Kidnapped (novel)

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RLS Kidnapped 1886 US.jpg
First American edition, New York: Scribner's Sons, 1886
Author Robert Louis Stevenson
Country United Kingdom
Language English, Lowland Scots
Genre Adventure novel
Historical novel
Publisher Cassell and Company Ltd
Publication date
Media type Print (Hardback)
Pages 136
ISBN 0-486-41026-9
OCLC 43167976
823/.8 21
LC Class PR5484 .K5 2000
Followed by Catriona (1893)

Kidnapped is a historical fiction adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, written as a "boys' novel" and first published in the magazine Young Folks from May to July 1886. The novel has attracted the praise and admiration of writers as diverse as Henry James, Jorge Luis Borges, and Hilary Mantel.[1] A sequel, Catriona, was published in 1893.

Kidnapped is set around 18th-century Scottish events, notably the "Appin Murder", which occurred near Ballachulish in 1752 in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745.[2][3] Many of the characters were real people, including one of the principals, Alan Breck Stewart. The political situation of the time is portrayed from multiple viewpoints, and the Scottish Highlanders are treated sympathetically.

The full title of the book is Kidnapped: Being Memoirs of the Adventures of David Balfour in the Year 1751: How he was Kidnapped and Cast away; his Sufferings in a Desert Isle; his Journey in the Wild Highlands; his acquaintance with Alan Breck Stewart and other notorious Highland Jacobites; with all that he Suffered at the hands of his Uncle, Ebenezer Balfour of Shaws, falsely so-called: Written by Himself and now set forth by Robert Louis Stevenson.


The central character and narrator is 17-year-old David Balfour. (Balfour is Stevenson's mother's maiden name.) His parents have recently died, and he is out to make his way in the world. He is given a letter by the minister of Essendean, Mr. Campbell, to be delivered to the House of Shaws in Cramond, where David's uncle, Ebenezer Balfour, lives. On his journey, David asks many people where the House of Shaws is, and all of them speak of it darkly as a place of fear and evil.

David arrives at the ominous House of Shaws and is confronted by his paranoid Uncle Ebenezer, who is armed with a blunderbuss. His uncle is also miserly, living on "parritch" and small ale, and the House of Shaws itself is partially unfinished and somewhat ruinous. David is allowed to stay and soon discovers evidence that his father may have been older than his uncle, thus making David the rightful heir to the estate. Ebenezer asks David to get a chest from the top of a tower in the house but refuses to provide a lamp or candle. David is forced to scale the stairs in the dark and realises that not only is the tower unfinished in some places, but the steps simply end abruptly and fall into an abyss. David concludes that his uncle intended for him to have an "accident" so as not to have to give over his nephew's inheritance.

Alexander Stoddart's Kidnapped statue at Corstorphine, Edinburgh, depicting Alan Breck Stewart and David Balfour at their final parting on Corstorphine Hill (unveiled 2004). This statue misrepresents the characters' heights: Balfour is supposed to be at least a foot taller than Breck.[4]

David confronts his uncle, who promises to tell David the whole story of his father the next morning. A ship's cabin boy, Ransome, arrives the next day and tells Ebenezer that Captain Hoseason of the brig Covenant needs to meet him to discuss business. Ebenezer takes David to a pier on the Firth of Forth, where Hoseason awaits, and David makes the mistake of leaving his uncle alone with the captain while he visits the shore with Ransome. Hoseason later offers to take them on board the brig briefly, and David complies, only to see his uncle returning to shore alone in a skiff. David is then immediately struck senseless.

David awakens, bound hand and foot, in the hold of the ship. He becomes weak and sick, and one of the Covenant's officers, Mr. Riach, convinces Hoseason to move David up to the forecastle. Mr. Shuan, a mate on the ship, finally takes his routine abuse of Ransome too far and murders the unfortunate youth. David is repulsed at the crew's behaviour and learns that the captain plans to sell him into slavery in the Carolinas.

David becomes the slain cabin boy's replacement, and the ship encounters contrary winds which drive her back toward Scotland. Fog-bound near the Hebrides, they strike a small boat. All of the small boat's crew are killed except one man, Alan Breck Stewart, who is brought on board and offers Hoseason a large sum of money to drop him off on the mainland. David later overhears the crew plotting to kill Alan and take all his money. David and Alan barricade themselves in the round house, where Alan kills the murderous Shuan, and David wounds Hoseason. Five of the crew members are killed outright, and the rest refuse to continue fighting.

