Khmeimim Air Base
|Hmeymim Air Base|
(Latakia Air Base)
قاعدة حميميم الجوية
Bassel Al-Assad International Airport|
Near Latakia in Syria
A Russian Su-24 bomber at Khmeimim airbase, Syria
|Operator||Russian Air Force|
|Elevation||48 metres (157 ft) AMSL|
Khmeimim Air Base, also Hmeimim Air Base is a Syrian airbase currently operated by Russia, located south-east of the city of Latakia in Hmeimim, Latakia Governorate, Syria. The airbase shares some airfield facilities with Bassel Al-Assad International Airport. The legal status of the base is regulated by a treaty Russia and Syria signed in August 2015. At the end of 2017, Russia said it had decided to turn the Khmeimim base into a component of its permanent military contingent stationed in Syria.
History and current legal status
Khmeimim air base was built in mid-2015 adjacent to the Bassel Al-Assad International Airport to serve as "the strategic center of Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War". The existence of the Russian strategic base was revealed by the United States in early September and American officials expressed concern over the possibility of escalation of the conflict in Syria. The airbase became operational on 30 September 2015.
On 26 August 2015, in Damascus, Russia and Syria signed a treaty, effective forthwith, that stipulates terms and conditions of use by Russia of Syria's Hmeimim airport, free of charge and with no time limit. The treaty, ratified by Russia′s parliament and signed into law by president Vladimir Putin in October 2016, grants Russia′s personnel and their family members jurisdictional immunity and other privileges as envisaged by Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. The Syrian military is in charge of protecting the base perimeter, while the Russian side is responsible for air defense and internal policing of base personnel. The treaty was amended by signing a protocol to the treaty on 18 January 2017.
In late December 2017, Russia announced it had set about "forming a permanent grouping" at Khmeimim as well as at its naval facility in Tartus, after president Putin approved the structure and the personnel strength of the Tartus and Hmeymim bases.
Within several months in 2015 new infrastructure was built: air-conditioned accommodations for about 1,000 people, an air traffic control tower, runway extensions, storage facilities, field kitchens, and refuelling stations. Supplies were flown in from Russia or shipped via Tartus harbour 50 km (31 mi) away. The base is reported to be capable of handling Antonov An-124 Ruslan and Ilyushin Il-76 transport aircraft; the deployed aircraft included Sukhoi Su-24s, Sukhoi Su-25s, and Sukhoi Su-34s as well as T-90 tanks, BTR-82 vehicles, artillery, with Mil Mi-24 gunships and Mil Mi-8 support helicopters.
At the end of February 2016 and in response to developments at the Geneva peace talks, a truce coordination center had been established at the airbase to coordinate activities of warring parties and "render maximum assistance" to all parties participating in recent ceasefire agreements; the center will not support ISIL, Al-Nusra, and terrorist groups so designated by the UN Security Council.
In November 2016, after the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov lost a MiG-29K fighter due to arrestor cable problems, satellite images indicated that at least some of the carrier's air wing of MiG-29K and Sukhoi Su-33 aircraft had been deployed to Khmeimim.
On 3 January 2018, the Kommersant reported that rebel shelling on 31 December 2017 caused the deaths of 2 Russian military personnel and the loss of at least seven aircraft stationed on the base; the Russian MoD on 4 January 2018 acknowledged that the attack occurred and confirmed that two servicemen had been killed, but denied that any jets had been disabled. According to Roman Saponkov, a Russian military journalist who posted photographs of the aftermath of the attack on the same day that the Russian MoD published its statement, no aircraft were destroyed in the attack, but ten were damaged. An article on /Drive said that key questions about the attack were still unanswered despite the Russian MoD's communique.
On 12 January, the Russian MoD said the military had destroyed a group of militants that shelled the Khmeimim airbase, close to the western border of the Idlib province; a Krasnopol projectile was used.
On 6 March 2018, a Russian Antonov An-26 transport plane crash during an attempted landing at the airbase killed all 39 military personnel on board. The Russian MoD said that the plane was not fired upon and preliminary data suggested that a technical malfunction had caused the crash.
