Khusrau Mirza

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Khusrau Mirza
Mirza[1]
Emperor Jahangir receiving his two sons, an album-painting in gouache on paper, c 1605-06.jpg
Emperor Jahangir receiving his two sons, Khusrau and Parviz, an album-painting in gouache on paper, c 1605-06.
Born 16 August 1587
Lahore,Mughal Empire
Died 26 January 1622(1622-01-26) (aged 34)
Deccan
Burial Allahabad
Issue Dawar Bakhsh Mirza
Buland Akhtar Mirza
Gurshasp Mirza
Hoshang Banu Begum
Father Jahangir
Mother Manbhawati Bai
Religion Islam
Occupation Prince of the Mughal Empire

Khusrau Mirza (Urdu: خسرو مِرزا; August 16, 1587 – January 26, 1622) or Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.[2]

Early life[edit]

Khusrau was born in Lahore on August 16, 1587.[3] His mother, Manbhawati Bai (who was given the title Shah Begam after his birth), was the daughter of Raja Bhagwant Das of Amber (Jaipur), head of the Kachhwaha clan of Rajputs. She committed suicide on May 16, 1605 by consuming opium.[4]

Family[edit]

Khusrau's first wife and chief consort was the daughter of extremely powerful, Mirza Aziz Koka known as Khan Azam, son of Jiji Anaga, Emperor Akbar's foster mother. When Khusrau's marriage was arranged with her, an order was given that S'aid Khan Abdullah Khan and Mir Sadr Jahan should convey 100,000 rupees[5] as sachaq to the Mirza's house by the way of Sihr baha.[6] She was his favourite wife, and was the mother of his eldest son Prince Dawar Bakhsh Mirza,[7] and his second son Prince Buland Akhtar Mirza born on 11 March 1609,[8] and died in infancy.

Another of Khusrau's wives was the daughter of Jani Beg Tarkhan of Thatta.[9] She was the sister of Mirza Ghazi Beg. The marriage was arranged by Khusrau's grand father, Emperor Akbar.[10] Another of his wives was the daughter of Muqim, son of Mihtar Fazil Rikabdar (stirrup holder). She was the mother of Prince Gurshasp Mirza born on 8 April 1616.[11][12] Khusrau had a daughter Hoshang Banu Begum, born in about 1605, and married to Prince Hoshang Mirza, son of Prince Daniyal Mirza.[13]

Rebellion and aftermath[edit]

In 1605, the emperor Akbar died. Akbar had been deeply disappointed with Khusrau's father Jahangir. Perhaps due to this background, Khusrau rebelled against his father in 1606 to secure the throne for himself.

Khusrau is captured and presented to Jahangir.
Khusrau compelled to watch his supporters impaled

Khusrau left Agra on April 6, 1606[14] with 350 horsemen on the pretext of visiting the tomb of Akbar at nearby Sikandra. In Mathura, he was joined by Hussain Beg with about 3000 horsemen. In Panipat, he was joined by Abdur Rahim, the provincial dewan (administrator) of Lahore. When Khusrau reached Taran Taran near Amritsar, he received the blessings of Guru Arjan Dev.

Khusrau laid siege on Lahore, defended by Dilawar Khan. Jahangir soon reached Lahore with a large army and Khusrau was defeated in the battle of Bhairowal. He and his followers tried to flee towards Kabul but they were captured by Jahangir's army while crossing the Chenab.[15]

Khusrau was first brought to Delhi, where a novel punishment was meted out to him. He was seated in grand style on an elephant and paraded down Chandni Chowk, while on both sides of the narrow street, the noblemen and barons who had supported him were held at knife-point on raised platforms. As the elephant approached each such platform, the luckless supporter was impaled on a stake (through his bowels), while Khusrau was compelled to watch the grisly sight and listen to the screams and pleas of those who had supported him. This was repeated numerous times through the entire length of Chandni Chowk.

The Mausoleum of Khusrau Mirza in Khusro Bagh, Allahabad

Khusrau was then blinded (in 1607) and imprisoned in Agra. However, his eyesight was never completely lost. In 1616, he was handed over to Asaf Khan, the brother of his step-mother Noor Jehan. In 1620, he was handed over to his younger brother Prince Khurram (later known as emperor Shah Jahan), who incidentally was Asaf Khan's son-in-law. In 1622, Khusrau was killed on the orders of his Prince Khurram.[16][17]

Posterity[edit]

After the death of Jahangir in 1627, Khusrau's son, Prince Dawar was briefly made ruler of the Mughal Empire by Asaf Khan to secure the Mughal throne for Shah Jahan.

On Jumada-l awwal 2, 1037 AH (December 30, 1627[18]), Shah Jahan was proclaimed as the emperor at Lahore. On Jumada-l awwal 26, 1037 AH (January 23, 1628[18]), Dawar, his brother Garshasp, uncle Shahryar, as well as Tahmuras and Hoshang, sons of the deceased Prince Daniyal, were all put to death by Asaf Khan,[19] who was ordered by Shah Jahan to send them "out of the world", which he faithfully carried out.[20]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mughla title Mirza, the title of Mirza and not Khan or Padshah, which were the titles of the Mongol rulers.
  2. ^ The Grandees of the Empire Ain-i-Akbari, by Abul Fazl, Volume I, Chpt. 30.
  3. ^ Beveridge, H. (tr.) (1939, reprint 2000) The Akbar Nama of Abu'l-Fazl, Vol.III, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-094-0, p.799
  4. ^ Beveridge, H. (tr.) (1939, reprint 2000) The Akbar Nama of Abu'l-Fazl, Vol.III, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-094-0, p.1239
  5. ^ Smart, Ellen S.; Walker, Daniel S. (1985). Pride of the princes: Indian art of the Mughal era in the Cincinnati Art Museum. Cincinnati Art Museum. p. 27. 
  6. ^ Mukhia, Harbans (April 15, 2008). The Mughals of India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-470-75815-1. 
  7. ^ Shujauddin, Mohammad; Shujauddin, Razia (1967). The Life and Times of Noor Jahan. Caravan Book House. p. 70. 
  8. ^ Jahangir, Rogers & Beveridge 1909, p. 153.
  9. ^ Habib, Irfan (1997). Akbar and His India. Oxford University Press. p. 50. 
  10. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Washington, D. C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 30, 136. 
  11. ^ Jahangir, Rogers & Beveridge 1909, p. 321.
  12. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Washington, D. C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 192. 
  13. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Washington, D. C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 97, 436. 
  14. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.)(2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p.179
  15. ^ The Flight of Khusrau The Tuzk-e-Jahangiri Or Memoirs Of Jahangir, Alexander Rogers and Henry Beveridge. Royal Asiatic Society, 1909–1914. Vol. I, Chapter 3. p 51, 62-72., Volume 1, chpt. 20
  16. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1991, reprint 2007) History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, pp.126-7
  17. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (Jan 15, 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1163. Retrieved Nov 3, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b Taylor, G.P. (1907). Some Dates Relating to the Mughal Emperors of India in Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, New Series, Vol.3, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society of Bengal, p.59
  19. ^ Death of the Emperor (Jahangir) The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, Sir H. M. Elliot, London, 1867–1877, vol 6.
  20. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.)(2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.197-8

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jahangir, Emperor; Rogers, Alexander; Beveridge, Henry (1909). The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or, Memoirs of Jahangir. Translated by Alexander Rogers. Edited by Henry Beveridge. London Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 78, 81, 279. 

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