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Kidarite kingdom
Tamga of the Kidarites of Kidarites
Tamga of the Kidarites
The Kidarite kingdom circa 400 CE.
The Kidarite kingdom circa 400 CE.
CapitalBactria, Peshawar, Taxila
Common languagesBactrian (written)
GovernmentNomadic empire
• fl. 320
• fl. 425
Varhran I
• fl. 500
Historical eraLate Antiquity
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kushan Empire
Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
Western Satraps
Alchon Huns
Today part of Turkmenistan

The Kidarites were a dynasty that ruled Bactria and adjoining parts of Central Asia and South Asia in the 4th and 5th centuries CE. The Kidarites belonged to a complex of peoples known collectively in India as the Huna and/or in Europe as the Xionites (from the Iranian names Xwn/Xyon). The 5th century Byzantine historian Priscus called them Kidarites Huns, or "Huns who are Kidarites".[1][2] The Huna/Xionite tribes are often linked, albeit controversially, to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe during a similar period. They are entirely different from the Hephthalites, who replaced them about a century later.[2]

The Kidarites were named after Kidara (Chinese: 寄多羅 Jiduolo, ancient pronunciation: Kjie-ta-la)[3][4] one of their main rulers. The Kidarites appear to have been a part of a Huna horde known in Latin sources as the Kermichiones (from the Iranian Karmir Xyon) or "Red Huna". The Kidarites established the first of four major Xionite/Huna states in Central Asia, followed by the Hephthalites, the Alchon, and the Nezak.

In 360–370 CE, a Kidarite kingdom was established in Central Asian regions previously ruled by the Sasanian Empire, replacing the Kushano-Sasanians in Bactria.[5][6] Thereafter, the Sasanian Empire roughly stopped at Merv.[6] Next, circa 390-410 CE, the Kidarites invaded northwestern India, where they replaced the remnants of the Kushan Empire in the area of Punjab.


Portrait of Kidara, king of the Kidarites, circa 350–386.[7] The coinage of the Kidarites imitated Sasanian imperial coinage, with the exception that they displayed clean-shaven faces, instead of the beards of the Sasanians, a feature relating them to Altaic rather than Iranian lineage.[6][8]

A nomadic people, the Kidarites appear to have originated in the Altai Mountains region. Some scholars believe that the Kidarites were "Europid" in appearance, with some East Asian (i.e. Mongoloid) admixture.[9] On Kidarite coins their rulers are depicted as beardless or clean-shaven – a feature of Inner Asian cultures at the time (as opposed, for example, to the Iranian cultures of South Central Asia at the time).[8] The Kidarites were depicted as mounted archers on the reverse of coins.[10] They were also known to practice artificial cranial deformation.[11]

The Kidarites appear to have been synonymous with the Karmir Xyon ("Red Xionites" or, more controversially, "Red Huns"),[12][13] – a major subdivision of the Xionites, alongside the Spet Xyon ("White Xionites"). In a recently discovered seal with the image of a ruler similar to those of the Kidarite coins, the ruler named himself in Bactrian "King of the Huns and Great Kushan Shah" (uonano shao o(a)zarko (k)oshanoshao). The discovery was reportedly made in Swat.[14][15]

Fire attendants with the kaftan tunic worn over trousers tucked into knee-high boots, and holding swords, on the coinage of Kidara

The name of their eponymous ruler Kidara (fl. 350–385 CE) may be cognate with the Turkic word Kidirti meaning "west", suggesting that the Kidarites were originally the westernmost of the Xionites, and the first to migrate from Inner Asia.[16] Chinese sources suggest that when the Uar (滑 Huá) were driven westward by the Later Zhao state, circa 320 CE, from the area around Pingyang (平陽; modern Linfen, Shanxi), it put pressure on Xionite-affiliated peoples, such as the Kidarites, to migrate. Another theory is that climate change in the Altai during the 4th century caused various tribes to migrate westward and southward.[16]

