Kidnapping in the United States
|Part of a series.|
|Types of Kidnapping|
Kidnapping in the United States remains one of the most common crimes in the country. In some cases, kidnapping involved a notable person.
Kidnapping statistics for U.S. adults continue to remain elusive; the crime of kidnapping is not separately recorded by the Uniform Crime Report. In 2010, according to NCIC's Missing Person File, over 65,000 individuals were categorized as "person over the age of 21, not meeting the criteria for entry in any category who is missing and for whom there is a reasonable concern for his/her safety".
Parental kidnapping remains an issue; thousands of cases are registered every year. In 1976, parental kidnapping in the United States stood at 60,000.[clarification needed] By 1984, it was between 459,000 and 751,000. In 2010, the US Department of Justice reported 200,000 cases of parental kidnapping; these comprised both domestic and international abductions.
In 1999, an estimated 58,200 children were victims of non-parental abduction.
The federal government estimated 840,279 missing persons cases in 2001; about 50,000 were classified to be younger than 18. Around 100 cases per year can be classified as abductions by strangers.
According to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, referring to U.S. Department of Justice reports, about 800,000 persons are reported missing every year—above 2,000 missing persons a day. Around 5% of these are under the age of 18.
According to 18 U.S.C. 1201, whoever illegally confines, decoys, kidnaps, abducts, seizes or takes away a person and holds for ransom or prize can be considered as a criminal.
In some instances, it cannot be considered as kidnapping if the person is:
- willingly transported by the parent.
- taken by officers, employees as described in section 1114 as an officer or employee engaged in or on account of the performance of official duties for the United States Government.
- foreign official, an internationally protected person as defined in section 1116, it includes the Chief of State or the political equivalent, President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Ambassador, Foreign Minister, or other officer of Cabinet rank or above of a foreign government, among others.
Kidnapping of a person can be punished by imprisonment up to life. If kidnapping resulted in the death of a person, it can be punished by execution or life imprisonment.
|Date||Victim(s)||Abductor(s)||Location||Age of victim(s)||Outcome||Notes|
|1758||Mary Jemison||Seneca warriors||Adams County, Pennsylvania, US||12||Stayed with abductors||Jemison, a Caucasian child, was taken from her family by Seneca warriors. The only one not massacred in her family, Jemison was adopted into the Seneca tribe and lived the remainder of her life with them.|
|May 19, 1836||Cynthia Ann Parker||Comanches||Fort Parker, Texas, US||9||Stayed with abductors||Parker, a Caucasian child, was taken from her family by Comanches raiding their home in Fort Parker, Texas. She lived for 24 years among the Comanche and married a war chief, Peta Nocona. She gave birth to three children, including the last war chief of the Comanche, Quanah Parker.|
|March 16, 1860||Larcena Pennington and Mercedes Sais Quiroz||Apaches||Canoa Ranch, Arizona, US||23 (Pennington)
Released and rescued (Quiroz)
|Pennington and her student Mercedes Sais Quiroz were abducted by Apaches. Later in the day Pennington was left for dead in the wilderness. Quiroz was freed in exchange for Apache prisoners.|
|July 1, 1874||Charley Ross||Bill Mosher and Joe Douglas||Germantown, Pennsylvania, US||4||Unknown||Charley Ross was the first American to be kidnapped for ransom that received wide public attention. The primary suspects were killed before they could be identified as the kidnappers and Ross was never found.|
|April 8, 1911||Elsie Paroubek||Unknown||Chicago, Illinois, US||5||Murdered||Paroubek was a Czech-American girl who disappeared while walking alone to her aunt's house (around the corner from where Elsie lived) in Chicago. Her body was found a month later in a drainage ditch. Several people, including Elsie's father and the police in charge of the investigation, believed gypsies (who had several camps in the area at the time) were involved.|
