Khorasani Turkic language

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Khorasani Turkic
Native to Iran
Region Greater Khorasan
Native speakers
1 million (1993)[1][2]
Turkic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kmz
Glottolog khor1269[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Khorasani Turkic (Khorasani Turkic: Xorasan Türkçesi IPA [xorɑsɑn tyrktʃesi] Persian: Zemān Torkī Xorāsānī زبان ترکی خراسانی‎‎) is a Turkic language / Oghuz language . It is spoken in northern North Khorasan Province and Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.[4]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Turkic people in North khorasan region (North Khorasan and Razavi Khorasan provinces); without Turic people that live in west and south counties of khorasan region (Nishapur County, Sabzevar County etc.)

Khorasani Turkic is spoken in the Iranian provinces of North Khorasan, near Bojnord, and Razavi Khorasan, near Sabzevar, Quchan. The Oghuz dialect spoken in western Uzbekistan is sometimes considered a dialect of Khorasani Turkic.

Dialects[edit]

Khorasani Turkic is split into North, South, and West dialects. The northern dialect is spoken in North Khorasan near Quchan; the southern in Soltanabad near Sabzevar; the western around Bojnord.

Classification and related languages[edit]

Khorasani Turkic belongs to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages, which also includes Turkish, Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Turkmen, and Salar, as well as the Oghuz dialect spoken in Uzbekistan. Khorasani Turkic is most closely related to Oghuz Uzbek and Turkmen and is close to the Azerbaijani dialects spoken in Iran.[clarification needed]

Khorasani Turkic was classified as a separate dialect by Javad Heyat for first time in the book Tarikh-e zabān o lahcayā-ye Türki (History of the Turkic dialects).[5]

According some linguistics, it's been considered linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen, but it's not considered as a dialect of either.[6]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d     k ɡ q      
Affricate         t͡ʃ d͡ʒ            
Fricative f v s z ʃ ɮ x ɣ     h  
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ        
Flap     r                
Lateral     l                
Approximant         j            

Vowels[edit]

Vowels
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open æ ɑ ɒ

Open back vowel rounding follow /u/ or /i/ muxabbat love [muxɒbbɑt] and insan human [insɒn] but yoldaşlık friendship [joldɑʃlɯk]. Some words rounding /ɑ/ follow /o/ for long vowel. May be happen not all speaker, plural have no rounding never. Persian may not come by phone a vowel, consonant challenge the sound Turkic.

Morphology[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Pluralization[edit]

Pluralization is marked on nouns with the suffix -lAr, which has the two forms -lar and -lær, depending on vowel harmony. Plular /ɑ/ never rounding even follow /u/ or /i/ for.

Case[edit]

Nouns in Khorasani Turkic take a number of case endings that change based on vowel harmony and whether they follow a vowel or a consonant:

Case After Vowels After Consonants
Nominative No Ending
Genitive niŋ/nin iŋ/in
Dative ya/yæ a/æ
Accusative ni/nɯ i/ɯ
Locative da/dæ
Ablative dan/dæn
Instrumental nan/næn

Possession[edit]

Possession is marked with a suffix on the possessed noun.

Singular Plural
First Person (I)m (I)mIz
Second Person (I)ŋ (I)ŋIz
Third Person (s)I lArI

Pronouns[edit]

Khorasani Turkic has six personal pronouns. Occasionally, personal pronouns take different case endings from regular nouns.

Singular Plural
First Person mæn bɯz
Second Person sæn siz
Third Person o olar

Verbs[edit]

Verbs are declined for tense, aspect, mood, person, and number. The infinitive form of the verb ends in -max.

Examples[edit]

Excerpt from Tulu (1989) p. 90
Translation IPA
Thus, there was a padishah named Ziyad. ɑl ɣəssa bir ziyæːd pæːdiʃæːhiː bæːɾɨdɨ
Almighty God had given him no son. xodɒːʷændi æːlæm ona hit͡ʃ ɔɣul ataː elæmɑmiʃdi
There he spoke to his vizier: "O Vizier, I have no son. What shall I do about it?" bæːdæn vaziːɾæ dədi, ej vaziːɾ, mændæ ki ɔɣul joxdɨ, mæn næ t͡ʃaːɾæ eylem
The vizier said: "Ruler of the whole world, what will you do with this possession?" vaziːɾ dədi, pɒːdiʃaː-i ɢɨblæ-ji ɒːlæm, sæn bu mɒːlɨ-æmwɒːlɨ næjlijæsæn

References[edit]

  1. ^ Doerfer, G. & Hesche, W.1993. Chorasantürkisch, Wörterlisten, Kurzgrammatiken, İndices. (Turcologica 16.) Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, pp. 7,14
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica :TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Khorasani Turkic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report for Khorasani Turkic"
  5. ^ [1] Horasan Türkçesi ne İlgili Folklor Çalışmaları
  6. ^ Sultan Tulu, “Horasan Türkçesi ile İlgili Folklor Çalışmaları”, Atatürk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Dergisi, Sayı 1, 1994, s. 48-51.

Tulu, Sultan (1989). Chorasantürkische Materialien aus Kalāt bei Esfarāyen. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. ISBN 3-922968-88-0. 

Doerfer, Gerhard; Hesche, Wolfram (1993). Chorasantürkisch: Wörterlisten, Kurzgrammatiken, Indices. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03320-7. 

External links[edit]