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Khreshchatyk Street
Вулиця Хрещатик
Вулиця Хрещатик травнева.JPG
Former name(s)Wacław Worowski Street (1923–1937), Eichhornstraße (1941–1943)
Length1,200 m (3,900 ft)
LocationKyiv, Ukraine
Postal code01001
Coordinates50°26′50″N 30°31′19″E / 50.44722°N 30.52194°E / 50.44722; 30.52194Coordinates: 50°26′50″N 30°31′19″E / 50.44722°N 30.52194°E / 50.44722; 30.52194
FromEuropean Square
Maidan Nezalezhnosti
ToBessarabska Square

Khreshchatyk (Ukrainian: Хрещатик, [xreˈʃt͡ʃɑtɪk]) is the main street of Kyiv, Ukraine. The street has a length of 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi). It stretches from the European Square (northeast) through the Maidan and to Bessarabska Square (southwest) where the Besarabsky Market is located. Along the street are the offices of the Kyiv City Council which contains both the city's council and the state administration, the Main Post Office, the Ministry of Agrarian Policy, the State Committee of Television and Radio Broadcasting, the Central Department Store (TsUM), the Ukrainian House, and others.

The entire street was completely destroyed during World War II by the retreating Red Army troops and rebuilt in the neo-classical style of post-war Stalinist architecture. Among prominent buildings that did not survive were the Kyiv City Duma, the Kyiv Stock Exchange, Hotel Natsional, and the Ginzburg House. The street has been significantly renovated during the modern period of Ukraine's independence. Today, the street is still significant to administrative and business city organizations, as well as a popular tourist attraction.

As of 2010, Khreshchatyk is included in the Top 20 of most expensive shopping streets in Europe.[1]


The name of Khreshchatyk is believed to be derived from the Slavic word krest or khrest (cross). It lies in a valley that is crossed by several ravines. When looked at from above, the valley resembles a cross. A small river, the Khreshchatyk River, a tributary of Kyiv's Lybid River, ran along much of the valley, and still runs underground along much of the street.

Russian Empire[edit]

For a long time, Khreshchatyk remained an undeveloped ravine between several neighborhoods of Kyiv: Podil – the commercial neighbourhood, the Upper City – the administrative neighbourhood, and Pechersk neighbourhood built around the Pechersk Lavra ("Monastery of the Caves").

The development of the area only started in the 19th century. The ravine was filled and accelerating construction quickly followed. By the middle 19th century, Khreshchatyk was developed as Kyiv's main thoroughfare in the climate of rapid growth of the city during the Industrial Revolution in Imperial Russia. The street soon became the center of Kyiv's commercial life, as the city itself developed into the main commercial center in the Empire's south-west.

In 1892, the first electric tram line in the Russian Empire ran in Kyiv and by 1894, the line was extended to Khreshchatyk. The street was served by the tram for about 40 years.[citation needed]


During the period of chaos after the Russian Revolution of 1917, many buildings on Khreshchatyk were heavily damaged as the city changed hands many times between Ukrainian, German, Polish, and Russian Bolshevik forces. On 9 May 1920, the Polish army under General Rydz-Smigly celebrated their capture of Kyiv by a ceremonial parade on Khreshchatyk. They were driven out by the Russian Bolshevik counter-offensive within weeks.


The City Duma building was heavily damaged during the World War II bombings of Kyiv and was completely demolished after the war.

Between the wars, Khreshchatyk underwent major development and reconstruction. Between 1923 and 1937, the street was named after V.V. Vorovsky, an early Bolshevik diplomat assassinated in Switzerland. In the mid-1930s, the tram lines were deconstructed, and the trams replaced by trolleybuses.

World War II[edit]

During World War II, almost every building on the street was mined with explosives by the retreating Red Army troops. In September 1941, after German troops occupied the city, explosions were set off by radio-controlled fuses from over 400 kilometres away. The demolition of over three hundred buildings on Khreshchatyk became the first operation in history where the long-distance radio-controlled explosions were used for military purposes. Much of the surviving historic center of Kyiv was demolished by Soviet authorities after the war. This unprecedented method of warfare caused panic and brought heavy casualties among both the occupiers and city's remaining civilian population.

Under German occupation, the street was renamed Eichhornstrasse, after the German World War I Field Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn supreme commander of Army Group Kyiv (Heeresgruppe Kiew) and simultaneously military governor of Ukraine during the previous German occupation, who had been assassinated on the Khreshchatyk road in Kyiv by the social revolutionary Boris Donskoi in 1918.[2]

Soviet Ukraine[edit]

Khreshchatyk and its Stalinist architecture seen in the early 1980s.

Following the war, Khreshchatyk was rebuilt in the 1950s and 1960s. The street was widened to 75–100 meters and new buildings were erected in the Neoclassical Stalinist architectural style. Important buildings of the new ensemble include the City Council House (Kyivrada), the Central Post Office (Poshtamt) and Trade-Union House (Budynok Profspilok).

It was used for demonstrations and parades in honor of 1 May (until 1969), Victory Day (9 May) and the October Revolution.

The street was one of Kyiv's first landmarks that was serviced by the Kyiv Metro in 1960, (see Khreshchatyk (Kyiv Metro)) and was the system's first transfer station when the second line opened in 1976.

On 1 May 1986, a few days after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Soviet authorities held a traditional May Day parade on Khreshchatyk, to "calm people" and "prevent panic" caused by the disaster. Thousands of Kyivans, including many children, were exposed to dangerous doses of radiation.