|August 23, 1912||Bobby Dunbar||Unknown||St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, US||4||Unknown||Bobby Dunbar was a child who disappeared near Swayze Lake. After an eight-month nationwide search, investigators found a child, claimed by Bobby's parents as their son, in the hands of William Cantwell Walters of Mississippi, who was convicted of kidnapping. In 2004, further investigation by Dunbar's granddaughter led to conclusive DNA proof that the child in Walters' custody was not the Dunbars' son and that the Walters had been wrongfully convicted.|
|December 15, 1927||Marion Parker||William Hickman||Los Angeles||12||Murdered||Parker, the daughter of a Los Angeles banker, was kidnapped and killed by William Hickman. A few days after being paid a small ransom, Hickman was arrested and tried. On October 19, 1928, Hickman was executed for his crime.|
|March 1, 1932||Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr.||Bruno Richard Hauptmann||East Amwell Township, New Jersey, US||1||Murdered||Charles was the son of famous American aviator, Charles Lindbergh. Dubbed "The Crime of the Century", on 1 March, the child was 20 months old when he was taken from his crib in his home. After a ransom negotiations were unsuccessful, the child's remains were found by a passing truck driver on 12 May. Hauptmann was convicted of the crime on 13 February 1935, and was sentenced to death, and was electrocuted on 3 April 1936. Congress passed the "Lindbergh Law", formally known as "The Federal Kidnapping Act of 1932", on 13 June 1932. The law was created to allow federal authorities step in and pursue kidnappers once they had crossed state lines with their victim.|
|May 15, 1930||Mary Agnes Moroney||Unknown||Chicago, Illinois, US||2||Unknown||Moroney was taken from her home by a woman who identified herself as "Julia Otis" and claimed to have been sent by a social worker. Her kidnapping is the oldest unsolved case of this nature in the files of the Chicago Missing Persons Bureau.|
|May 27, 1933||Mary McElroy||George McGee, Walter McGee, Clarence Click, and Clarence Stevens||Kansas City, Missouri, US||25||Released||McElroy, the daughter of City Manager Henry McElroy of Kansas City, was kidnapped and held for ransom. She was released unharmed after the ransom was paid and the four kidnappers were later apprehended and given life sentences.|
|November 9, 1933||Brooke Hart||Thomas Harold Thurmond and John M. Holmes||San Jose, California, US||22||Murdered||Hart, the son of a San Jose, California businessman, was kidnapped and murdered thereafter. His kidnappers were lynched by a mob.|
|April 25, 1934||June Robles||Unknown||Tucson, Arizona, US||6||Released/rescued||Robles was abducted and held for ransom. After negotiations between her parents and her captors, Robles was found unharmed on a highway after nineteen days in captivity. Only one arrest was made in connection with her abduction.|
|December 27, 1936||Charles Mattson||Unknown||Tacoma, Washington, US||10||Murdered||Mattson was abducted from his home and held for $28,000. He was found dead in January, 1937.|
|September 28, 1953||Robert "Bobby" Cosgrove Greenlease, Jr.||Bonnie Heady and Carl A. Hall||Kansas City, Missouri, US||6||Murdered||Greenlease was kidnapped and immediately murdered. The murderers demanded and were paid a $600,000 ransom by the boy's father, a wealthy automobile dealer. Notable in the case was that more than half of the ransom money was stolen by a corrupt police officer and never recovered.|
|July 4, 1956||Peter Weinberger||Angelo LaMarca||Westbury, New York, US||1 month||Released/died||LaMarca took the baby from his home for a $2,000 ransom. LaMarca told investigators he went to the first drop site the day after the kidnapping – with the baby in the car – but he was scared away by all of the press and police in the area. He drove away, abandoned the baby alive in some heavy brush just off a highway exit, and went home. A search of the area by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents and Nassau County Police Department ensued. An FBI agent spotted a diaper pin – then the decomposed remains of Peter Weinberger. The Weinberger case also resulted in new legislation – signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower – which reduced the FBI's waiting period in kidnapping cases from 7 days to 24 hours. LaMarca was executed in the electric chair on 7 August 1958.|
|December 4, 1972||Steven Stayner||Kenneth Parnell and Ervin Edward Murphy||Merced, California, US||7||Escaped||Stayner was kidnapped on his way home from school. He was raised as Parnell's son for 7 years until Parnell abducted another child, Timmy White, in 1980. The two boys escaped on March 1, 1980.|
