Khwaja Ahmad Abbas
|Khwaja Ahmad Abbas / K. A. Abbas|
|Born||Khwaja Ahmad Abbas
7 June 1914
Panipat, Punjab Province, British India
(now in Haryana, India)
|Died||1 June 1987
|Occupation||Film director, Screenwriter, Novelist, Journalist, columnist|
Khwaja Ahmad Abbas (Urdu/Persian: خواجہ احمد عباس ; Hindi: ख़्वाजा अहमद अब्बास) (7 June 1914 – 1 June 1987), popularly known as K. A. Abbas, was an Indian film director, novelist, screenwriter, and a journalist in the Urdu, Hindi and English languages. He was the maker of important Hindi films such as Saat Hindustani (1969) and Do Boond Pani (1972), both of which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, Palme d'Or nominated (Cannes Film Festival) Pardesi (1957) and Shehar Aur Sapna (1963), which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film.
As a screenwriter, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas is considered one of pioneers of Indian parallel or neo-realistic cinema, having penned films like the Palme d'Or winner at the Cannes Film Festival, Neecha Nagar (1946), Jagte Raho, Dharti Ke Lal, Awara, Saat Hindustani and Naya Sansar. Apart from this, he wrote the best of Raj Kapoor films, Awaara, Shri 420, Mera Naam Joker, Bobby and Henna.
His column ‘Last Page’, holds the distinction of being one of the longest-running columns in the history of Indian journalism. The column began in 1935, in Bombay Chronicle, and moved to the Blitz after the Chronicle's closure, where it continued until his death in 1987. He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1969, by Government of India.
Early life and education
Khwaja Ahmad Abbas was born in Panipat, Haryana. He was born in the home of celebrated Urdu poet, 'Khwaja Altaf Husain Hali', a student of Mirza Ghalib. His grandfather Khwaja Gulam Abbas was one of the chief rebels of the 1857 Rebellion movement, and the first martyr of Panipat to be blown from the mouth of a cannon. Abbas's father Ghulam-Us-Sibtain graduated from Aligarh Muslim University, was a tutor of a prince and a prosperous businessman, who modernised the preparation of Unani medicines. Abbas's mother, 'Masroor Khatoon', was the daughter of Sajjad Husain, an enlightened educationist. Abbas took his early education in 'Hali Muslim High School', which was established by his great grand father Hali. He had his early education till 7th in Panipat. He was instructed to read the Arabic text of the Quran and his childhood dreams swung at the compulsive behest of his father. Abbas completed his matriculation at the age of fifteen. He did his B.A. with English literature in 1933 and LL.B. in 1935 from Aligarh Muslim University.
Abbas's family tree goes back to Aiyub Ansari, the companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abbas began his career as a journalist, when he joined 'National Call', a New Delhi based paper after finishing his B.A.. Later while studying law in 1934, started 'Aligarh Opinion', India's first university students' weekly during the pre-independence period.
After completing his education at Aligarh Muslim University, Abbas joined the Bombay Chronicle in 1935. He occasionally served a film critic, but after the film critic of the paper died, he was made the editor of the film section.
While at the Bombay Chronicle, (1935–1947), he started a weekly column called 'Last Page', which he continued when he joined the Blitz magazine. "The Last Page", (‘Azad Kalam’ in the Urdu edition), thus became the longest-running political column in India's history (1935–87). A collection of these columns was later published as two books. He continued to write for The Blitz and Mirror till his last days.
In 1945, he made his directorial debut with a film based on the Bengal famine of 1943, Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth) for the Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA). In 1951, he founded his own production company called Naya Sansar, which consistently produced films that were socially relevant including, Anhonee, Munna, Rahi (1953), based on a Mulk Raj Anand story, was on the plight of workers on tea plantations, the National Film Award winner, Shehar Aur Sapna (1964) and Saat Hindustani (1969), which won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration and is also remembered as Bollywood icon, Amitabh Bachchan's debut film.