In the late 1980s, the porch of the Central Post Office building partially collapsed during heavy rain, killing a dozen people and injuring some. The porch was rebuilt in the following years according to its original design.

On 24 July 1990, the first ceremonial raising of the Ukrainian national flag took place on Khreshchatyk, on the large flagstaff of the Kyiv City Council. Due to its central location, the street became the traditional place for political rallies.

Independent Ukraine[edit]

Imperial, Stalinist and modern buildings on the Khreshchatyk

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Ukraine becoming independent, the avenue gained a wider context as the central street of the country. During the late 1990s, a complex reconstruction took place, and most of the buildings were cosmetically cleaned up from elements, structurally upgraded and enhanced with colourful illumination. Modern electronic billboards and screens were also installed.

Starting with the third Independence Day of Ukraine, a military parade through Khreshchatyk has been held irregularly.[3][4] Since 1994, the Kyiv Parade has been held 18 times out of 28 years.

In 2000–01, Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti, became the centre of the mass protest campaign known as Ukraine without Kuchma. Allegedly to keep the protesters out, the city Mayor (Oleksandr Omelchenko at that time) ordered a major reconstruction of the street, which led to the significant rebuilding of Maidan Nezalezhnosti, and construction of two large underground shopping malls.

In the winter of 2004, Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti became the centre of the main public protests of the Orange Revolution. The protesters' main tent encampment was situated in the street, and many Khreshchatyk buildings served as makeshift feeding and warming sites for the protesters, including the City Council House. At its peak, over a million people from all around Ukraine attended the rally. In late 2013 Khreshchatyk also became one of the centres of the Euromaidan protests.[5]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, anti-tank obstacles were placed on Khreshchatyk.[6] Due to the mobilization of Ukrainian forces and further threat of Russian forces shelling civilians, the Kyiv parade was cancelled; instead the burnt remains of numerous Russian military vehicles and artilleries were displayed along Khreshchatyk.[7] It was reported by The Guardian that Russian forces were expecting to be able to parade down Khreshchatyk within three days of the start of the invasion and that some soldiers had been issued ceremonial uniforms for that purpose.[8]


Kyiv Central Department Store

Khreshchatyk is a popular attraction for tourists. During weekends and public holidays, the street is closed to road traffic and reserved for pedestrians.

Khreshchatyk contains many up-market stores, cafés, and restaurants.

Points of interest situated along Khreshchatyk are the following (south-west to north-east):

Khreshchatyk is a traditional setting for outdoor concerts and festivals, and is frequented by street musicians. Major parades and celebrations are held on Kyiv Day (the last Sunday of May), Victory Day (9 May) and Ukrainian Independence Day (24 August). The Khreshchatyk Choir is named after the street.

Significant buildings[edit]

Streets and Squares[edit]



  • In the 1980s Alexander Rosenbaum wrote a song dedicated to the street "Khreschatyk" (the song became famous by the chansonnier Mikhail Shufutinsky).
  • In 1994 Pavlo Zibrov wrote a song to the words Yuri Rybchinsky dedicated to the street "Khreschatyk", which was shot a video clip.
  • Since 1999, on the street weekly for 20 years, they have been filming the Ukrainian television program "Karaoke on Independence Square".



  1. ^ "Khreshchatyk rated among Europe's Top 20 most expensive streets » Accents » news »". Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
  2. ^ Mirror of the Century Archived 12 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine in Zerkalo Nedeli, 13–19 July 1996.
  3. ^ "A consolideted unit of the Army Academy is taken part in the preparations for Independence Day in Kyiv | Hetman Petro Sahaidachnyi National Army Academy". Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  4. ^ Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives on Nationalism by Taras Kuzio, ibidem Press, 2007, ISBN 3898218155 (352)
    Language Policy and Discourse on Languages in Ukraine Under President Viktor Yanukovych by Michael Moser, ibidem Press, 2013, ISBN 3838204972 (page 102)
    Ukraine military parade marks 25 years of independence, BBC News (24 August 2016)
  5. ^ Over 10,000 demonstrators rallying on Independence Square in Kyiv – Interior Ministry Archived 26 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
    Activists pitching army tents at Independence Square in Kyiv Archived 3 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
  6. ^ Ukraine: Artists in Kyiv work 12 hours a day making anti-tank obstacles Archived 24 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine (4 March 2022)
  7. ^ Peterson, Nolan (22 August 2022). "KYIV READIES FOR UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE DAY WITH DISPLAY OF RUINED RUSSIAN TANKS". Coffee Or Die. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
    Hayda, Julia (24 August 2022). "Kyiv hosts a different kind of parade to celebrate Ukraine's independence day". National Public Radio. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
    McKenzie, David (24 August 2022). "See how the streets of Kyiv look on Ukraine's Independence Day". CNN Newsroom. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  8. ^ Dan Sabbagh; Isobel Koshiw (28 December 2022). "The battle for Kyiv revisited: the litany of mistakes that cost Russia a quick win". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  • Анатолій Кудрицький, ed. (1981). Київ. Енциклопедичний довідник (in Ukrainian). УРЕ. LCC DK508.923.K95 1981.
  • Александр Анисимов (1992). Скорбное бесчувствие. На добрую память о Киеве, или грустные прогулки по городу, которого нет (in Russian). Tabachuk Ltd. ISBN 5-7707-2150-2.
  • Анатолій Кудрицький, ed. (1995). Вулиці Києва, Довідник (in Ukrainian). УЕ. ISBN 5-88500-070-0.

External links[edit]