|January 16, 1973||Anna Christian Waters||Unknown||Half Moon Bay, California, US||5||Unknown||Waters disappeared from her backyard; presumed abducted by her father but never found.|
|February 4, 1974||Patty Hearst||Symbionese Liberation Army||Berkeley, California, US||19||Stayed with abductors until arrested||Hearst, an heiress to the Hearst Corporation mass media fortune, was kidnapped from her apartment by a left-wing guerrilla group. She announced her allegiance to the group in April 1974, and on April 15, 1974, took part in a bank robbery. She is thought to have been a victim of Stockholm Syndrome. Captured by the FBI in September 1975, Hearst was sentenced to 35 years in prison for bank robbery. She served 22 months and was released from prison on February 1, 1979. President Bill Clinton granted her a full pardon on January 20, 2001.|
|May 19, 1977||Colleen Stan||Cameron Hooker||Red Bluff, California, US||20||Escaped||Stan was kidnapped by Hooker while hitchhiking. She was tortured and sexually abused over seven years until Hooker's wife, Janice, helped her escape in 1984.|
|June 12, 1977||Oklahoma girl scout murders||Unknown||Mayes County, Oklahoma, US||8–10||Murdered||The Oklahoma Girl Scout murders is an unresolved crime that occurred at Camp Scott. The victims were three Girl Scouts, who were raped and murdered and their bodies left in the woods near their tent at summer camp. Although the case was classified as "solved" when Gene Leroy Hart, a local jail escapee with a history of violence, was arrested and stood trial for the crime, he was acquitted. Thirty years later authorities conducted new DNA testing, but the results proved inconclusive, as the samples were too old.|
|1978||Christi and Bobby Baskin||Grandparents Marvin L. Maple and his wife||Murfreesboro, Tennessee||7–8||Found 20 years later||Children remained estranged|
|February 14, 1980||Timmy White||Kenneth Parnell||Ukiah, California, US||5||Escaped/rescued||White was abducted by Parnell who had previously abducted Steven Stayner 7 years earlier. Stayner helped White escape on March 1, 1980.|
|1981||Bryon Anthony "Bizzy Bone" McCane II||Byron McCane||Columbus, Ohio, US||5||Rescued||McCane was kidnapped by his stepfather and was led to believe that his grandmother and mother were dead. He didn't reunite with his mother until a neighbor from the reservation in Oklahoma where he was living recognized his picture from a photo shown at the end of the 1983 movie Adam. McCane later grew up to become a famous rap artist.|
|July 27, 1981||Adam Walsh||Ottis Toole||Hollywood, Florida, US||6||Murdered||Walsh was abducted from a Sears department store at the Hollywood Mall and was later found murdered. His father, John Walsh, later became the host of America's Most Wanted.|
|July 6, 1983||Tammy Lynn Leppert||Unknown||Rockledge, Florida, US||18||Unknown||Leppart was a former child actress and model who disappeared in unknown circumstances.|
|July 19, 1984||Edith Rosenkranz||Glenn I Wright and Dennis Moss||Washington, D.C., US||Released||Edith, wife of Dr. George Rosenkranz, a wealthy Mexico City businessman, was kidnapped at gunpoint from the Washington-Sheraton Hotel during an American Contract Bridge League national tournament. She was returned unharmed two days later after her husband paid a ransom of US$1,000,000. The ransom money was later recovered and the two kidnappers were later convicted and sentenced, as was a third defendant, Orland D. Tolden.|
|April 6, 1986||Anthonette Cayedito||Unknown||Gallup, New Mexico, US||9||Unknown||Cayedito was kidnapped from her home. She was profiled on Unsolved Mysteries a few years after her disappearance. It is believed that she phoned 911 a year after her kidnapping in a desperate attempt to be rescued. She may have also been seen by a waitress in Las Vegas a few years later. The girl has never been located.|
|August 4, 1987||Carlina White||Annugetta "Ann" Pettway||New York City, US||19 days||Escaped||White was taken from Harlem Hospital Center as an infant and raised by Pettway. She was reunited with her family in January 2011, 23 years later, in the longest known non-parental abduction.|
