Khojavend (town)

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"Martuni (town)" redirects here. For other uses see Martuni (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 39°47′43″N 47°06′47″E / 39.79528°N 47.11306°E / 39.79528; 47.11306

Khojavend
Martuni
Martuni
Martuni
KhojavendMartuni is located in Azerbaijan
KhojavendMartuni
Khojavend
Martuni
Coordinates: 39°47′43″N 47°06′47″E / 39.79528°N 47.11306°E / 39.79528; 47.11306
Country De jure  Azerbaijan
De facto  Artsakh
Region
District
Martuni
Khojavend
Elevation 390 m (1,280 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Total 5,700 [1]
Time zone UTC (UTC+4)
Area code(s) (+374) 478

Khojavend (Azerbaijani: Xocavənd, Martuni (Armenian: Մարտունի)) is a town and the provincial capital of Martuni Region of the de facto independent but unrecognized Republic of Artsakh in Azerbaijan. It is located approximately 41 kilometers east of the republic's capital of Stepanakert. It has a population of 5,700 as of 2015.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The first known name of the town was "Garanlug" (azerbaijani: "Qaranluq"). At the end of the 19th century after arrival of Armenian settlements from Eastern Anatolia the town was renamed "Nijni Garanlug", later "Jumabazari" and eventually "Khonashen". In 1940 the town was renamed Martuni after Alexander Miasnikian's pseudonym. Since 1991 the town's name has been officialized as Khojavend by the Azerbaijani government.[2]

History[edit]

Church of St. Nerses the Great in Martuni, opened in 2004

Excavations in Khojavand have uncovered a number of tombs dating to the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Martuni is also home to several ruined medieval churches and remains of settlements, and khachkars have also been preserved.[3]

During Soviet times, Khojavand was the capital of the eponymous district located in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. The population of the town, grouped into kolkhozes, largely occupied itself with raising livestock, grape growing, wheat cultivation, and gardening.[3]

Martuni, and the district itself, became a frontline city during the latter stages of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. In early February 1992, Vazgen Sargsyan, the then Defence Minister of Armenia, appointed Monte Melkonian as Chief of Headquarters and assigned him to lead the defense of Martuni and the surrounding regions.[4] On October 2, 1992, Armenian armed forces occupied Khojavend region of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, 1,723 houses were burnt down in 10 villages settled by Azerbaijanis, 47 industrial and 144 agricultural facilities were devastated.[5]

Melkonian remained as regional commander until he was killed in combat in June 1993.[6]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Martuni (Khojavend)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
6.4
(43.5)
10.1
(50.2)
17.5
(63.5)
21.7
(71.1)
26.6
(79.9)
29.8
(85.6)
29.7
(85.5)
24.8
(76.6)
19.1
(66.4)
12.6
(54.7)
8.0
(46.4)
17.65
(63.78)
Average low °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.8
(35.2)
7.6
(45.7)
12.1
(53.8)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
18.4
(65.1)
15.2
(59.4)
10.2
(50.4)
4.9
(40.8)
0.6
(33.1)
8.67
(47.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.79)
26
(1.02)
36
(1.42)
49
(1.93)
68
(2.68)
55
(2.17)
23
(0.91)
23
(0.91)
28
(1.1)
44
(1.73)
31
(1.22)
25
(0.98)
428
(16.86)
Source: http://en.climate-data.org/location/21894/

Population[edit]

Ethnic structure of the population of Khojavend (town)
Ethnic group Number, 1970 sa.[7] Ratio, 1970 sa.[7] Number, 1979 sa.[8] Ratio, 1979 sa.[8]
Total 4 654 100 % 5 497 100 %
armenian 3 120 67 % 3 588 65.3 %
azerbaijani 1 482 31.8 % 1 862 33.9 %
russian 44 0.9 % 41 0.7 %
ukrainian 3 0.1 % 1 0.0 %
Other 5 0.2 % 5 0.1 %

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

A street in Martuni

Martuni is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://stat-nkr.am/files/publications/2015/LXH_tverov_2015.pdf
  2. ^ "Azərbaycan toponimlərinin ensiklopedik lüğəti". İki cilddə. I cild. Bakı, "Şərq-Qərb", 2007.
  3. ^ a b (in Armenian) Anon. «Մարտունի» (Martuni). Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. vol. vii. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1981, p. 352.
  4. ^ See Markar Melkonian (2005). My Brother's Road: An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: I.B. Tauris, pp. 207ff. ISBN 1-85043-635-5.
  5. ^ https://report.az/en/nagorno-karabakh/25-years-passed-since-occupation-of-khojavend-region/
  6. ^ Melkonian 2005, p. 264.
  7. ^ a b Ethno-Caucasus, Этнодемография Кавказа: Мартунинский район (1970 г.)
  8. ^ a b Ethno-Caucasus, Этнодемография Кавказа: Мартунинский район (1979 г.)
  9. ^ President of the Nagorno-Karabakh Repoublic (NKR) Bako Sahakyan received on Wednesday a delegation of the French Les Pennes-Mirabeau city headed by its mayor Michel Amiel
  10. ^ Les Pennes-Mirabeau and Martuni became sister cities