Mama Hatun Saltukid female ruler (reigned between 1191 and 1200)
- Rabia Bala Hatun (died 1324), wife of Sultan Osman I
- Gülçiçek Hatun (fl. 14th century), wife of Sultan Murad I
- Devlet Hatun (died 1411), wife of Sultan Bayezid I
- Gülfem Hatun (died 1561/1562), consort of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
- Canfeda Hatun (died 1600) was a lady-in-waiting to Nurbanu Sultan
- Şemsiruhsar Hatun (died 1613), consort of Sultan Murad III
- Nene Hatun (1857–1955), Turkish folk heroine
- Halime Qatun (1205–1280) The wife of Ertugrul Ghazi
Valide Hatun was the title held by the "legal mother" of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire before the 16th century.
By the beginning of the 16th century, the title hatun for sultan's mother, princesses, and sultan's main consort was replaced by "sultan" and they started to carry it after their given names. This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative. Consequently, the title valide hatun also turned into valide sultan.
List of valide hatuns
|Name||Maiden name||Origin||Consort||Became valide||Ceased to be valide||Death||Sultan|
|Nilüfer Hatunنیلوفر خاتون||unknown||Greek||Orhan I||March 1362
|1383||Murad I (son)|
|Devlet Hatunدولت خاتون||unknown||unknown||Bayezid I||5 July 1413
|23 January 1414||Mehmed I (son)|
|Emine Hatunامینہ خاتون||Emine||Dulkadirid||Mehmed I||26 May 1421
|unknown||disputed||Murad II||August 1444
son's first ascension
|September 1446||Mehmed II (son)|
|Mara Despina Hatun||Mara||Serbian||Murad II||1457
Her return to Ottoman's court on Mehmed's invite
|3 May 1481
|Mehmed II (stepson)|
گل بھار مکرمه خاتون
|unknown||Pontic Greek origin||Mehmed II||3 May 1481
|1492||Bayezid II (son)|
- Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰍𐰣, romanized: katun, Ottoman Turkish: خاتون, romanized: hatun or قادین romanized: Kadın; Uzbek: xotun; Persian: خاتون, romanized: xâtun; Tajik: хотун; Mongolian: хатун/ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ; Urdu: خاتون, romanized: xatun; Hindi: ख़ातून, romanized: khātūn; Bengali: খাতুন, romanized: khatun; Sylheti: ꠈꠣꠔꠥꠘ; Turkish: hatun; Azerbaijani: xatun; Punjabi: ਖਾਤੂਨ (Gurmukhi), خاتون (Shahmukhi)
- Mernissi, Fatima (1993). The Forgotten Queens of Islam. University of Minnesota Press. p. 21.
- De Nicola, Bruno (2017). Women in Mongol Iran: The Khatuns, 1206-1335. Edinburgh University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781474415477.
- Peter Benjamin Golden (1998), "Turks and Iranians: An historical sketch" in Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Ágnes (2015). The Turkic Languages. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-82534-7., page 5
- Clauson, Gerard (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 602–603. ISBN 978-0-19-864112-4.
- Clauson, p. 602.
- Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-507673-7.
- Works cited
- Clauson, Gerard; Róna-Tas, András (1981). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Index. Universitas Szegediensis de Attila Jószef Nominata.
- Boyle, J.A. (1978). "K̲h̲ātūn". In van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. & Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume IV: Iran–Kha (2nd ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill. OCLC 758278456.