Khawaja Nazimuddin

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Sir
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Khawaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan.JPG
Khawaja Nazimuddin (1894–1964)
Prime Minister of Pakistan
In office
17 October 1951 – 17 April 1953
Monarch George VI
(1951–52)
Elizabeth II
(1952–53)
Governor General Sir Malik Ghulam
Preceded by Liaquat Ali Khan
Succeeded by M.A. Bogra
Governor-General of Pakistan
In office
14 September 1948 – 17 October 1951
(1 November 1948 as Acting)
Monarch George VI
Preceded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Succeeded by Sir Malik Ghulam
Chief Minister of East Bengal
In office
15 August 1947 – 14 September 1948
Monarch George VI
Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
Governor Sir Fredrick Chalmers Bourne
Preceded by Huseyn Suhrawardy
Succeeded by Nurul Amin
Prime Minister of Bengal
In office
29 April 1943 – 31 March 1945
Monarch George VI
Governor General Lord Mountbatten
Governor Richard Casey, Baron Casey
Preceded by A. K. Fazlul Huq
Succeeded by Huseyn Suhrawardy
Personal details
Born Nawab Khawaja Nazimuddin
(1894-07-19)19 July 1894
Dacca, Bengal, British India
(Present-day Dhaka in Bangladesh)
Died 22 October 1964(1964-10-22) (aged 70)
Dacca, East Pakistan, Pakistan
(now Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Resting place Mausoleum of three leaders
Citizenship British Raj British Subject (1894-1947)
 Pakistan (1947-1964)
Nationality Bengali:19[1]
Political party Pakistan Muslim League
(1947-64)
Other political
affiliations
All-India Muslim League (1927-47)
Relations Shahabuddin
(Younger brother)
Alma mater Cambridge University
Aligarh Muslim University
Religion Islam
Awards Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon.svgOrder of the Indian Empire

Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظم الدین‎; Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন; 19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964), KCIE, CIE, was an East Pakistani politician, conservative figure, and one the leading founding fathers of Pakistan.[2] He is noted as being the first Bengali leader of Pakistan who led the country as the second Prime Minister (1951–53), and briefly served as the second Governor-General (1948–51).[3][4]

Born into an aristocrat Nawab family in Bengal in 1894, he was educated at the famed Aligarh Muslim University before pursuing his education at the Cambridge University to secure his graduation. Upon returning, he started his political career on a Muslim League platform where he primary focused on education causes in Bengal before leading the cause for separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan, under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. From 1943–45, he served as the Prime Minister of Bengal and later becoming the Chief Minister in 1947 until 1948 when he ascended as Governor-General after Jinnah's passing.

In 1951, he took over the control of the government as Prime Minister of Pakistan upon the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, and relinquished the post of Governor-General to Sir Malik Ghulam.[5] As Prime Minister, he struggled to run the government effectively at internal and foreign fronts and tenured for only two years. At home front, he struggled to maintain law and order in the country and enforced the military to imposed the martial law in Lahore due to religious riots and faced with stagnation for the economic growth. He also faced populist language movement in his native Bengal that eventually led shutdown of Government of East Pakistan. Foreign relations with the United States, Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and India soured as the republicanism and socialism gained popular public attraction at home.

Eventually, he was forced to step down in favor of diplomat Mohammad Ali Bogra by his own appointed Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam and conceded defeat in elections held in 1954. Upon retiring from national politics, he fought with a brief illness and passed away in 1964 and he was buried in Mausoleum in Dhaka.

Biography[edit]

Family background, early life and education[edit]

Nazimuddin was born into an elite aristocrat and wealthy family who where known as the Nawab of Dhaka, Dacca, Bengal, on 19 July 1894.[6]:1895[7][8]:xxx[9] He was the grandson of the Khwaja Ahsanullah and his mother, Bilquis Bano, was notable for her own statue.:xxx[10] Nazimuddin had a younger brother, Shahabuddin, who would later played a vital role in national politics onwards.:76:76[11]:xxx[10] The honorific title, Khawaja (lit. Lord) is bestowed on them to represent the Bengali nobility.:xxx[10] His family spoke Urdu despite being hailed as the Nawab of Dacca.:145–146[12] They were the first cousin of Khwaja Salimullah who helped laid foundation of Muslim League in 1906.:80–81[13]

