Kibbeh

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This article is about the Middle Eastern dish. For the type of Ethiopian and Eritrean butter, see Niter kibbeh.
Kibbeh
Kibbeh3.jpg
Fried kibbeh Raas (Nabulsi kibbeh) with peppermint
Course Meze or mezze /ˈmɛz/
Region or state Armenia, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria and Turkey
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredients Finely ground meat, cracked wheat, and Middle Eastern spices
Cookbook: Kibbeh  Media: Kibbeh

Kibbeh, kibbe, kebbah (also kubbeh, kubbah, kubbi) (pronunciation varies with region) (Arabic: كبة‎‎) is a Levantine dish[1] made of bulgur (cracked wheat), minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).

Other types of kibbeh may be shaped into balls or patties, and baked, cooked in broth, or served raw.[2] Kibbeh is considered to be the national dish of many Middle Eastern countries.[3]

Kibbeh is a popular dish in Middle Eastern cuisine.[4] Mainly, it is found in Lebanon,[5] Syria,[6] Palestine, Jordan, Egypt (kubbeh, kebbah, or koubeiba),[7] Iraq,[8] as well as Armenia (ltsonvats kololak (ru)), Kurdistan, Iran,[9] Israel,[10] Cyprus (koupa, plural koupes) and in the Kurdish areas in Turkey it is called içli köfte.[11]

It is also found throughout several Latin American countries which received substantial numbers of Levantine immigrants during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras, and Mexico.[12][better source needed]

Brazilian quibe/kibe, stuffed with requeijão, a sauce resembling ricotta and cream cheese of Portuguese origin. Most Brazilian kibbeh uses only ground beef, and not other types of meat. Other variations include tahini, carne de soja (texturized soy protein), seitan (Japanese wheat gluten-based meat substitute) or tofu (soybean curd) as stuffing.

Etymology[edit]

The word is derived from the Classical Arabic kubbah (kibbeh in Levantine Arabic), which means "ball".[13] Various transliterations of the name are used in different countries: in English, kibbe and kibbeh and in Latin America, quibe, kibe, or quipe (Argentina).

Variations[edit]

In Levantine cuisine, a variety of dishes made with bulghur (cracked wheat) and minced lamb are called kibbeh. The northern Syrian city of Aleppo (Halab) is famous for having more than 17 different types.[14] These include kibbeh prepared with sumac (kibbe sumāqiyye), yogurt (kibbe labaniyye), quince (kibbe safarjaliyye), lemon juice (kibbe ḥāmḍa), pomegranate sauce, cherry sauce, and other varieties, such as the "disk" kibbeh (kibbe arāṣ), the "plate" kibbeh (kibbe biṣfīḥa or kibbe bṣēniyye) and the raw kibbeh (kibbeh nayyeh).

One variety of kibbeh is kibbeh Raas or Nabulsi kubbeh in reference to the Palestinian city Nablus. It is a 7- to 15-cm-oblong bulghur shell shaped like an American football, stuffed with a filling of spiced, minced beef or lamb and fried until brown. British soldiers in the Middle East during the Second World War used to call these kibbeh "Syrian torpedoes".[15][better source needed]

Fried, torpedo-shaped kibbe have become popular in Haiti, the Dominican Republic[16][17] and South America – where they are known as quipe or quibe – after they were introduced by Levantine immigrants.

Kibbeh nayyeh

Kibbeh nayyeh is a raw dish made from a mixture of bulghur, very finely minced lamb or beef similar to steak tartare, and Middle Eastern spices, served on a platter, frequently as part of a meze in Lebanon and Syria, garnished with mint leaves and olive oil, and served with green onions or scallions, green hot peppers, and pita/pocket bread or markouk bread.

Kubba Halab is an Iraqi version of kibbeh created with a rice crust and named after the largest city in Syria, Aleppo. Kubba Mosul, also Iraqi, is flat and round like a disc. Kubbat Shorba is an Iraqi-Kurdish version prepared as a stew, commonly made with tomato sauce and spices.[18] It is often served with arak and various salads. The Iraqi versions are part of the same versions eaten in Iran.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Annia Ciezadlo (2012). Day of Honey: A Memoir of Food, Love, and War. p. 361. ISBN 1-4391-5753-7. 
  2. ^ Contemporary kubbeh
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Middle Eastern Recipes
  5. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  6. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  7. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  8. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  9. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  10. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  11. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 pp 444-445
  12. ^ "Kibbeh Recipe". Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Maan Z. Madina, Arabic-English Dictionary of the Modern Literary Language, 1973
  14. ^ "NPR web: Food Lovers Discover The Joys Of Aleppo". 
  15. ^ Kibbe, Pesach
  16. ^ "Kibbeh - Arabic Comfort Food". Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "Kibbeh". Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  18. ^ Raw kibbeh
  19. ^ Davidson et al. The Oxford Companion to Food OUP Oxford, 21 aug. 2014 ISBN 978-0191040726 p 44