Khu Liên

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Sri Mara (Tamil: திருமாறன், Thai: ศรีมาระ fl. 137 or 192 AD) was the founder of the kingdom of Champa.[1][2]:43

He is known in Chinese records as Qū Lián (連), or Zhulian, which in Vietnamese pronunciation is Khu Liên (also 區連). Attempts have also been made to identify Sri Mara with Fan Shih-man of Funan (circa 230 CE).[3][4][5] on a stele recorded as Sri Mara (Chinese 释利摩罗).[6]

He was born in Tượng Lâm (Vietnamese pronunciation of Chinese 象林, in what is today Quảng Nam Province of Vietnam) an area of tension between the Han Dynasty and the natives of Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese pronunciation of Chinese Lin Yi 林邑, the precursor to Champa). In 137 or 192 AD,[7] he defeated the Chinese prefect and declared himself king of Lin-yi.[8]:323 This is considered the official founding of Champa, though Cham legend dates the founding to be much earlier.[9]

In 248, he led the Cham in looting and razing Jiaozhi and Cu'u-cho'n. The Cham then defeated the fleet sent to repulse them, at Bay of the Battle.[10]:26–27

Preceded by
King of Champa
Succeeded by


  1. ^ Milton Walter Meyer Asia: A Concise History 1997 Page 63 "around the beginning of the third century a Hindu ruler named Sri Mara founded the kingdom of Champa and conquered ..."
  2. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  3. ^ Dougald J. W. O'Reilly Early Civilizations of Southeast Asia - 2007 -Page 131 "preferred to identify Sri Mara with Fan Shi-man of Funan (circa 230 C.E.). This view is indirectly supported by Filliozat (1968) and Jacques (1969, 123).
  4. ^ H. R. Chakrabartty Vietnam, Kampuchea, Laos, bound in comradeship: a panoramic study 1988 - Volume 2 - Page 423 "Maintaining his tempo of triumphs, Fan Shih-man, or Sri Mara, conquered most of Siam, central Burma and northern Malaya.5 According to Chinese sources, the Great King died in action while campaigning in Chin-lin, meaning 'Frontier of ."
  5. ^ Kelley Ross webpage "The Periphery of China -- Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, and Mongolia"
  6. ^ 邱新民, 东南亚文化交通史 Singapore Society of Asian Studies - 1984- Page 184 "晋书卷九十七林邑国传说: "后汉末,县功曹姓区,有子日连,杀令自立为王,子孙相承"。其详细情形,据水经注卷三十六引林邑记说: "国无文史,失其籌代,世数难详"。但据一般的研究,以为林邑王统的始祖,是碑文中所载的释利摩罗"
  7. ^ 程爱勤 叶调国研究 1993 Page 131 "《水经注》的记载则明显表明区怜是范熊的远夕卜祖,其间已"失其纂代,世数难详。"而《隋书》的记载则只能理解为区连是范熊的舅舅,范熊为区连的外甥。前面已经说过,林邑的建国只有二个年代,或者 137 年,或者 192 年。"
  8. ^ Higham, C., 2014, Early Mainland Southeast Asia, Bangkok: River Books Co., Ltd., ISBN 9786167339443
  9. ^ Nguyễn Khắc Viện Vietnam, a Long History reprint 2002 Page 107 "... Cù Mông Pass (present-day Quảng Nam and Nghĩa Bình provinces) which Chinese historians called Lin Yi, or Lâm Ấp in ... Under the Gangaraja Dynasty (6[th] to 8[th] century) which comprised nine successive kings, the capital was transferred to "
  10. ^ Maspero, G., 2002, The Champa Kingdom, Bangkok: White Lotus Co., Ltd., ISBN 9747534991