He was educated at the Dunstable Grammar School in England but returned to India following his matriculation where he enrolled to attend the MAO College of the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) in Uttar Pradesh, India.[14] Nazimuddin secured his graduation with a BA degree from AMU and was sent back to England to pursue higher education.[15] During his time at the AMU, he was known to be an avid Tennis player and excelled in this sport when he represented his university in collegiate games.:76[11]

After AMU, Nazimuddin went to England and attended the Trinity College of the Cambridge University. He was granted MA degree from the Cambridge University.:449–450[16] His training in England enabled him to practice law and became Barrister-at-Law in England.[14] He was knighted in 1934.[17] In 1947–49, Nazimuddin was granted the Doctor of Laws by the Vice-Chancellor of the Dhaka University, Dr. Mahmud Hasan.:161[18]

Politics[edit]

Public service and Independence movement[edit]

Nazimuddin returned to India to join his brother Shahbuddin from England, taking interest in civil and public affairs that led him to join the Bengali politics.:310–311[19] Both brother joined the Muslim League, and Nazimuddin successfully ran for the municipality election and elected as Chairman of Dhaka Municipality from 1922 until 1929.[8] During this time, he was appointed as Education minister and later secured a political appointment in Viceroy's Executive Council in 1934 which he served until 1937.:80[20]

He participated in regional elections held on 1937 on a Muslim League's platform but conceded his defeat in favor of Fazlul Haq of Krishak Praja Part (KPP) who was appointed as Prime Minister of Bengal, while assuming his personal role as member of the legislative assembly.:219[21]:69[22]

Home and Chief Minister of East Bengal (1940-47)[edit]

Upon the formation of the coalition government in a agreement facilitated between Muslim League and the Krishak Praja Party, Nazimuddin was appointed as the home minister under Haq's premiership., which he continued until 1943.:331[23]

Due to his conservative elite position, he became close associate of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, then-President of Muslim League, who appointed him as a member of the executive committee to successfully promote Muslim League' party agenda and program that gained popularity in East Bengal.:332[23][24] In 1940-41, Nazimuddin broke away from the coalition led by Premier Fazlul Haq and decided to become a leader of the opposition, leading campaign against Haq's premiership and primarily focused on Bengali nationalism issues.:332[23] In 1943, Nazimuddin took over the government from Premier Haq when the latter was dismissed by the Governor John Herbert amid controversies surrounding in his political campaigns.[25] During this time, Nazimuddin played a crucial political role for the cause for the separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan.:332[23] About his role, he was asked about the "Pakistan question" by British Governor Richard Casey in 1945 but he showed very little and no interests in discussing the existence of the movement and reportedly quoting: he did not know what Pakistan means and nobody in Muslim League knew.":17[26]

His premiership lasted until 1945 when a motion of no confidence and faced with defeat in the assembly hall by 160 to 97 votes that effectively ended his premiership.:106[27] He relinquished the office to Nausher Ali, an Indian nationalist Muslim and a prominent member of Congress Party who the speaker of the assembly, but the administration was taken over by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.:106[27][28]

From 1945-47, Sir Nazimuddin continued to be served as the chairman of the Muslim League in East Bengal, ardently supporting the political cause for Pakistan against the Congress Party.:333[23] During this time, he had been in brief conflict with Premier Suhrawardy and strongly opposed the United Bengal Movement and led a strong parliamentary opposition in the assembly against Suhrawardy's administration in April 1947. The conflict between two men mainly existed because Suhrawardy had represented the middle class while Nazimuddin was representing the autocracy in the assembly.[29]

In 1947, he again contested in the party elections in the Muslim League against Suhrawardy's platform and securing his nomination as the party chairman for the Muslim League's East Bengal chapter.:49–50[30] His success in the party election eventually led him to the appointed as the first Chief Minister of East Bengal after the partition of India in 1947 and effectively gained controlled of the Muslim League in the province.:50[30]

As the Chief Minister, he led the motion of confidence that ultimately voted in favor of joining the federation of Pakistan and reorganized the Government of East Pakistan by delegating conservative members in his administration.:49–50[30]

Governor-General of Pakistan (1948–51)[edit]

