The Kitsai were part of the complex, shifting political alliances of the South Plains. Early Europeans identified them as enemies of the Caddo. In 1712, they fought the Hainai along the Trinity River; however, they were allied with other member tribe of the Caddoan Confederacy and intermarried with the Kadohadacho during this time.
The Kitsai are not a distinct federally recognized tribe, but they are instead enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma and Wichita and Affiliated Tribes, to which they are related, as well as the Delaware Nation. These tribes live mostly in Southwestern Oklahoma, particularly in Caddo County, to which they were forcibly relocated by the United States Government in the 19th century.
- Sturtevant, 6
- Kichai Indian History. Access Genealogy. (retrieved 6 Sept 2009)
- Sturtevant, 618
- Krieger, Margery H. Kitchai Indians. The Handbook of Texas Online. (retrieved 6 Sept 2009)
- Loftin, Jack O. Stone Houses, Battle of. The Handbook of Texas Online. (retrieved 6 Sept 2009)
- Sturtevant, 616
- Science: Last of the Kitsai. Time. 27 June 1932 (retrieved 6 Sept 2009)
- Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0.