|September 20, 1988||Tara Calico||Unknown||Belen, New Mexico, US||19||Unknown||Calico disappeared near her home after taking her usual bike ride. Several witnesses claimed she was being followed by a 1953–54 Ford pickup and was never heard from again. No sign of Tara was found until on 15 June 1989 when a woman found a Polaroid photo of an unidentified young girl and boy, both bound and gagged, in the parking lot of a convenience store in Port St. Joe, Florida. The girl in the Polaroid is believed to be Tara, but this has not been confirmed. Two other Polaroid photographs, possibly of Tara, have surfaced over the years, but have yet to be released to the public. It is unclear whether Tara Calico is still alive.|
|November 19, 1988||Michaela Garecht||Unknown||Hayward, California, US||9||Unknown||Garecht was abducted by a Caucasian male thought to be about 18–24 years old. Michaela rode to a small neighborhood market on her scooter with her best friend to get treats. When Garecht tried to grab her scooter a man forced her into his car. Neither Michaela or the abductor have been seen or heard from since.|
|October 22, 1989||Jacob Wetterling||Danny Heinrich||St. Joseph, Minnesota, US||11||Murdered||Wetterling was kidnapped on his way home by a masked gunman. Danny Heirich confessed to the kidnapping and murder of Wetterling in September 2016.|
|June 10, 1991||Jaycee Lee Dugard||Phillip Garrido and Nancy Garrido||South Lake Tahoe, California, US||11||Rescued||Dugard was kidnapped from a bus stop and held captive for 18 years. She was found alive by suspicious parole officers on August 26, 2009. During captivity she gave birth to two children.|
|September 11, 1991||Carrie Lawson||Jerry Bland||Jasper, Alabama, US||25||Murdered||Lawson was a young lawyer kidnapped in an infamously bungled case in FBI history. A ransom demand of $300,000 was made, which was paid by the family. The FBI inserted tracking devices in the money bag and on the delivery person, but both were on the same frequency and the FBI tracked the delivery person, leaving the money drop by mistake. After later getting a break in the case, the FBI went to the home of suspect Jerry Bland, who refused entry, and while retrieving a search warrant left in the car, the suspect retreated inside and shot himself, taking any information on her whereabouts to his grave. Neither Lawson nor her remains were ever found. The ransom money was mostly recovered from the suspect's attic and vehicle.|
|December 28, 1992||Katie Beers||John Esposito||Long Island, New York, US||9||Released and rescued||Two days before her tenth birthday, Beers was lured into the home of John Esposito, a friend of her family. She was held captive inside a concrete bunker underneath Esposito's garage. Esposito falsely claimed that Beers was kidnapped by a third party in an amusement park, but 17 days after the abduction, he took police to where he was holding her.|
|August 18, 1993||Sara Ann Wood||Lewis Lent||Frankfort, New York, US||12||Murdered||Wood disappeared on a quiet road near her home. Lent, a janitor from Massachusetts, confessed to kidnapping, sexually assaulting, and killing Wood, but he refused to say where he buried her body. Lent had also pleaded guilty to the 1990 kidnapping and murder of 12-year-old Pittsfield, Massachusetts, native Jimmy Bernardo. Lent abducted Bernardo from the Pittsfield movie theater where Lent worked as a janitor. He was sentenced to life without parole for the Bernardo murder and sentenced to 25-years-to-life for the Wood murder. He is in prison in Massachusetts. Lent is suspected in a number of other child kidnapping cases. Lent recanted his confession and refuses to disclose the location of Wood's body. Lent has said that he can't say where her body is because she is not buried alone.|
|October 1, 1993||Polly Klaas||Richard Allen Davis||Petaluma, California||12||Murdered||Klaas was kidnapped from her home and later strangled. Davis's car got stuck in the mud a few miles from Polly's house. A local police officer pulled him out of the mud but did not query his license number with the police computer system, nor did he hear the BOLO (be on the lookout) broadcast to all CHP radios reporting that Davis was wanted for a parole violation. Davis has been convicted of kidnapping and first-degree murder and sentenced to death. BOLOs are now broadcast to all police radios: state, county, and municipal.|