A prolific writer, and novelist, during his illustrious career spanning five decades, Abbas wrote over 73 books in English, Hindi and Urdu. Abbas was considered a leading light of the Urdu short story. His best known fictional work remains 'Inquilab', based Communal violence, which made him a household name in Indian literature. Like Inquilab, many of his works were translated into many Indian, and foreign languages, like Russian, German, Italian, French and Arabic.
Abbas interviewed several renowned personalities in literary and non-literary fields, including the Russian Prime Minister Khrushchov, American President Roosevelt, Charlie Chaplin, Mao-Tse-Tung and Yuri Gagarin.
His autobiography, I Am not an Island: An Experiment in Autobiography, was first published in 1977 and later released in 2010.
Awards and honours
- 1960: All India Certificate of Merit for the Second Best Children's Film - Idd Mubarak
- 1964: National Film Award for Best Feature Film: Shehar Aur Sapna
- 1946: Wrote screenplay, for Neecha Nagar, which became the only Indian film to win a Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) at the Cannes Film Festival.
- 1942: BFJA Awards: Best Screenplay: Naya Sansar (1941)
- 1957 Cannes Film Festival: Golden Palm: Pardesi: Nominated 
- 1964: Maharashtra State Award: Fakira
- 1965: International Film Festival Awards (Santa Barbara, USA)): Hamara Ghar
- 1966: Jury Member: 16th Berlin International Film Festival
- 1970: Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration: Saat Hindustani
- 1972: Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration: Do Boond Paani
- 1980: Gold Award for direction: The Naxalites
Haryana State Robe of Honour for literary achievements in 1969, the prestigious Ghalib Award for his contribution to Urdu prose literature in 1983
Vorosky Literary Award of the Soviet Union in 1984, Urdu Akademi Delhi Special Award 1984, Maharashtra State Urdu Akademi Award in 1985 and the Soviet Award for his contribution to the cause of Indo-Soviet Friendship in 1985.
- Naya Sansar (1941) – Screenplay, Story
- Neecha Nagar (1946) - Screenwriter
- Dharti Ke Lal (1946) - Screenwriter, Director, Producer
- Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946) – Screenwriter, Story
- Aaj Aur Kal (1947) - Director
- Awara (1951) - Screenwriter, Dialogue
- Anhonee (1952) - Screenwriter, Dialogue, Story, Director, Producer
- Rahi 1953 - Director
- Munna (1954) – Screenwriter, Director, Producer
- Shree 420 (1955) – Screenwriter, Dialogue, Story
- Jagte Raho (1956) - Screenwriter
- Pardesi (1957)– Screenwriter, Director
- Char Dil Char Rahen (1959) – Screenwriter, Dialogue, Director
- Eid Mubarak (1960) Documentary / Short - Director
- Gir Game Sanctuary (1961) Documentary - Director
- Flight to Assam (1961) - Director
- Gyara Hazar Ladkian (1962) - Director
- Teen Gharaney (1963) - Director
- Shehar Aur Sapna (1964) – Director, Screenwriter
- Hamara Ghar (1964) - Director
- Tomorrow Shall Be Better (1965) Documentary - Director
- Aasman Mahal (1965) – Director
- Bambai Raat Ki Bahon Mein (1967) - Writer, Director, Producer 
- Dharti Ki Pukaar (1967) Short Film - Director
- Chaar Shaher Ek Kahani (1968) Documentary - Director
- Saat Hindustani (1969) – Director, Producer
- Mera Naam Joker (1970) – Screenwriter, Story
- Do Boond Pani (1971) - Director 
- Bharat Darshan (1972) Documentary - Director
- Luv Kush (1972) Short film - Director
- Bobby (1973) – Screenwriter, Story
- Kal Ki Baat (1973) Short Film - Director
- Achanak (1973) - Screenwriter
- Juhu (1973) (TV) - Director
- Faslah (1974) – Director, Producer
- Papa Miya of Aligarh (1975) Documentary - Director
- Phir Bolo Aaye Sant Kabir (1976) Documentary - Director
- Dr. Iqbal (1978) - Documentary - Director
- The Naxalites (1980) – Screenwriter, Director
- Hindustan Hamara (1983) Documentary / Short - Director
- Love in Goa (1983) - Screenwriter
- Nanga Fakir (1984) (TV) - Director
- Ek Aadmi (1988) - Director
- Akanksha (1989) (TV) – Dialogue, Screenplay
- Henna (1991) – Story
- Outside India: The Adventures of a Roving Reporter, Hali Pub. House, Delhi, 1939.