Alan is a Jacobite who supports the claim of the House of Stuart to the throne of Scotland. He is initially suspicious of the pro-Whig David, who is also loyal to King George II. Still, the young man has given a good account of himself in the fighting and impresses the veteran soldier.

Hoseason has no choice but to give Alan and David passage back to the mainland. David tells his tale to Alan, who in turn states that his birthplace, Appin, is under the tyrannical administration of Colin Roy of Glenure, the King's factor and a Campbell. Alan vows that should he find the "Red Fox" he will kill him.

The Covenant tries to negotiate a difficult channel without a proper chart or pilot, and is soon driven aground on the notorious Torran Rocks. David and Alan are separated in the confusion, with David being washed ashore on the isle of Erraid, near Mull, while Alan and the surviving crew row to safety on that same island. David spends a few days alone in the wild before getting his bearings.

David learns that his new friend has survived, and David has two encounters with beggarly guides: one who attempts to stab him with a knife, and another who is blind but an excellent shot with a pistol. David soon reaches Torosay, where he is ferried across the river, receives further instructions from Alan's friend Neil Roy McRob, and later meets a catechist who takes the lad to the mainland.

Kidnapped cover, by William Brassey Hole (1846–1917), London edition, Cassell and Company, 1886

As he continues his journey, David encounters none other than the Red Fox (Colin Roy) himself, who is accompanied by a lawyer, a servant, and a sheriff's officer. When David stops the Campbell man to ask him for directions, a hidden sniper kills the King's hated agent.

David is denounced as a conspirator and flees for his life, but by chance reunites with Alan. The youth believes Alan is the assassin, but Alan denies responsibility.

The pair flee from redcoat search parties until they reach James (Stewart) of the Glens, whose family has heard of the murder, is burying their hidden store of weapons, and is burning papers that could incriminate them. James tells the travellers he will have no choice but to "paper" them (distribute printed descriptions of the two with a reward listed), but provides them with weapons and food for their journey south, and David with a change of clothes (which the printed description will not match).

Alan and David then begin their flight through the heather, hiding from government soldiers by day. As the trek drains David's strength, his health rapidly deteriorates; by the time they are set upon by wild Highlanders who are sentries for Cluny Macpherson, an outlawed chief in hiding, the lad is barely conscious.

Alan convinces Cluny to give them shelter. The Highland chieftain is offended when David covenantly refuses to play cards but defers to the respected Alan's opinion of the lad. David is tended by a Highland doctor and soon recovers, though in the meantime Alan loses all of their money at cards with Cluny, only for Cluny to give it back when David practically begs for it.

When David and Alan resume their flight in cold and rainy weather, David becomes ill again and nurses a childish anger against Alan over the affront of having to beg for their money. Alan patiently tries to help the sulking David for several days, but he finally gives in to his own pride and begins taunting him. David forces a showdown with swords by insulting Alan's courage and loyalty, but Alan cannot bring himself to fight him. David, now sick in the extreme, at last feels contrition and realizes a plea for help can do what an apology will not: mend the rift between them. Alan carries David on his back down the burn to reach the nearest house, fortuitously that of a Maclaren, Duncan Dhu, who is both an ally of the Stewarts and a skilled piper.

David is bedridden and given a doctor's care, while Alan hides nearby, visiting after dark. During David's nearly month-long recuperation, he is visited by many curious but loyal neighbours in the region and by a foe of Alan's, Robin Oig, the son of Rob Roy MacGregor and a wanted outlaw. Alan and Robin nearly fight a duel, but Duncan persuades them to leave the contest to bagpipes. Both play brilliantly, but Alan admits Robin is the better piper, so the quarrel is resolved. Alan and David prepare to leave the Highlands and return to David's country.

In one of the most humorous passages in the book, Alan convinces an innkeeper's daughter from Limekilns (unnamed in Kidnapped but called "Alison Hastie" in its sequel) that David is a dying young Jacobite nobleman, despite David's objections, and she ferries them across the Firth of Forth. There, they meet a lawyer of David's uncle's, Mr. Rankeillor, who agrees to help David receive his inheritance. Rankeillor explains that David's father and uncle had once quarrelled over a woman, David's mother, and the older Balfour had married her, informally giving the estate to his brother while living as an impoverished schoolteacher with his wife. This agreement had lapsed with his death.