|September 12, 1994||Michael Anthony Hughes||Unknown||Choctaw, Oklahoma, US||6||unknown||Hughes was abducted from his elementary school by his step-father, Franklin Delano Floyd. Two months later, Floyd was arrested in Kentucky, but the boy was not with him. He has given inconsistent statements regarding the boy's whereabouts, but Hughes was never located. It was later discovered that Hughes' mother, Sharon Marshall, was not only Floyd's wife, but was raised by Floyd from an early age and is assumed to be a childhood kidnapping victim herself. She died when Hughes was two years old. Floyd is the prime suspect in her murder as well.|
|August 14, 1994||Jameika Porch||Unknown||Chattanooga, Tennessee, US||4||Murdered||Porch was abducted from her bedroom at her grandmother's home. Her remains were discovered in 2000 and it was determined that she was strangled by ligature shortly after she vanished.|
|June 9, 1995||Morgan Nick||Unknown||Alma, Arkansas, US||6||Unknown||Nick was at a baseball game with her mother. She was last seen at her car after catching fireflies with her friends, and she was also seen talking to a man who police believe was her abductor. She has not been found; her mother started a foundation to help families with missing children.|
|September 16, 1995||Jessyca Mullenburg||Steven Oliver||Eau Claire, Wisconsin, US||13||Rescued||Oliver had first met Mullenberg when he was an aide at her school and became obsessed with her. He followed Mullenburg and her father as they moved to two locations in Wisconsin and eventually moved across the street from the Mullenbergs in Eau Claire. Oliver told Mullenburg that a publisher was interested in a story that she wrote; she agreed to go with Oliver in his car. Mullenberg dozed off in the car and, when she awoke, her feet and hands were bound. After an eight-hour drive to Kansas City, Mullenberg and Oliver boarded a plane to Houston, where she spent the majority of her three-and-a-half-month captivity in a motel room. Mullenberg says that physical, sexual and mental abuse were common. Within weeks, Oliver had convinced Mullenberg that her parents didn't want to get her back and didn't love her. Mullenberg says she became so completely disconnected from reality that she remembered very little from her past. A chance viewing of America's Most Wanted on television confirmed the manager's suspicions that Oliver was up to something. Immediately after recognizing Oliver's photo on the show, calls were placed to law enforcement and the FBI. Authorities who raced to the hotel knew who Mullenberg was but, after months in captivity, she did not. Only after authorities showed Mullenberg pictures from her past did she come back to reality.|
|January 13, 1996||Amber Hagerman||Unknown||Arlington, Texas, US||9||Murdered||Hagerman was kidnapped while riding her bike near her grandparents' home. She was found four days later by a hiker and his dog, naked in a creek bed. An autopsy revealed she had been alive two days, was raped and then her throat was slit. Although a $75,000 reward was offered for information leading to Hagerman's killer, he or she was never found. The task force investigating her murder was dissolved in June 1997. Her murder inspired the creation of the AMBER Alert system.|
|December 15, 1997||Delimar Vera Cuevas||Carolyn Correa||Frankford, Philadelphia, US||10 days||Rescued||Cuevas was a baby when she was thought to have been killed in a fire. Six years later, her mother discovered her at a birthday party. After DNA tests confirmed that the child was indeed her own, the kidnapper went on the run leaving behind three more children.|
|May 17, 1999||Andria Nichole Brewer||Karl Roberts||Arkansas, US||12||Murdered||Roberts, 35, was convicted in May 2000 by a Polk County Circuit Court jury of capital murder in the May 17, 1999, rape and strangling of Brewer, his niece.|
|October 12, 1999||Pamela Butler||Keith Nelson||Kansas City, Kansas, US||10||Murdered||Butler was rollerblading in front of her house when she was kidnapped by Nelson. He took her across the state line from Kansas into Grain Valley, Missouri, to a church. There he took her into a wooded area, where he raped and strangled Butler with some speaker wire. Nelson was arrested two days later near the Kansas River, and Butler's body was recovered the following day. Nelson was found guilty and sentenced to death by lethal injection in a federal facility.|
|April 6, 2001||Anne Sluti||Anthony Steven "Tony Zappa" Wright||Kearney, Nebraska, US||17||Released and rescued||Sluti was kidnapped from a mall parking lot in April 2001, taken out of state and raped for six days before Wright surrendered to police.|