On August 14 of 1947, Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah relinquished the party presidency of the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) to Khawaja Nazimuddin who took over the party of President of Pakistan Muslim League (PML), due to his party electoral performance.:50–51[30] On 1 November 1947, he was appointed as acting Governor-General in the absence of Governor-General Jinnah due to worsening health, and eventually appointed as Governor-General after passing of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in a crucial support provided by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan on 14 September 1948 to the President Nazimuddin.[31] His oath of office was supervised by Chief Justice Sir Abdul Rashid of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, in attendance with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan.[8]

As Governor-General, Nazimuddin set a precedent of neutrality and non-interference in the government, and provided his political support to Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan's government, which was seen as essential to the working of the responsible government at that time.:102[32]

His role as Governor-General reflected a conservative mind-set and reportedly declared an official statement in regards to the topic of separation of church and state which was seen as against of secularism in the country.[33]

"I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be...."

— Governor-General Khawaja Nazimuddin, 1948-49, Reference<[33]

In 1949, Governor-General Nazimuddin established the parliamentary committee, the Basic Principles Committee, on the advice of Prime Minister Ali Khan to underlying basic principles that would lay foundation of Constitution of Pakistan.[34]

In 1950, Nazimuddin released an official policy statement and declared that: "Pakistan would remain incomplete until the whole of Kashmir is liberated."[35]

Prime Minister (1951–53)[edit]

After the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan in 1951, the Muslim League leaders asked Governor-General Nazimuddin to take over the business of the government as there was no other person found suitable for the post.:233[36][8] He appointed Finance Minister Sir Malik Ghulam as Governor-General's post.[8] Nazimuddin's government focused towards promoting the political programs aimed towards conservative ideas.[37] During his time in office, a framework was begun for a constitution that would allow Pakistan to become a republic, and end its Dominion status.

Nazimuddin's administration took place during a poor economy and the rise of provincial nationalism in four provinces and East Bengal which made him unable to run the country's affairs effectively.:121–122[38] By 1951-52, the Muslim League had split into two different factions dominated by the Bengali chapter and Punjab-Sindh chapter, as those were the two largest ethnic demographics, but were separated by India.:235[36]

In 1951, Prime Minister Nazimuddin's government conducted nation's first nationwide census where it was noted that 57% population of the country was Indian immigrants, mostly residing in Karachi that further complicated the situation in the country.:xxx[39] In January 1952, Prime Minister Nazimuddin publicly announced in Dacca's meeting that: Jinnah had been right: for the sake of Pakistan's nation unity, Urdu must be the official language of Pakistan–East and West.:153[40] On 21 February 1952, a demonstration in the Bengali Language movement demanding equal and official status to the Bengali language turned bloody, with many fatalities caused by police firings.:137[41] This demonstration was held when he declared Urdu the National Language of Pakistan, following the previous statement of Muhammad Ali Jinnah that Urdu shall be 'one and only' language of Pakistan.[42]

In 1953, a violent religious movement led by far-right Jamaat-e-Islami began to agitate for the removal of the Ahmadi religious minority from power positions, and demanded a declaration of this minority as non-Muslims.:60[43]

Nazimuddin was held morally responsible for riots being spread and resisted such pressures;:60[43] but mass rioting broke out in Punjab against both the government and followers of this religious minority.:60–61[43] Prime Minister Nazimuddin responded to the violence by dismissing the Chief Minister of Punjab, Mumtaz Daultana, to Feroz Khan Noon, but the decision came late.:17[44] He declared martial law and enforced through Lieutenant General Azam Khan who successfully quelled the agitation.:17–18[44]:158[45]

Dismissal[edit]

The agitations and violences spread through the successful Bengali language movement and the riots in Lahore proved the inability of Prime Minister Nazimuddin's government as he was widely seen as weak in running the government administration.:288[46]

In a view of attempting to improve the economy and internal security, Governor-General Malik Ghulam asked Prime Minister Nazimuddin to step down in wider interest of the country.:289[46] Prime Minister Nazimuddin refused to oblige and Governor-General Malik Ghulam used reserve powers granted in the Government of India Act, 1935, dismissed Prime Minister Nazimuddin.:289[46]

Nazimuddin then requested the Supreme Court of Pakistan's intervention against this action but the Chief Justice, Moh'd Munir did not rule on the legality of the dismissal, but instead forced new elections to be held in 1954.[47] Governor-General Malik Ghulam appointed another Bengali politician, Muhammad Ali Bogra who was then tenuring as the Pakistan ambassador to the United States, as the new Prime Minister until the new elections to be held in 1954.:289[46] The dismissal of Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin's administration, the Prime Minister, by the Governor-General Malik Ghulam, signalled a troubling trend in political history of the country.:289[46]:132[48]

Legacy[edit]

Later life and Death[edit]

Mausoleum of three leaders at Dhaka

Even after his dismissal, he and his family remained active in parliamentary politics; his son, Wasiuddin, an army general serving as GOC-in-C II Corps and later defected to Bangladesh in 1974.

