Kholm Governorate (Russian Empire)

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Kholm Governorate
Холмская Губерния
Governorate of Russian Empire

 

1913–1915

Coat of arms of Kholm

Coat of arms
Location of Kholm
Capital Chełm
History
 •  Creation of Kholm Governorate 8 September 1913
 •  Creation of Lublin Voivodeship 1915
Area 10,460 km2 (4,039 sq mi)
Population
 •  912,000 
Density 87.2 /km2  (225.8 /sq mi)
Political subdivisions Governorates of the Russian Empire
Today part of  Poland

Kholm Governorate or Chełm Governorate (Russian: Холмская Губерния, Kholmskaya Guberniya; Ukrainian: Холмська губернія, Polish: gubernia chełmska) was an administrative unit (governorate) of the Russian Empire. Its capital was in Chełm (Russian and Ukrainian: Холм Kholm).

It was created from eastern parts of Siedlce Governorate and Lublin Governorate in 1912. It was separated from the Privislinsky Krai and joined to Kiev General Governorate as "core Russian territory", as a precaution in case Privislinsky Krai territories should be taken from the Russian Empire in an upcoming war. Another reason for this administrative change was to facilitate Russification and conversion of the non-Eastern Orthodox Christians.[1]

According to Russian statistical sources for 1914, while the area of the governorate was 10 460 km2, it was inhabited by approximately 912,095 inhabitants of whom about 10 % were Little Russians (a demonym used for Ukrainians in Tsarist Russia), 80 % Poles, 4 % Jews.[2] However, during the retreat of the Russian Army in the summer of 1915, the Russian command gave orders to evacuate the "Russian population" of Kholm region. Due to that policy, about 2/3 of the Ukrainian population was deported to the Russian Empire in June–July 1915. The number of deported population was reaching some 300,000 people and thus significantly changing the national composition in the region.

Population

In 1909 the population of the lands that were included in the Kholm province in 1912 was 703,000 people.

Nationality Percent
Ukrainians 52.6%
Poles 24.4%
Jews 15.3%
Germans 4%
Russians 3.7%

The entire population of the Kholm province, according to official statistics, was about 760 thousand people, of which Catholics were 311 thousand, Orthodox - 305 thousand, Jews - 115 thousand, Protestants - 28 thousand. Moreover, the Orthodox accounted for more than half of the population in Grubeshovsky, as well as some parts of the former Lubartovsk and Krasnostavsky districts. In parts of Tomashovo and Kholm districts, as well as in the former Wlodawa Uyezd, the number of Orthodox Christians exceeded the number of Catholics by about 5%. On January 1, 1914, in the Kholm province, out of a total population of 912,095 people, Ukrainians comprised 446,839, that is 50.1%, Poles - 30.5%, Jews - 15.8%.

The national composition of the territories of the districts, which were included in the Kholm province in 1912 according to the data of 1897 :

Uyezd Ukrainians Poles
Biłgoraj 20.8% 62.27%
Hrubieszów 59.6% 23.1%
Zamość 7.7% 73.9%
Tomaszów 49.5% 36.5%
Chełm 33.4% 34.5%

Administrative Divisions[edit]

Kholm governorate consisted of 8 Uyezd (see table below, note Russian spellings for administrative centres used).

Uyezd Admin Centre Area,
(Verst)
Population (1897)
(People)
1 Belgoraisky Uyezd Belgorai (5 846 ) 1 500.8 96 332
2 Belsky Uyezd Bela (13 090 ) 1 311.0 76 687
3 Vlodavsky Uyezd Vlodava (6 673 ) 1 900.1 98 035
4 Grubeshovsky Uyezd Grubeshov (10 639 ) 1 063.9 101 392
5 Zamosty Uyezd Zamost (14 705 ) 1 569.6 119 783
6 Konstantinovsky County Yanov (3 861 ) 1 263.0 61 333
7 Tomashevsky Uyezd Tomashev (6 233 ) 1 213.4 98 783
8 Kholmsk Uyezd Kholm (18 452 ) 1 865.9 137 585

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland, Columbia University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-231-12819-3, Print, p.278
  2. ^ http://www.hist.msu.ru/Labs/UkrBel/sklarov.htm (in Russian)

External links[edit]