Contemporary Chinese and Roman sources suggest that, during the 4th century, the Kidarites began to encroach on the territory of Greater Khorasan and the Kushan Empire – migrating through Transoxiana into Bactria,[17] where they were initially vassals of the Kushans and adopted many elements of Kushano-Bactrian culture. The Kidarites also initially put pressure on the Sasanian Empire, but later served as mercenaries in the Sassanian army, under which they fought the Romans in Mesopotamia, led by a chief named Grumbates (fl. 353–358 CE). Some of the Kidarites apparently became a ruling dynasty of the Kushan Empire, leading to the epithet "Little Kushans".[18][19]

Kidarite kingdom[edit]

First appearance in sources[edit]

Inclusion of the Kidarite tamgha
Coin in the name of Kushano-Sasanian king Varahran, struck under Kidarite ruler Kirada, circa CE 340-345. The Kidarite tamga symbol (Kidarite Tamga.png) appears to the right of the standing king. Balkh mint.

The first evidence are gold coins discovered in Balkh dating from the mid-4th century. The Kushano-Sasanian ruler Varahran during the second phase of his reign, had to introduce the Kidarite tamga (Kidarite Tamga.png) in his coinage minted at Balkh in Bactria, circa 340-345 CE.[20] The tamgha replaced the nandipada symbol which had been in use since Vasudeva I,[20] suggesting that the Kidarites had now taken control, first under their ruler Kirada.[21] Then ram horns were added to the effigy of Varahran on his coinage for a brief period under the Kidarite ruler Peroz, and raised ribbons were added around the crown ball under the Kidarite ruler Kidara.[22][23][20][21] In effect, Varahran has been described as a "puppet" of the Kidarites.[24]

By 365, the Kidarite ruler Kidara I was placing his name on the coinage of the region, and assumed the title of Kushanshah.[21] In Gandhara too, the Kidarites minted silver coins in the name of Varahran, until Kidara also introduced his own name there.[21]

Most other data we currently have on the Kidarite kingdom are from Chinese and Byzantine sources from the middle of the 5th century. The Kidarites were the first Huna to bother India. Indian records note that the Hūna had established themselves in modern Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province by the first half of the 5th century, and the Gupta emperor Skandagupta had repelled a Hūna invasion in 455. The Kidarites are the last dynasty to regard themselves (on the legend of their coins) as the inheritors of the Kushan empire, which had disappeared as an independent entity two centuries earlier.

Migration into Bactria[edit]

Kidara, circa 425–457. AR Drachm (29mm, 3.76 g, 3h). Mint C in Gandhara. Crowned bust facing slightly right. Brahmi legend around the head: Gupta allahabad ki.jpgGupta ashoka d.svgGupta allahabad r.svgGupta allahabad ku.jpgGupta gujarat ss.svgGupta ashoka nn.svgGupta gujarat ss.svg Ki-da-ra Ku-ṣa-ṇa-ṣa/ Fire altar flanked by attendants.[25]
Numerous coins of the Kidarites were found at the archaeological site of Dilberjin, known for its murals depicting nomadic figures dated to the 5th-6th century.[26][27]

Around 350, the Sasanian Emperor Shapur II (ruled 309 to 379) had to interrupt his conflict with the Romans, and abandon the siege of Nisibis,[16] in order to face nomadic threats in the east: he was attacked in the east by Scythian Massagetae and other Central Asian tribes.[28] Around this time, Xionite/Huna tribes, most likely the Kidarites, whose king was Grumbates, make an appearance as an encroaching threat upon Sasanian territory as well as a menace to the Gupta Empire (320–500CE).[4]

After a prolonged struggle (353–358) they were forced to conclude an alliance, and their king Grumbates accompanied Shapur II in the war against the Romans, agreeing to enlist his light cavalrymen into the Persian army and accompanying Shapur II. The presence of "Grumbates, king of the Chionitae" and his Xionites with Shapur II during campaigns in the Western Caspian lands, in the area of Corduene, is described by the contemporary eyewitness Ammianus Marcellinus:[29]

Grumbates Chionitarum rex novus aetate quidem media rugosisque membris sed mente quadam grandifica multisque victoriarum insignibus nobilis.
"Grumbates, the new king of the Xionites, while he was middle aged, and his limbs were wrinkled, he was endowed with a mind that acted grandly, and was famous for his many, significant victories."