On September 19 2018, a Russian Ilyushin Il-18 plane that was coming in to land was hit by Syrian air defense in a friendly fire incident. The Syrians were trying to target Israeli aircraft. Fifteen Russian servicemen were killed.
On 6 January 2018, Russian forces thwarted a drone (UAV) swarm attack on the base, the first of this kind in the history of warfare. Statements from Russia's MoD on 8 and 10 January confirmed earlier reports about the incident, saying that the attempted attack that involved 13 armed, fixed-wing drones which were used to attack both the Hmeimim base and the Tartus naval facility on 5—6 January was repulsed by the Russian forces' radio-electronic warfare technologies; it also refuted earlier reports that a greater number of UAVs were involved in the attack and alleged that the drones could have been obtained only from a country that possessed "high-tech capabilities for providing satellite navigation and remote control."
On 24 April, the airbase was targeted by another wave of drones in a swarm attack. Russian forces reported they had intercepted and destroyed several "small-size unidentified airborne targets" while they approached the base.
On 30 June, Russian air defences repelled another drone attack on the base, shooting down multiple unidentified unmanned aerial vehicles. During July and August 2018, the airbase was targeted by multiple drone attacks, all were repelled. In August 2018, a total of 47 drones had been shot down by Russian air defenses.
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At the end of September 2015, NATO's supreme allied commander for Europe, General Philip Breedlove, said that the kind of military infrastructure that Russia had installed in Syria, which included anti-aircraft defence systems, was a de facto no-fly zone: "As we see the very capable air defense [systems] beginning to show up in Syria, we're a little worried about another A2/AD [anti-access/area denial] bubble being created in the eastern Mediterranean." (Russia's third denial zone around Europe)
An article on /Drive in early 2018 said that the regularity of attacks on the air base could be "troublesome for Moscow's narrative and are likely an indication of how the conflict in Syria will morph in the coming months."
- "Press-tour of the Russian and foreign Media representatives to the Hmeymim airbase in Syria". Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Wight, John (24 November 2015). "'Turkey good example of West's duplicity towards ISIS'". RT. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russian airbase in Syria: RT checks out everyday life at Latakia airfield". RT. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Varghese, Johnlee (11 November 2015). "Russia in Syria: 50 journalists from 12 countries visit Russian base in Latakia". International Business Times. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Martinez, Luis (9 September 2015). "Russian Build-Up Continues at Base in Syria, Causing Concern Among US Officials". ABC News. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Crilly, Rob (5 September 2015). "Russia 'is building military base in Syria'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Договор о размещении авиагруппы РФ в САР заключен на бессрочный период" [The agreement on deployment of RF air force group is concluded for a limitless period]. RIA Novosti. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016. (in Russian)
- "Moscow cements deal with Damascus to keep 49-year presence at Syrian naval and air bases". TASS. 20 January 2017.
- "On Syria, Russia digs in for the long haul with 'indefinite' deployment: Russia has approved a law ratifying Moscow's deal with Syria to deploy its forces in the country indefinitely. This paves the way for permanent Russian military bases in the Middle East as Assad vows to defeat rebels". Deutsche Welle. 14 October 2016.
- "Дума ратифицировала соглашение о бессрочном размещении авиагруппы в Сирии" [Duma ratified agreement on limitless deployment of aviation group in Syria]. TASS. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016. (in Russian)
- Путин подписал закон о размещении авиагруппы ВС РФ в Сирии Interfax, 14 October 2016.
- Соглашение между Российской Федерацией и Сирийской Арабской Республикой о размещении авиационной группы Вооруженных Сил Российской Федерации на территории Сирийской Арабской Республики (с изменениями на 18 января 2017 года)
- Протокол к Соглашению между Российской Федерацией и Сирийской Арабской Республикой о размещении авиационной группы Вооруженных Сил Российской Федерации на территории Сирийской Арабской Республики от 26 августа 2015 года
- Россия начала формировать постоянную группировку в Тартусе и Хмеймиме TASS, 26 December 2017.
- "Russia establishing permanent presence at its Syria bases: RIA". Reuters. 26 December 2017.
- "Report from the Syria Frontline". South Front. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "New Satellite Imagery Shows Russian Su-24 Jets at the Hmeimim Air Base". Bellingcat. January 20, 2017.
