Khmuic languages

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Linguistic classification Austroasiatic
  • Khmuic
Glottolog khmu1236[1]

The Khmuic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic languages. Khmu is the only language in the group that has a large number of speakers.


The Khmuic languages are:

There is some disagreement over whether Bit is Khmuic or Palaungic; Svantesson believes it is most likely Palaungic,[2] and it is sometimes placed in Mangic, but most classifications here take them as Khmuic. Similarly, Phuoc (Xinh Mul) and Khang are also sometimes classified as Mangic.

The recently discovered Bumang language is also likely a Khmuic or Palaungic language. Jerold A. Edmondson considers it to be most closely related to Khang. Also, Quang Lam is a poorly attested language in Vietnam that may be closely related to Khang or Bit.


The interrelationships of these languages are uncertain. Ethnologue 19 classifies them as follows:

A provisional classification at SEALang[3] keeps Mal–Phrai, but connects Khao with Khang instead of with Bit, treats Khuen as a dialect of Khmu':

Diffloth & Proschan (1989)[edit]

Chazée (1999), citing Diffloth & Proschan (1989), has the following:

Peiros (2004)[edit]

Ilia Peiros (Peiros 2004:39) has the following:

Sidwell (2014)[edit]

Based on developments of Proto-Khmuic *aː₁, Paul Sidwell (2014) classifies the Khmuic languages as follows.


The developments of Proto-Khmuic *aː₁ according to Sidwell (2014) are:

  • Proto-Khmuic: *aː₁
    • Khmu: *aː
    • Proto-Mlabri-Pram: *ɛː
      • Proto-Pray-Pram: *iə
        • Proto-Pramic *iː

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Khmuic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Ethnolgue Report for Bit
  3. ^ SEALang SALA: Southeast Asian Linguistics Archives

External links[edit]