- An Indian looks at America (The Rampart library of good reading), 1943.
- An Indian looks at America, Thacker, Bombay, 1943.
- Tomorrow is ours! A novel of the India of Today; Bombay, Popular Book Depot, 1943.
- "Let India fight for freedom", Bombay, Sound magazine (Publication dept.), 1943.
- Defeat for death: A story without names, Padmaja Publications 1944.
- "...and One Did Not Come Back!", Sound magazine, 1944
- A report to Gandhiji: A survey of Indian and world events during the 21 months of Gandhiji's incarceration, 1944
- Invitation to Immortality: a one-act play, Bombay: Padma Pub., 1944.
- Not all Lies. Delhi: Rajkamal Pub., 1945.
- Blood and stones and other stories. Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1947
- Rice and other stories, Kutub, 1947
- Kashmir fights for freedom, 1948
- I Write as I Feel, Hind Kitabs, Bombay, 1948
- Cages of freedom and other stories, Bombay, Hind Kitabs Ltd., 1952.
- China can make it: Eye-witness account of the amazing industrial progress in new China, 1952.
- In the Image of Mao Tse-Tung, Peoples Publishing House, 1953
- INQILAB. First Great Novel of the Indian Revolution, Jaico Publishing House, 1958
- Face To Face with Khrushchov, Rajpal & Sons, 1960
- Till We Reach the Stars. The Story of Yuri Gagarin, Asia Pub. House, 1961
- The Black sun and Other stories, Jaico Publishing House, 1963.
- Raat ki bahon mein, Hindi, Radhakr̥ishṇa Prakashan, 1965.
- Indira Gandhi; return of the red rose, Hind Pocket Books, New Delhi, 1966.
- Divided heart, Paradise Publications, 1968
- When Night Falls, 1968.
- Chabili, Hindi, Allahabad, Mitra Prakashan, 1968.
- The most beautiful woman in the world, Paradise Publications, 1968
- Salma aur Samundar, Urdu/Hindi, New Delhi, Komala Pocket Books, 1969.
- Mera Naam Joker, 1970
- Maria, Delhi, Hind Pocket Books, 1971.
- Teen Pahiye, Urdu/Hindi, Delhi, Rajpal & Sons, 1971.
- Bobby, Urdu/Hindi, 1973
- Boy meets Girl, Sterling Publishers, 1973
- That Woman: Her Seven Years in Power; New Delhi, Indian Book Co., 1973
- Jawaharlal Nehru: Portrait of an integrated Indian; New Delhi, NCERT, 1974.
- Fasilah", Urud/Hindi, Hind Pocket Books, Delhi, 1974
- Distant dream, New Delhi, Sterling Pub., 1975.
- The walls of glass: A novel, 1977
- Barrister-at-law: A play about the early life of Mahatma Gandhi, New Delhi, Orient Paperbacks, 1977.
- Men and women: Specially selected long and short stories, 1977
- Mad, mad, mad world of Indian films, 1977
- I Am not an Island: An Experiment in Autobiography, New Delhi, 1977.
- Four Friends, Arnold-Heinemann, New Delhi, 1977.
- 20 March 1977: a day like any other day, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1978.
- Janata in a jam?, 1978.
- The Naxalites, Lok Publications, 1979.
- Bread, beauty, and revolution: being a chronological selection from the Last pages, 1947 to 1981, Marwah Publications, New Delhi, 1982.
- Nili Sari aur Doosri Kahaniyan̲, Urdu, Maktabah-e-Jamia, New Delhi, 1982.
- The gun and other stories, Arnold-Heinemann, New Delhi, 1985.
- The Thirteenth Victim, Amar Prakashan, 1986.