— Ammianus Marcellinus, 18.6.22.[30]

The presence of Grumbates alongside Shapur II is also recorded at the successful Siege of Amida in 359, in which Grumbates lost his son:[16]

"Grumbates, king of the Chionitae, went boldly up to the walls to effect that mission, with a brave body of guards; and when a skilful reconnoitrer had noticed him coming within shot, he let fly his balista, and struck down his son in the flower of his youth, who was at his father's side, piercing through his breastplate, breast and all; and he was a prince who in stature and beauty was superior to all his comrades. "

Later the alliance fell apart, and by the time of Bahram IV (388–399) the Sasanians had lost numerous battles against the Kidarites.[16] The migrating Kidarites then settled in Bactria, where they replaced the Kushano-Sasanids, a branch of the Sasanids that had displaced the weakening Kushans in the area two centuries before.[5] It is thought that they were in firm possession of the region of Bactria by 360 CE.[16] Since this area corresponds roughly to Kushanshahr, the former western territories of the Kushans, Kidarite ruler Kidara called himself "Kidara King of the Kushans" on his coins.[32]

According to Priscus, the Sasanian Empire was forced to pay tribute to the Kidarites, until the rule of Yazdgird II (ruled 438–457), who refused payment.[33]

The Kidarites based their capital in Samarkand , where they were at the center of Central Asian trade networks, in close relation with the Sogdians.[6] The Kidarites had a powerful administration and raised taxes, rather efficiently managing their territories, in contrast to the image of barbarians bent on destruction given by Persian accounts.[6]

Expansion to northwest India[edit]

"Kushan" coins of the Kidarites
Kidara gold coin, circa 350–385 CE, derived from the Kushans. Vertical Brahmi legends from right to left:
Kushana (Gupta allahabad ku.jpgGupta gujarat ss.svgGupta ashoka nn.svg Ku-shā-ṇa)
Kidara (Gupta allahabad ki.jpgGupta allahabad d.svgGupta ashoka r.svg Ki-da-ra)
Kushana (Gupta allahabad ku.jpgGupta gujarat ss.svgGupta ashoka nn.svg Ku-shā-ṇa)
Goddess Ardoxsho on the back.
The word "Kushana" in Brahmi script (Gupta allahabad ku.jpgGupta gujarat ss.svgGupta ashoka nn.svg Ku-shā-ṇa) as it appeared on the bottom left corner of Kidarite coins circa 350 CE.[34]

The Kidarites consolidated their power in Northern Afghanistan before conquering Peshawar and parts of northwest India including Gandhara probably sometime between 390 and 410 CE,[35] around the end of the rule of Gupta Emperor Chandragupta II or beginning of the rule of Kumaragupta I.[36] It is probably the rise of the Hephthalites and the defeats against the Sasanians which pushed the Kidarites into northern India.


The Kidarites issued gold coins on the model of Kushan coinage, inscribing their own names but still claiming the Kushan heritage by using the title "Kushan".[37] The volume of Kidarite gold coinage was nevertheless much smaller than that of the Great Kushans, probably owing to a decline of commerce and the loss of major international trade routes.[38]

Coins with the title or name Gadahara seem to be the first coins issued by the invading Kidarites in the Kushan realm in India.[39][40] The additional presence of the names of foreign rulers such as the Kushano-Sassanian Piroz or the Gupta Empire Samudragupta on the coins may suggest some kind of suzerainty at a time when the remnants of Kushan power were torn between these two powers.[39][40] The "Gadahara" issues seem to come chronologically just before the issues of the famous Kidarite ruler Kidara.[41][40][42]


It seems Buddhism was rather unaffected by Kidarite rule, as the religion continued to prosper.[38] The Chinese pilgrim Fa-hsien visited the region circa 400 CE, and described a wealthy Buddhist culture.[38] Some aspects of the Buddhist art of Gandhara seem to have incorporated Zoroastrian elements conveyed by the Kidarites at that time, such as the depiction of fire altars on the bases of numerous Buddhist sculptures.[38]

It has been argued that the spread of Indian culture and religions as far as Sogdia corresponded to the rule of the Kidarites over the regions from Sogdia to Gandhara.[3]