His younger brother, Shahabuddin, remained active in the politics and eventually ascended as Information minister in the President Ayub Khan's administration.:559[49] Sir Khawaja died in 1964, aged 70. He was buried at Mausoleum of three leaders in his hometown of Dhaka.[50][51]

Wealth and honours[edit]

Nazimuddin and his brother, Shahabuddin, belonged to an aristocrat wealthy family who were for known their wealth. In thesis written by Joya Chatterji, Nazimuddin was described for unquestionable loyalty to British administration in India:

Short statured with a bulging peer-liked figure, he was known for his insatiable appetite and his unfailing submission to the .... Britishers... Dressed in British-styled Sherwani and breechers-like Churidar pajamas with a Fez cap and wearing little shoes, he carried a... cane of knob and represented an age and tradition.

— Joya Chatterji, Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, Reference :80[20]

By 1934, the family had estates that covered almost 200,000 acres and was well spread over seven district of Eastern Bengal, together with Shillong and Assam with an yearly rent of 120,000.:80[20] By 1960s, the majority of estate was relocated from East Pakistan to the different areas of Pakistan, leaving very little of his estate in East.:80[20]

He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1926, and was knighted in 1934 by the King-Emperor, George V, when he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE).[52]

By the Government of Pakistan, Nazimuddin has been honored from time to time after his death. In Karachi, the residential areas, Nazimabad and North Nazimabad in suburbs of Karachi, had been named after his name. In Islamabad, there is a road intersection, Nazimuddin Road, that has been named in his honor; while in Dacca, there is also a road after his namesake.

In his honour, the Pakistan Post issued a commemorative stamp in accordance to his respect.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Khan, Feroz Hassan (2012). "Atoms for Peace at the Crossroads of History". Eating grass the making of the Pakistan Atomic bomb (google books) (1 ed.). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, Khan. ISBN 9780804784801. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  2. ^ "Khawaja Nazimuddin | Former Governor General of Pakistan". 1 June 2003. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  3. ^ Sundarajan, Saroja (2010). "Pakistan Dismembered". Kashmir crisis : unholy Anglo-Pak nexus (google books). Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, Sundarajan. p. 410. ISBN 9788178358086. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  4. ^ http://opinion.bdnews24.com/bangla/archives/30517
  5. ^ "PakistanHerald.com : Khwaja Nazimuddin". Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  6. ^ "The Official website of the Dhaka Nawab Family: Biographies". Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  7. ^ Lentz, Harris M. (1994). "Islamic Republic of Pakistan: Heads of State". Heads of States and Governments Since 1945 (Googlebooks) (4 ed.). New York: Routledge, Lentz. p. 3000. ISBN 9781134264971. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Khwaja Nazimuddin". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  9. ^ Oberst, Robert C.; Malik, Yogendra K.; Kennedy, Charles; Kapur, Ashok; Lawoti, Mahendra; Rahman, Syedur; Ahmad, Ahrar (2014). "The National Elites of Pakistan". Government and Politics in South Asia (googlebooks) (1 ed.). Boulder, CO, U.S: Avalon Publishing. ISBN 9780813348803. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
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  11. ^ a b Amid, Shahid (1986). "It nearly succeeded". Disastrous Twilight: A Personal Record of the Partition of india by Major-General Shahid Hamid (googleboosk) (2 ed.). London, UK: Pen and Sword, Amid. ISBN 9780850523966. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
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  53. ^ "Stamp of Sir Nazimuddin". 

Current Events Biography, 1949

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Chief Minister of East Bengal
1947–1948
Succeeded by
Nurul Amin
Preceded by
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Governor-General of Pakistan
1948–1951
Succeeded by
Malik Ghulam Muhammad
Preceded by
Liaquat Ali Khan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1951–1953
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Minister of Defence
1951–1953