David and the lawyer hide in bushes outside Ebenezer's house while Alan speaks to him, claiming to be a man who found David nearly dead after the wreck of the Covenant and says he is representing folk holding him captive in the Hebrides. He asks David's uncle whether Alan should kill David or keep him. The uncle flatly denies Alan's statement that David had been kidnapped but eventually admits that he paid Hoseason "twenty pound" to take David to "Caroliny". David and Rankeillor then emerge from their hiding places, and speak with Ebenezer in the kitchen, eventually agreeing that David will be provided two-thirds of the estate's income for as long as his uncle lives.

The novel ends with David and Alan's parting ways; Alan returns to France, and David goes to a bank to settle his money.


David Balfour is accused of being an accomplice in the Appin Murder, a real life murder. The characters of Alan Breck Stewart, Colin Roy Campbell, James Stewart, Cluny Macpherson, and Robin Oig Macgregor were real people.[2]


  • David Balfour: Honest 17-year-old who heads out on his own after his father dies. His mother had died earlier. David is unaware that he is heir to an estate, the House of Shaws. Although David is a Lowland Scot, he could be any boy anywhere embarking on a journey from youth to manhood.
  • Ebenezer Balfour: David's devious uncle. Ebenezer cheated David's father out of the House of Shaws. He first tries to murder David. When that scheme fails, he arranges to have him kidnapped and sold into slavery.
  • Alexander Balfour: David's father, dishinherited by his younger brother Ebenezer Balfour.
  • Mr. Campbell: Kind minister of Essendean who helps David at the beginning of his journey.

At sea and in the Hebrides[edit]

  • Capt.Hoseason: Captain of the Covenant. He "buys" David from Ebenezer in hopes of selling him into slavery at a profit.
  • Mr. Shuan: First officer under Captain Hoseason. When he drinks, he is extremely cruel.
  • Mr. Riach: Second officer under Captain Hoseason.
  • Ransome: Abused cabin boy whom Hoseason uses to help ensnare David in the kidnap scheme.
  • Old Man and His Wife: Poor but generous residents of the Island of Mull who give David food, drink, and valuable information, then allow him to rest in their hut.
  • Guide: Island of Mull resident who lodges David for five shillings and agrees to guide him to Torosay.
  • Hector Maclean: Island of Mull resident who changes a guinea into shillings so that David can pay the guide.
  • Duncan Mackiegh: Blind man who guides David through part of the Island of Mull. In spite of his blindness, he knows every rock and bush on the island. He is a dangerous man who carries a pistol and can shoot "by ear". However, David pretends to have a pistol, too, and thereby avoids trouble with him.
  • Neil Roy Macrob: Friend of Alan's and skipper of a ferry that takes David from Torosay to mainland Scotland. Macrob gives David directions for how to assemble with Stewart.
  • Island of Mull Innkeeper: Man who befriends David and lodges him at Torosay.

In the Highlands[edit]

Robert Louis Stevenson

Alan Breck Stewart: A daring and foolhardy Highlander who has gone into exile in France and wears a French uniform. He is tasked with collecting funds for the exiled Jacobite leadership from the clans previously in rebellion against the Hanoverian crown. He becomes friends with David and helps him survive when both are hunted by soldiers through the wilderness. Stewart is based on a real-life Jacobite rebel of the same name. "Breck" is a nickname referring to pockmarking on his face.

Colin Roy Campbell: Also known as the "Red Fox." Scotsman loyal to the Hanoverian crown. He acts as the king's agent in two Highland counties, Appin and Mamore. His job is to collect taxes and claim for the Crown Scottish lands forfeited by pro-Jacobite clans. He is shot dead while talking with David. Alan is accused as the murderer and David as his accomplice. Colin Campbell was a real-life royal official, who was shot dead near Ballachulish. His case became known as the "Appin Murder".[2]

James of the Glen (James Stewart): Highland chieftain who lost his lands to the Hanoverian crown. He is the head of the Stewart clan to which Alan belongs. James is based on a real-life Scotsman of the same name who was accused of being an accomplice and aiding and abetting the murder of Colin Campbell. He was tried at Inveraray, found guilty, and hanged near Ballachulish November 8, 1752.[2]

Mrs. Stewart: Wife of James Stewart. She treats David kindly and says she will always remember him.

Cluny Macpherson: Another chieftain who lost his lands, chief of clan Vourich. As a Jacobite rebel, he is in exile from Hanoverian rule and lives in a hideout near Ben Alder.