Conflicts with the Gupta Empire[edit]

The Buddhist paintings of Ajanta, dated to circa 460–480 CE, are contemporary of the end of the Kidarite invasion of northwestern India, and some scenes probably received the influence of the Kidarites or the Hephthalites after them.[43][44]

The Kidarites may have confronted the Gupta Empire during the rule of Kumaragupta I (414–c. 455 CE) as the latter recounts some conflicts, although very vaguely, in his Mandsaur inscription.[45] The Bhitari pillar inscription of Skandagupta, inscribed by his son Skandagupta (c. 455 – c. 467 CE), recalls much more dramatically the near-annihilation of the Gupta Empire, and recovery though military victories against the attacks of the Pushyamitras and the Hunas.[16] The Kidarites are the only Hunas who could have attacked India at the time, as the Hephthalites were still trying to set foot in Bactria in the middle of the 5th century.[17] In the Bhitari inscription, Skandagupta clearly mentions conflagrations with the Hunas, even though some portions of the inscription have disappeared:

"(Skandagupta), by whose two arms the earth was shaken, when he, the creator (of a disturbance like that) of a terrible whirlpool, joined in close conflict with the Hûnas; . . . . . . among enemies . . . . . . arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . proclaimed . . . . . . . . . . . . just as if it were the roaring of (the river) Ganga, making itself noticed in (their) ears."

Even after these encounters, the Kidarites seem to have retained the western part of the Gupta Empire, particularly central and western Punjab, until they were displaced by the invasion of the Alchon Huns at the end of the 5th century.[46][16] While they still ruled in Gandhara, the Kidarites are known to have sent an embassy to China in 477.[47]

The Huna invasion are said to have seriously damaged Indo-Roman trade relations, which the Gupta Empire had greatly benefited from. The Guptas had been exporting numerous luxury products such as silk, leather goods, fur, iron products, ivory, pearl or pepper from centers such as Nasik, Paithan, Pataliputra or Benares etc. The Huna invasion probably disrupted these trade relations and the tax revenues that came with it.[48] These conflicts exhausted the Gupta Empire: the gold coinage of Skandagupta is much fewer and of a lesser quality than that of his predecessors.[46]

The Kidarites were cut from their Bactrian nomadic roots by the rise of the Hephthalites in the 450s. The Kidarites also seem to have been defeated by the Sasanian emperor Peroz in 467 CE, with Peroz reconquering Balkh and issuing coinage there as "Peroz King of Kings".[6]

Conflict with Sasanian emperor Peroz I and the Hephthalites[edit]

Around 457, the Kidarites were again in conflict against the Sasanians under Yazdegerd II. A "Kidarite dynasty", south of the Oxus, was at war with the Sassanids in the fifth century. The Sasanian Emperor Peroz I (ruled 459–484) fought Kidara and then his son Kungas, forcing Kungas to leave Bactria. The Kidarites, who had established themselves in parts of Transoxiana during the reign of the Sasanian king Shapur II, and had a long history of conflicts with the Sasanians. The latter stopped paying tributes to the Kidarites in the early 460s, thus starting a new war between these two states.[3]

Kidarites ruler "King B", late 4th–early 5th century CE.[49] A vase has been placed to the right of the Zoroastrian fire altar, the Indian/Hindu purnaghata, or "Vase of plenty".[50]

During the start of the war, however, Peroz did not have enough manpower to fight them, and therefore asked for financial aid by the Byzantine Empire, who declined his request.[51] Peroz then offered peace to the leader of the Kidarites, Kunkhas, and offered him his sister in marriage. However, Peroz tried to trick Kunkhas, and sent a woman of low status instead. After some time Kunkhas found out about Peroz's false promise, and then in turn tried to trick him, by requesting him to send military experts to strengthen his army. However, when a group of 300 military experts arrived to the court of Kunkhas at Balaam (either the same city as Balkh or a city in Sogdia), they were either killed or disfigured and sent back to Iran, with the information that Kunkhas did this due to Peroz's false promise.

