"Khowar" redirects here. It is not to be confused with
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Khowar, also known as Chitrali, Qashqari and Arniya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic branch. 
"Kho" means the people of Chitral, "War" means language. It is spoken by the
Kho people in Chitral district, Ghizer district of Gilgit-Baltistan (including the Yasin Valley, Golaghmuli Valley, Phandar Ishkoman and Gupis), and in parts of Upper Swat. Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi, having significant populations. It is spoken as a second language in the rest of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in Afghanistan, China and Tajikistan.
The native name of the language is
Khō-wār, meaning "language" (  wār) of the Kho people. During the British Raj it was known to the English as Chitrālī (a derived adjective from the name of the Chitral region) or Qāshqārī. Among the  Pathans and Badakshis it is known as Kashkār. Another name, used by Leitner in 1880, is  Arnyiá or  Arniya, derived from the Shina language name for the part of the Yasin where Khowar is spoken. 
Phonology [ edit ]
Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically.
The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.   
Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of
long vowels /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely." Unlike the neighboring and related  Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels. 
Consonants [ edit ]
The phonemic status of
/tsʰ/ is unclear in the sources
Khowar, like many
Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions. 
Writing system [ edit ]
Since the early twentieth century Khowar has been written in the
Khowar alphabet, which is based on the Urdu alphabet and uses the Nasta'liq script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition. Today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been occasionally written in a version of the Roman script called Roman Khowar since the 1960s.
Dialects [ edit ]
Swati Khowar (Swat Kohistan)
Lotkuhiwar (Lotkuh Valley)
Gherzikwar (Ghizer Valley)
Gilgiti Khowar (Gilgit-Baltistan), spoken by a few families in Gilgit city.
Khowar media [ edit ]
Television channels [ edit ]
These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar.
Newspapers [ edit ]
Gallery [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Khowar at (19th ed., 2016) Ethnologue
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Khowar". . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Glottolog 2.7
^ electricpulp.com. "DARDESTĀN – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
^ a b c Grierson, George A. (1919). . Volume VIII , Part 2, Linguistic Survey of India . Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 133. Indo-Aryan family. North-western group. Specimens of the Dardic or Piśācha languages (including Kāshmiri)
^ O'Brien, Donatus James Thomond (1895). Grammar and vocabulary of the K̲h̲owâr dialect (Chitrâli). Lahore: Civil and military gazette press. p. i.
^ Leitner, Gottlieb William (1880). . Lahore: Dilbagroy. p. 43 Kafiristan. Section 1: the Bashgeli Kafirs and their language . Retrieved . 2016-06-06
^ a b Edelman, D. I. (1983). The Dardic and Nuristani Languages. Moscow: Institut vostokovedenii︠a︡ (Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR). p. 210.
^ a b Bashir, Elena L. (1988), "Topics in Kalasha Syntax: An areal and typological perspective" (PDF), Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan: 37–40
^ Bashir, Elena L., Maula Nigah and Rahmat Karim Baig, A Digital Khowar-English Dictionary with Audio
^ Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan (PDF), National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6
Additional references [ edit ]
Bashir, Elena (2001) "Spatial Representation in Khowar".
Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Decker, D. Kendall (1992). . Languages of Chitral ISBN 969-8023-15-1. L'Homme, Erik (1999)
Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l'ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L'Harmattan
Morgenstierne, Georg (1936) "Iranian Elements in Khowar". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
Badshah Munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher. Pakistan Morgenstierne, Georg (1947) "Some Features of Khowar Morphology".
Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo. Morgenstierne, Georg (1957)
Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S. K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84–98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267–72]
Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) . Peshawar. Khowar-English Dictionary ISBN 0-923891-15-3. Decker, Kendall D. (1992).
Languages of Chitral (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 5). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 257 pp. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.
External links [ edit ]