Robin Oig: Son of Rob Roy MacGregor, a famous Highland outlaw.

Henderland: Evangelist who becomes friends with David in the Highlands and provides him valuable information about the region. He is moderate and reasonable in carrying out his mission.


Queensferry Innkeeper: Man who provides some information about Ebenezer Balfour's background.

Mr. Rankeillor: Lawyer who helps David settle legal matters with his uncle.

Major themes[edit]

The solid historical and environmental background, and the realism with which the physical hardship suffered by Breck and David is described, give the novel an immediacy which perhaps explains its hold on some readers, given the simple narrative line and spare plotting. Indeed, plot only takes a dominant role at the beginning and end of the novel, while the heart of it lies in what Henry James described as the "really excellent" chapters of the flight in the heather.[citation needed] Some of the Scottish dialogue may be hard going for non-Scots readers, though Stevenson himself admitted that he had applied only a smattering so as not to tax the inner ear of non-Scots.[citation needed] Kidnapped also shows the importance of friendship and loyalty, mostly between David and Breck.[citation needed]

Literary significance and criticism[edit]

Kidnapped was well received and sold well while Stevenson was alive, but after his death many viewed it with scepticism, seeing it as simply a "boys' novel". By the mid-20th century, however, it had regained critical approval and study. It presents, however, the Jacobite version of the Appin Murder[2] and is not historically accurate.[citation needed]

The sequel Catriona (1893), was written while Stevenson was living on Samoa. Its theme is largely romantic and less adventurous.


The novel has been adapted a number of times, and in multiple media. The Robert Louis Stevenson website maintains a complete list of derivative works.[5]

Film and television versions were made in 1938, 1948, 1960, 1971, 1978, 1986, 1995 and 2005.

Alan Grant wrote and Cam Kennedy illustrated a 2007 graphic novel adaptation. Translations of the graphic novel were also published in Lowland Scots and Scots Gaelic.[citation needed]

Marvel Illustrated published a comic book version in 2007-2008, by Roy Thomas and Mario Gully, who had previously adapted Treasure Island.[6]

A four-part adaptation written by Catherine Czerkawska and starring David Rintoul as David Balfour and Paul Young as Alan Breck Stewart was broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 1985.

A new two-part adaptation written by Chris Dolan and starring Owen Whitelaw as David Balfour and Michael Nardone as Alan Breck was broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 2016.[7]

James Annesley case[edit]

Beginning with some of the earliest reviews of Kidnapped in 1886,[8] it has been thought the novel was structured after the true story of James Annesley, a presumptive heir to five aristocratic titles who was kidnapped at the age of 12 by his uncle Richard and shipped from Dublin to America in 1728.[9] He managed to escape after 13 years and return to reclaim his birthright from his uncle in one of the longest courtroom dramas of its time.[9] As Annesley biographer Ekirch says, "It is inconceivable that Stevenson, a voracious reader of legal history, was unfamiliar with the saga of James Annesley, which by the time of Kidnapped’s publication in 1886 had already influenced four other 19th-century novels, most famously Sir Walter Scott’s Guy Mannering (1815) and Charles Reade’s The Wandering Heir (1873)." [8][9]

Edinburgh: City of Literature[edit]

As part of the events to celebrate Edinburgh's being named the first UNESCO City of Literature, three versions of the book were made freely available (including being left on buses and in other public places) throughout February 2007.[10] These three versions were:


  1. ^ Mantel, Hilary Mantel. "The Art of Fiction No. 226 - Hilary Mantel". Paris Review. The Paris Review. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Auslan Cramb (November 14, 2008). "18th Century murder conviction 'should be quashed'". The Daily Telegraph. 
  3. ^ Stevenson changed the date of the Appin murder from May 1752 to June 1751.
  4. ^ Kidnapped, Chapter IX: "[Breck] was smallish in stature" and Chapter XXIV: ""O, Alan," says [Balfour], "and me a good twelve inches taller?""
  5. ^ Robert Louis Stevenson Derivative Works
  6. ^ CCI: Thomas and Gully Get "Kidnapped", Comic Book Resources, July 25, 2008
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b "The story behind Kidnapped", Spectator readers respond to recent articles, Spectator, 3 March 2010
  9. ^ a b c Roger Ekirch, Birthright: the true story that inspired Kidnapped. ISBN 978-0-393-06615-9
  10. ^ Edinburgh UNESCO City of Literature: Projects

External links[edit]