What happened after remains obscure. It is only known that by 467, Peroz, with Hephthalite aid, reportedly managed to capture Balaam (possibly Balkh) and put an end to Kidarite rule in Transoxiana once and for all.[16][51] Although the Kidarites still controlled some places such as Gandhara and Punjab, they would never be an issue for the Sasanians again.[5]

Kidarite successors[edit]

Coin of king Yinayaditya (also Vinayaditya), one of the "Kidarite successors", late 5th century CE, Jammu and Kashmir.

Many small Kidarite kingdoms seem to have survived in northwest India, and are known through their coinage. They were particularly present in Jammu and Kashmir, such as king Vinayaditya, but their coinage was much debased. They were then conquered by the Alchon Huns, sometimes considered as a branch of the Hephthalites, during the last quarter of the 5th century.[52][29] The Alchon Huns followed the Kidarites into India circa 500, invading Indian territory as far as Eran and Kausambi. By 520, Gandhara was definitely under Hephthalite (Alchon Huns) control, according to Chinese pilgrims.[16]

Anania Shirakatsi states in his Ashkharatsuyts, written in 7th century, that one of the Bulgar tribes, known as the Kidar were part of the Kidarites. The Kidar took part in Bulgar migrations across the Volga into Europe.[53]

Main Kidarite rulers[edit]

Yosada c.335 CE[54]
Kirada c.335-345 CE[54]
Peroz c.345-350 CE[54]
Kidara c.350-390 CE[54]
Grumbates c.359 CE
Kungas ?
Brahmi Buddhatala fl. c. 370
(Unknown) fl. 388/400
Varhran (II) fl. c. 425
Goboziko fl. c. 450
Salanavira mid 400's
Vinayaditya late 400's
Kandik early 500's

See also[edit]

Part of a series on the
History of Turkmenistan
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Related historical names of the region
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Part of a series on the
History of Afghanistan
"Interior of the palace of Shauh Shujah Ool Moolk, Late King of Cabul"
Related historical names of the region