- The World Is My Village: A Novel With An Index, Ajanta, 1984. ISBN 978-81-202-0104-0
- Bombay My Bombay: A Love Story of the City, Ajanta Publications/Ajanta Books International, 1987. ISBN 978-81-202-0174-3
- Indira Gandhi: The Last Post; Bombay, Ramdas G. Bhatkal, 1989
- Defeat for death: a story without names. Baroda: Padmaja Pub., 1994
- How Films Are Made, National Book Trust, 1999, ISBN 978-81-237-1103-4
- Soney Chandi ke Butt, Urdu, Alhamra, 2001, ISBN 978-969-516-074-9
- Khwaja Ahmad Abbas; Vasant Sāthe; Suhail Akhtar (2010). The Dialogue of Awaara: Raj Kapoor's Immortal Classic. Vijay Jani, Nasreen Munni Kabir. Niyogi Books. ISBN 978-81-89738-54-9.
Books on Khwaja Ahmad Abbas
- Ahmad Hasib - The Novels of Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Seema. 1987
- Hemendra Singh Chandalia - Ethos of Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, novelist, film-maker, and journalist: A study in social realism, Bohra Prakashan (1996)
- Raj Narain Raz - Khawaja Ahmed Abbas-Ifkar. Guftar, Kirdar, Haryana Urdu Akademi 
- Vasudev and Lenglet, eds., Indian Cinema Super-bazaar, Vikas, New Delhi, 1978.
Articles on Khwaja Ahmad Abbas
- Dr. R.G. Mathapati, "Abbas: An Island"
- Indian Film Culture (New Delhi), no. 4, September 1964.
- Film World, vol. 1, no. 10, October 1978.
- Ghish, S., "K. A. Abbas: A Man in Tune with History", Screen (Bombay), 19 June 1987.
- Obituary in Jump Cut (Berkeley, California), no. 33, February 1988.
- Abbas, Communicator of repute, The Dawn, 13 October 2002.
- Shoba S. Rajgopal, The Legacy of Ajitha
- Ismat Chughtai, "Bachu", Urdu
- V. P. Sathe, "K.A. Abbas, The Crusader", Filmfare, 16–30 June 1987
- K. A. Abbas - Films as writer:, Films as director: filmreference.com
- "A Piece Of The Continent: K.A. Abbas wrote an iconic column, but will be most remembered for the socially relevant films he produced". Outlook. 17 May 2010.
- Portail d'informations Ce site est en vente![dead link]
- "The Legacy Project - View Entire Literary Sampler". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- AUTHOR: Khwaja Ahmad Abbas (1914-87): Communicator of repute -DAWN - Books and Authors; 13 October 2002 Archived 20 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Indian Scripts". Indian Scripts. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "India Today Magazine". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "8th National Film Awards". International Film Festival of India. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- 5th Annual BFJA Awards - Awards For The Year 1941 BFJA Awards Official website. Archived 30 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Khwaja Ahmad Abbas - Awards - IMDb IMBD Awards
- Abba Mahapati
- "Berlinale 1966: Juries". berlinale.de. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Ghalib Award Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Tomorrow Shall Be Better". citwf.com. Alan Goble. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Bambai Raat Ki Bahon Mein (1968)". The Hindu. April 8, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Ashish Rajadhyaksha; Paul Willemen; Professor of Critical Studies Paul Willemen (10 July 2014). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-135-94318-9. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "Khwaja Mohammed Abbas". abbaska.com. K. A. Abbas Memorial Trust. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Results for 'au:Khwaja Ahmad Abbas' > 'Khwaja Ahmad Abbas' [WorldCat.org],
- South Asian literature in English, Pre-independence era Archived 15 June 2009 at WebCite
- Amaresh Datta (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Vol. 1. Sahitya Akademi. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
- S. Ghosh, "K. A. Abbas: A Man in Tune with History", Screen (Bombay), 19 June 1987, p. 14.
- Dictionary of Films (Berkeley: U. of CA Press, 1977), p. 84.
- Shyamala A. Narayan, The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 1 1976; vol. 11: pp. 82 – 94.
- Ravi Nandan Sinha, Essays on Indian Literature in English. Jaipur, Book Enclave, 2002, ch. 7.