Eleven Su-24 jets are visible in the January 10 and 19 satellite imagery, just as there were eleven visible on October 26, 2016.
- "Moscow to deploy S-400 defence missile system to Khmeimim airbase in Syria". RT. 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russia's cutting edge Su-35 fighters to be on 24-hour alert at Latakia base". RT. 6 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- Аналитики обнаружили в Сирии секретный российский самолет-разведчик NEWSru, 16 February 2016.
- Russia has just deployed its most advanced spyplane to Syria
- "Syria truce center launched at Khmeimim airbase, Russia hands over hotline contact to US". RT. 23 February 2016.
- Matthews, Owen. "Erdogan and Putin: Strongmen in love". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016.
The electronic intelligence was gathered, according to the report, by a Russian listening station at Hmemim Airport near Latakia, Syria, operated by the Sixth Directorate of GRU military intelligence.
- Satellite images highlight potential problems with Russia’s lone aircraft carrier 30 November 2016 Washington Post, 30 November 2016.
- Soldatkin, Vladimir (3 January 2018). Pomeroy, Robin, ed. "At least seven Russian planes destroyed by shelling at Syrian air base: Kommersant". Reuters.
At least four Su-24 bombers, two Su-35S fighters and an An-72 transport plane, as well as an ammunition depot, were destroyed by the shelling, Kommersant said on its website, citing two "military-diplomatic" sources.
- Syria war: Russia thwarts drone attack on Khmeimim airbase BBC, 7 January 2018.
- Хмеймим попал под огонь: Радикальные исламисты обстреляли из минометов российскую авиабазу в Сирии Kommersant, 3 January 2018.
- "Two military personnel killed in Hmeymim airbase shelling December 31". TASS. 4 January 2018.
- "МО РФ: двое военнослужащих погибли при обстреле авиабазы Хмеймим 31 декабря: В ведомстве также заявили, что сообщения об уничтожении боевиками семи самолетов на авиабазе не соответствуют действительности". TASS (in Russian). 4 January 2018.
- Roblin, Sebastien (4 January 2018). "Did Russia Really Lose Seven Warplanes in Syria on New Year's Eve?". Bright Mountain Media, Inc. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
According to Saponkov, no aircraft were destroyed but 10 aircraft were damaged, including six Su-24s, one Su-35S, one An-72, one An-30 turboprop observation plane and an Mi-8 transport helicopter. He also claimed that two Su-24s and one Su-35S have returned to operational status.
- TREVITHICK AND ROGOWAY, JOSEPH AND TYLER (4 January 2018). "Russia Confirms Syria Attack But Denies Seven Aircraft Got Destroyed As Photos Emerge". The /Drive. The /Drive.
- Russian military eliminates militants who shelled Hmeymim airbase 31 December TASS, 12 January 2018.
- Минобороны объявило об уничтожении террористов, обстрелявших российскую базу Хмеймим в Сирии (ВИДЕО)
- The Express 7 March 2018 Russian cargo plane crashes, killing 39
- "Russian military plane crash in Syria kills dozens". BBC. BBC. 6 March 2018.
- Syria accidentally shot down Russian military plane, Kremlin admits
- Russia Says 13 Drones Used In Attack On Its Air Base, Naval Facility In Syria Radio Liberty, 8 January 2018.
- Пентагон: атаковавшие базы РФ в Сирии беспилотники находятся в открытой продаже TASS, 9 January 2018.
- Reports of 31 drones attacking Russian facilities in Syria untrue, says defense official TASS, 10 January 2018.
- Минобороны опубликовало новое фото беспилотников, атаковавших Хмеймим RIA Novosti, 10 January 2018.
- Russian air defenses intercept attacks on its Hmeimim base in Syria: reports Xinhua, 25 April 2018.
-  Sputnik, 1 July 2018.
- Russia says drone attacks on its Syria base have increased
- "Top NATO general: Russians starting to build air defense bubble over Syria". The Washington Post. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Putin Has His Own No-Fly Zone in Syria". Bloomberg. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- ROGOWAY, TYLER (6 January 2018). "Russia's Air Base In Syria Seems To Be Under Regular Attack Now". /Drive. TheWarZone.