Khorasani Turkic language

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Khorasani Turkic
خراسان تركچىسى
Native toIran
RegionGreater Khorasan
Native speakers
886,000 (2014)[1]
Turkic
Persian alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3kmz
Glottologkhor1269[2]
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Khorasani Turkic (Khorasani Turkic: خراسان تركچىسى, Pronunciation: /xorɑsɑn tyrktʃesi/; Persian: Zebān-e Torkī-ye Xorāsānī زبان ترکی خراسانی‎) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in the North Khorasan Province and the Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.[3]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Turkic peoples of the North Khorasan region ( North Khorasan and Razavi Khorasan provinces of Iran ); excluding Turkic peoples inhabiting Western and Southern counties of Khorasan region (Nishapur County, Sabzevar County etc.)

Khorasani Turkic is spoken in the Iranian provinces of North Khorasan near Bojnord and Razavi Khorasan near Sabzevar, Quchan. The Oghuz dialect spoken in western Uzbekistan is sometimes considered a dialect of Khorasani Turkic.

Dialects[edit]

Khorasani Turkic is split into North, South, and West dialects. The northern dialect is spoken in North Khorasan near Quchan; the southern in Soltanabad, near Sabzevar; the western, around Bojnord.

Classification and related languages[edit]

Khorasani Turkic belongs to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages, which also includes Turkish, Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Turkmen, and Salar, as well as the Oghuz dialect spoken in Uzbekistan. Khorasani Turkic is most closely related to Oghuz Uzbek and Turkmen and is close to the Azerbaijani dialects spoken in Iran.[clarification needed]

Khorasani Turkic was first classified as a separate dialect by Javad Heyat in the book Tarikh-e zabān o lahcayā-ye Türki (History of the Turkic dialects).[4]

According to some linguists, it should be considered intermediate linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen, although it is sufficiently distinct not to be considered a dialect of either.[5]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d     k ɡ q      
Affricate         t͡ʃ d͡ʒ            
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ     h  
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ        
Flap     r                
Lateral     l                
Approximant         j            

Vowels[edit]

Vowels
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open æ ɑ ɒ

The open back vowel is rounded when followed by /u/ or /i/: muxabbat love /muxɒbbɑt/, insan human /insɒn/, but yoldaşlık friendship /joldɑʃlɯk/. It can also be rounded by a following long /o/. This may not happen for all speakers, and plurals never have any rounding. Persian may not come by phone a vowel, consonant challenge the sound Turkic.[clarification needed]

Morphology[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Pluralization[edit]

Pluralization is marked on nouns with the suffix /-lar/, which has the two forms /-lar/ and /-lær/, depending on vowel harmony. Plural /ɑ/ is never rounded, even when it follows /u/ or /i/.

Case[edit]

Nouns in Khorasani Turkic take a number of case endings that change based on vowel harmony and whether they follow a vowel or a consonant:

Case After Vowels After Consonants
Nominative No Ending
Genitive niŋ/nin iŋ/in
Dative ja/jæ a/æ
Accusative ni/nɯ i/ɯ
Locative da/dæ
Ablative dan/dæn
Instrumental nan/næn

Possession[edit]

Possession is marked with a suffix on the possessed noun.

Singular Plural
First Person (I)m (I)mIz
Second Person (I)ŋ (I)ŋIz
Third Person (s)I lArI

Pronouns[edit]

Khorasani Turkic has six personal pronouns. Occasionally, personal pronouns take different case endings from regular nouns.

Singular Plural
First Person mæn bɯz
Second Person sæn siz
Third Person o olar

Verbs[edit]

Verbs are declined for tense, aspect, mood, person, and number. The infinitive form of the verb ends in -max.

Examples[edit]

Excerpt from Tulu (1989) p. 90
Translation IPA In Latin Alphabet Arabic script (Iran)
Thus, there was a padishah named Ziyad. ɑl ɣəssa bir ziyæːd pæːdiʃæːhiː bæːɾɨdɨ Al ğässa bir ziüäd pädişähi bärıdı .ال غسا بیر زیود پدیشهی بـهریدی
Almighty God had given him no son. xodɒːʷændi æːlæm ona hit͡ʃ ɔɣul ataː elæmɑmiʃdi Xodavändi äläm ona hiç oğul ata elämamişdi. .خوداوندی آلم اونا هیچ اوغول اتا ایلهمامیشدی
There he spoke to his vizier: "O Vizier, I have no son. What shall I do about it?" bæːdæn vaziːɾæ dədi, ej vaziːɾ, mændæ ki ɔɣul joxdɨ, mæn næ t͡ʃaːɾæ eylem Bädän vazirä dädi: "Ey vazir, mändä ki oğul yoxdı. Män nä çarä eylem?" بدن وازیره دهدی: «ای وازیر, منده کی اوغول یوخدی. من نه چاره ایولیم»؟
The vizier said: "Ruler of the whole world, what will you do with this possession?" vaziːɾ dədi, pɒːdiʃaː-i ɢɨblæ-ji ɒːlæm, sæn bu mɒːlɨ-æmwɒːlɨ næjlijæsæn Vazir dädi: "Padişai qıbläyi aläm, sän bu malıämvalı näyliyäsän?" وازیر دهدی: «پادیشای قیبلنهیی آلم, سن بو مالیموالی نیلیسن»؟

References[edit]

  1. ^ Khorasani Turkish - Ethnologue
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khorasani Turkish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Ethnologue report for Khorasani Turkic"
  4. ^ [1] Horasan Türkçesi ne İlgili Folklor Çalışmaları
  5. ^ Sultan Tulu, “Horasan Türkçesi ile İlgili Folklor Çalışmaları”, Atatürk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Dergisi, Sayı 1, 1994, s. 48-51.

Tulu, Sultan (1989). Chorasantürkische Materialien aus Kalāt bei Esfarāyen. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. ISBN 3-922968-88-0.

Doerfer, Gerhard; Hesche, Wolfram (1993). Chorasantürkisch: Wörterlisten, Kurzgrammatiken, Indices. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03320-7.

External links[edit]