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cribb, Joe. The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence. p. 91.
  2. ^ a b Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. pp. 119–120. ISBN 9789231032110.
  3. ^ a b c Cribb, Joe (2010). "The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence". Coins, Art and Chronology II: The First Millennium C.E. In the Indo-Iranian Borderlands, Edited by M. Alram et Al.: 95–96.
  4. ^ a b Touraj Daryaee (2009), Sasanian Persia, London and New York: I.B.Tauris, p. 17
  5. ^ a b c Sasanian Seals and Sealings, Rika Gyselen, Peeters Publishers, 2007, p.1
  6. ^ a b c d e f The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas, Cambridge University Press, 2014 p.284sq
  7. ^ "CNG: eAuction 208. HUNNIC TRIBES, Kidarites. Kidara. Circa AD 350–385. AR Drachm (28mm, 3.97 g, 3h)". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Iranica, article Kidarites: "On Gandhāran coins bearing their name the ruler is always clean-shaven, a fashion more typical of Altaic people than of Iranians" in "KIDARITES – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  9. ^ Ancient History of Central Asia: Yuezhi origin Royal Peoples: Kushana, Huna, Gurjar and Khazar Kingdoms, Adesh Katariya, 2007, p. 171.
  10. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, page 120,
  11. ^ Maas, Michael (2015). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila. p. 185. ISBN 9781107021754.
  12. ^ Kuṣāṇa Coins and Kuṣāṇa Sculptures from Mathurā, Gritli von Mitterwallner, Frederic Salmon Growse, page 49,
  13. ^ Ancient Coin Collecting VI: Non-Classical Cultures, Wayne G. Sayles, p. 79,
  14. ^ Grenet, Frantz (2006). "A Hunnish Kushanshah". Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology: 125–131.
  15. ^ Cribb, Joe (2010). "The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence". Coins, Art and Chronology II: The First Millennium C.E. In the Indo-Iranian Borderlands, Edited by M. Alram et Al.: 97.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Huns, Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge, 2015 p.50 sq
  17. ^ a b History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.119 sq
  18. ^ Cunningham, A. (1889). "Coins of the Tochari, Kushâns, or Yue-Ti". The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society. 9: 268–311. JSTOR 42680025.
  19. ^ Samolin, William (1956). "A Note on Kidara and the Kidarites". Central Asiatic Journal. 2 (4): 295–297. JSTOR 41926398. The Yueh-chih origin of Kidara is clearly established...
  20. ^ a b c Cribb 2010, p. 99.
  21. ^ a b c d Cribb 2018, p. 23.
  22. ^ Cribb 2010, p. 109.
  23. ^ Cribb 2010, p. 123.
  24. ^ Cribb 2014, p. 4.
  25. ^ A similar coin with reading of the legend [1]
  26. ^ Cribb, Joe. The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence.pdf (PDF). p. 107.
  27. ^ Cribb, Joe. The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence.pdf (PDF). pp. 91–146.
  28. ^ "ŠĀPUR II – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  29. ^ a b History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.38 sq
  30. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus 18.6.22
  31. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus 18.6.22
  32. ^ The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.286
  33. ^ The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.287
  34. ^ Tandon, Pankaj (2009). "An Important New Copper Coin of Gadahara". Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society (200): 19.
  35. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 122. ISBN 9789231032110.
  36. ^ "The entry of the Kidarites into India may firmly be placed some time round about the end of rule of Candragupta II or beginning of the rule of Kumaragupta I (circa 410-420 a.d.)" in Gupta, Parmeshwari Lal; Kulashreshtha, Sarojini (1994). Kuṣāṇa Coins and History. D.K. Printworld. p. 122. ISBN 9788124600177.
  37. ^ Tandon, Pankaj (2009). "An Important New Copper Coin of Gadahara". Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society (200): 19.
  38. ^ a b c d Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 167. ISBN 9789231032110.
  39. ^ a b Agrawal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 128. ISBN 9788120805927.
  40. ^ a b c "Gadahara. The last branch, in course of time, yielded to Samudragupta, as is borne out by certain coins of this branch having the name Samudra. There is a good deal of similarity between the coins of the Gadaharas and the Kidara Kushanas." in Bajpai, K. D. (2004). Indian Numismatic Studies. Abhinav Publications. p. 112. ISBN 9788170170358.
  41. ^ A Comprehensive History of India. Orient Longmans. 1957. p. 253.
  42. ^ Tandon, Pankaj (2009). "An Important New Copper Coin of Gadahara". Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society (200): 19.
  43. ^ "The figures represented here, although given a Buddhist significance, are probably modelled on the Hephthalites or earlier Kidarites who had conquered India's northwest provinces" Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (1974). Hommage universel: actes du congrès de Shiraz 1971, et autres études rédigées à l'occasion du 2500e anniversaire de la fondation de l'empire perse. Bibliothèque Pahlavi. ISBN 9789004039025.
  44. ^ Brancaccio, Pia (2010). The Buddhist Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. BRILL. ISBN 9789004185258.
  45. ^ Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D by Kailash Chand Jain p.242
  46. ^ a b Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 123–126. ISBN 9789231032110.
  47. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 141. ISBN 9789231032110.
  48. ^ Longman History & Civics ICSE 9 by Singh p.81
  49. ^ "CNG: The Coin Shop. HUNNIC TRIBES, Kidarites. "King B". Late 4th–early 5th century AD. AR Drachm (28mm, 4.05 g, 3h)". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  50. ^ ALRAM, MICHAEL (2014). "From the Sasanians to the Huns New Numismatic Evidence from the Hindu Kush". The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-). 174: 272. ISSN 0078-2696. JSTOR 44710198.
  51. ^ a b Zeimal 1996, p. 130.
  52. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  53. ^ Lang, David Marshall (1976). The Bulgarians: From Pagan Times to the Ottoman Conquest. pp. 31 and 204. ISBN 9780891585305. Armenian geographer states that the principal tribes of Bulgars were called Kuphi-Bulgars, Duchi-Bulgars, Oghkhundur-Bulgars, and Kidar-Bulgars, by the last-named of which he meant the Kidarites, a branch of the Huns.
  54. ^ a b c d Cribb, Joe; Donovan, Peter (2014). Kushan, Kushano-Sasanian, and Kidarite Coins A Catalogue of Coins From the American Numismatic Society by David Jongeward and Joe Cribb with Peter Donovan. p. 4.