Khirbat Umm Burj

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Khirbat Umm Burj
Khirbat Umm Burj is located in Mandatory Palestine
Khirbat Umm Burj
Khirbat Umm Burj
Arabic خربة أمْ برج'
Name meaning the mother of the tower [1]
Subdistrict Hebron
Coordinates 31°38′12″N 34°58′11″E / 31.63667°N 34.96972°E / 31.63667; 34.96972Coordinates: 31°38′12″N 34°58′11″E / 31.63667°N 34.96972°E / 31.63667; 34.96972
Palestine grid 147/115
Population 140[2][3] (1945)
Area 13,083[3] dunams
Date of depopulation Not known[4]
Current localities Nehusha[5]

Khirbat Umm Burj was a Palestinian Arab village in the Hebron Subdistrict, sometimes designated in modern maps as Burgin.[6] It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on October 28, 1948 during the third stage of Operation Yo'av under the command of Yigal Allon. It was located 17 km northwest of Hebron.

History[edit]

The site was occupied from the Iron Age. A large ancient necropolis was here, including a church or synagogue, residential buildings and numerous agricultural installations.[7] Israeli archaeologists, Amir Ganor and Boaz Zissu, think that Umm Burj may be a corruption of the 1st-century Jewish village, Kefar Bish.[8] In the late 19th century, extensive Christian remains were noted in the area surrounding Um Burj.[9]

Ottoman era[edit]

In 1838 Um Burj was noted as village, located in the area between the mountains and Gaza, but subject to the government of el-Khulil.[10]

An Ottoman village list from about 1870 found that um-burdsch had a population of 150, in 25 houses, though the population count included men, only.[11][12]

In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described Umm Burj as: "A ruined village, with a central tower; apparently not ancient; caves and cisterns round it, and a well."[13] Khalidi believed that the SWP assumption that the tower was not ancient might have been wrong.[14]

British Mandate era[edit]

In 1945 it had a population of 140 Muslims,[2] with a total of 13,083 dunums of land.[3] Of this, 28 dunums were irrigated or used for plantations, 3,546 were for cereal,[15] while 15 dunams were built-up (urban) areas.[16]

The villagers used to obtain drinking water from three wells on the northern outskirts of the village.[14]

1948 and aftermath[edit]

After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the ruin of Umm Burj remained under Israeli control under the terms of the 1949 Armistice Agreements[17] between Israel and Jordan. Today, the site lies in the Adullam-France Park.

The moshav of Nehusha was established in 1982 on land that had belonged to the village, west of the village site.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 408
  2. ^ a b Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 23
  3. ^ a b c Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 50
  4. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xix village #326. Morris gives both cause and date of depopulation as "Not known".
  5. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p. 224
  6. ^ In the Topographical Map (Map # 9, Jerusalem Corridor) published by Israel's Nature Protection Society, the site is listed as Ḥurvat Burjin.
  7. ^ Ganor and Klein, 2011, Horbat Burqin, Preliminary Report
  8. ^ Boaz Zissu and Amir Ganor, Survey and Excavations at Ḥorbat Burgin in the Judean Shephelah: Burial Caves, Hiding Complexes and Installations of the Second Temple and Byzantine Periods, ʿAtiqot (publication of the Israel Antiquities Authority), Issue 58 (2008), p. 63; Zissu, Boaz (2008). "Survey and Excavations at Ḥorbat Burgin in the Judean Shephelah: Burial Caves, Hiding Complexes and Installations of the Second Temple and Byzantine Periods". 'Atiqot (58): 60–64. Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)). 
  9. ^ Warren and Conder, 1884, p. 446
  10. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. 117
  11. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 162
  12. ^ Hartmann, 1883, p. 148
  13. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 380
  14. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p. 223
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 93
  16. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 143
  17. ^ The 1949 Armistice Agreement between Israel and Jordan

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]