Khinalug language

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Khinalug
каьтш мицI / kätš micʼ
Pronunciation [kætʃ mit͡sʼ]
Native to Azerbaijan
Region Quba
Native speakers
1,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kjj
Glottolog khin1240[2]
Northeast Caucasian languages.png
  Khinalug
(in Azerbaijan)
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Khinalug (also spelled Khinalig, Khinalugi, Xinalug(h), Xinaliq or Khinalugh) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 1,500 people in the villages of Khinalug and Gülüstan, Quba[citation needed] in the mountains of Quba Rayon, northern Azerbaijan. It forms its own independent branch within the Northeast Caucasian language family.[3]

Khinalug is endangered,[4] and classified as "severely endangered" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[5]

History[edit]

Khinalug is the language of the village Khinalug in the Quba district of Azerbaijan. It has been tentatively classified by previous researchers as a member of the Lezgian family of the Dagestani branch of Northeast Caucasian languages[6] Although Khinalug is the official language of the village, it is mostly spoken by villagers in informal circumstances, while the national language Azerbaijani is used formally for educational purposes and to communicate with non-Khinalug speakers.[6]

Vocabulary[edit]

The following words were phonetically transcribed from Khinalug:[7]

Khinalug singular Khinalug plural Translation
arhaz arhazırdır pen (enclosure for livestock)
c’imir c’imirdir sparrow
izin izindir gingiva
kırab kırabırdır galoshes
mısır mısırdır rope
nek’id nek’idirdir back
t’uk’un t’uk’undur cheek
t’umbol t’umboldur prune
ustot ustoturdur pepper
ustul ustuldur table
dalıg dalιgιrdιr work
culoz culozurdur tooth
jalkan jalkandιr mane
kotuk kotukurdur tree stump
mekteb mektebirdir school (compare: maktab)
mizer mizerdir textile

Note: ı is roughly pronounced as the e in "fallen". u is roughly pronounced as the ou in "coup".

Alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
А А̃ Аь Б В Г Гъ ГӀ ГӀв Д Дж Дз Е Е̃ Ж З И И̃ Й К Кв Кк Кх Кхв Кхкх Къв Кь КьӀ КӀ КӀв Л Лъ М Н О О̃ Оь
а а̃ аь б в г гъ гӀ гӀв д дж дз е е̃ ж з и и̃ й к кв кк кх кхв кхкх къв кь кьӀ кӀ кӀв л лъ м н о о̃ оь
38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74
П Пв ПӀ Р С Т Тт ТӀ ТӀв ТӀтӀ У У̃ Уь Ф Х Хъ Хъв Хь ХӀ Ӏ Ӏъ Ц Цв Цц ЦӀ ЦӀв Ч Чч ЧӀ ЧӀв Ш Шв Ъ Ы Э Ә Ә̃
п пв пӀ р с т тт тӀ тӀв тӀтӀ у у̃ уь ф х хъ хъв хь хӀ Ӏ Ӏъ ц цв цц цӀ цӀв ч чч чӀ чӀв ш шв ъ ы э ә ә̃

References[edit]

  1. ^ Khinalug at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Khinalugh". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Family tree of Northeast Caucasian languages at Ethnologue
  4. ^ Published in: Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211–280.
  5. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
  6. ^ a b Clifton, J.M. (2005). "The sociolinguistic situation of the Khinalug in Azerbaijan" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander (2010). Van Sanskriet tot Spijkerschrift: Breinbrekers uit alle talen [From Sanskrit to Cuneiform: Brain teasers from all languages] (in Dutch). Amsterdam University Press. pp. 12, 58–59. ISBN 9089641793. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Clifton, John M.; Deckinga, Gabriela; Lucht, Laura; Mak, Janfer; Tiessen, Calvin, Authors. 2005. "The Sociolinguistic Situation of the Khinalug In Azerbaijan."
  • Desheryev, Ju. D. 1959. Grammatika xinalugskogo jazyka. Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow.
  • Hewitt, George. 2004. Introduction to the Study of the Languages of the Caucasus. LINCOM, Munich. p. 29.
  • Kibrik, Aleksandr E. 1972. Fragmenty grammatiki xinalugskogo jazyka. Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta, Moscow.
  • Kibrik, Aleksandr E. 1994. "Khinalug". In: The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus, vol. 4; Rieks Smeets (ed.); Caravan Books, Delmar (New York). pp. 367–406.

External links[edit]