Khok Kruat Formation

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Khok Kruat Formation
Stratigraphic range: Aptian
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofKhorat Group
UnderliesMaha Sarakham Formation
OverliesPhu Phan Formation
PrimarySandstone, Siltstone
OtherConglomerate, Shale
Country Thailand
ExtentKhorat Plateau
Type section
Named byWard and Bunnag
Year defined1964

The Khok Kruat Formation is a rock formation found in northeastern Thailand. It is the uppermost formation of the Khorat Group.[1] It is of Aptian stage (Early Cretaceous), and is notable for its fossils of dinosaurs. It is equivalent to the Gres superieurs Formation of Laos.[2] The group is a fluvial formation consisting primarily of red siltstones and sandstones.[1]

Vertebrate fauna[edit]

The Khok Kruat Formation has yielded remains of sharks, fishes, turtles, crocodilians and pterosaurs. Phuwiangosaurus-like teeth, Siamosaurus-like teeth, and fragmentary remains of spinosaurids have also been recovered from it.[3]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Dinosaurs reported from the Khok Kruat Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images


P. sattayaraki[4]

  • Ban Dong Bang Noi

"Well preserved left dentary and an incomplete maxilla."[3]

A ceratopsian.


R. suranareae[5]

An iguanodontian ornithopod.


S. nimngami[6]

  • Ban Saphan Hin

PRC-4, a well-preserved left maxilla, PRC-5, an isolated maxillary tooth and PRC-6, a braincase.[6]

An iguanodontian ornithopod.


S. khoratensis

An iguanodontian ornithopod.


S. suwati a composite cranial and postcranial skeleton comprising premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, surangular, prearticular, articular, vertebrae, manual ungual, ischium, tibia, and pedal phalanx.

A Carcharodontosaur

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Eric Buffetaut (2009). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society of London. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-86239-275-5.
  2. ^ Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Early Cretaceous, Asia)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 563-570. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  3. ^ a b Eric Buffetaut; Varavudh Suteethorn; Jean Le Loeuff; Sasidhorn Khansubha; Haiyan Tong; Kamonlak Wongko (2005). "New dinosaur species from the Upper Triassic Upper Maleri and Lower Dharmaram formations of central India". International Conference on Geology, Geotechnology and Mineral Resources of Indochina (GEOINDO 2005): 575–581.
  4. ^ Buffetaut, Eric & Suteethorn, Varavudh. (1992). A new species of the ornithischian dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of Thailand. Palaeontology 35: 801-812.
  5. ^ Masateru Shibata, Pratueng Jintasakul, and Yoichi Azuma (2011). "A New Iguanodontian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation, Nakhon Ratchasima in Northeastern Thailand". Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition. 85 (5): 969–976. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2011.00230.x.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b Eric Buffetaut and Varavudh Suteethorn (2011). "A new iguanodontian dinosaur from the Khok Kruat Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian) of northeastern Thailand". Annales de Paléontologie. 97 (1–2): 51–62. doi:10.1016/j.annpal.2011.08.001.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)