|February 1, 2002||Danielle van Dam||David Westerfield||Sabre Springs, San Diego, California, US||7||Murdered||Van Dam was abducted from her bed; her body was found by searchers three weeks later in a remote area. Westerfield, who had no prior criminal record, lived two houses away from the van Dams. He was convicted and sentenced to death for the crime. As of 2012[update] he is incarcerated at San Quentin State Prison.|
|June 5, 2002||Elizabeth Smart||Brian David Mitchell||Salt Lake City, Utah, US||14||Rescued||Smart was kidnapped from her bedroom and was found alive nine months later in a suburb of Salt Lake City on March 12, 2003.|
|July 15, 2002||Samantha Runnion||Alejandro Avila||Stanton, California, US||5||Murdered||Runnion was kidnapped from the front yard of her home. Her body was found one day later in Cleveland National Forest. Avila is currently[when?] incarcerated at San Quentin State Prison in California.|
|July 22, 2002||Erica Pratt||Edward Johnson and James Burns||Philadelphia, US||7||Escaped||Pratt was forced into a car from a street. She escaped by gnawing through duct tape used to keep her bound and by smashing a window.|
|August 22, 2002||Michelle Knight||Ariel Castro||Cleveland, Ohio, US||21||Rescued||Knight was last seen when she left her cousin's house. Knight, along with Amanda Berry, a child of Amanda Berry born in captivity, and Gina DeJesus were found alive and in reasonable health[clarification needed] within 3 miles of the site of their disappearances on May 6, 2013.|
|October 6, 2002||Shawn Hornbeck||Michael J. Devlin||Richwoods, Missouri, US||11||Rescued||Hornbeck was kidnapped while riding his bicycle near his home. He was missing for over four years before being found alive at the age of 15 on January 12, 2007. 13-year-old Ben Ownby was found with him after having been missing for five days.|
|November 11, 2002||Samantha Nicole Burns||Unknown||Huntington, West Virginia, US||19||Unknown||Burns, a student of Marshall Community and Technical College Physical Therapy Program, was abducted at the Marshall University Court Yard Apartments. She was last heard from by her mother at 9:45 pm and her car was discovered burning around the Cabell–Wayne County lines at 3:30 am on November 12, 2002. She has not been seen or heard from since, is presumed dead and no remains have been recovered. South Carolina Death Row inmates Chadwick E. Fulks and Branden L. Basham claim responsibility for the disappearance of Burns. At that time they were escapees of another correctional facility. They have yet to provide enough credible details that lead to Burns's whereabouts.|
|April 21, 2003||Amanda Berry||Ariel Castro||Cleveland, Ohio, US||16||Escaped||Berry was abducted one day before her 17th birthday. During captivity, Berry gave birth to a daughter. Just over 10 years later, on May 6, 2013, Berry escaped along with Michelle Knight, Gina DeJesus and Berry's daughter. They were in reasonable health[clarification needed] and within 3 miles of the site of their disappearances.|
|April 2, 2004||Gina DeJesus||Ariel Castro||Cleveland, Ohio, US||14||Rescued||Just over nine years after DeJesus' abduction, on May 6, 2013, she was rescued along with Amanda Berry, Michelle Knight, and a child of Amanda Berry's born in captivity. They were in reasonable health and within 3 miles of the site of their disappearances.|
|February 24, 2005||Jessica Lunsford||John Couey||Homosassa, Florida, US||9||Murdered||Lunsford was abducted from her home in the early morning. Believed held captive over the weekend, she was raped and later murdered by 46-year-old Couey, who lived nearby. The media covered the investigation and trial of her killer extensively. On August 24, 2007, a judge in Inverness, Florida, sentenced Couey, a convicted sex offender, to death for kidnapping, sexual battery, and first-degree murder of Lunsford.|
|September 5, 2005||Taylor Behl||Benjamin Fawley||Richmond, Virginia, US||17||Murdered||*Behl, a Virginia Commonwealth University freshman, was found dead on October 5, 2005, in Mathews County, Virginia, after having gone missing a month earlier.|
|February 9, 2009||Haleigh Cummings||Unknown||Satsuma, Florida, US||5||Unknown||Cummings was last seen sleeping in her family's trailer. She was discovered missing and the rear door to the trailer was several inches ajar and the screen door had been propped open with a cinderblock. The case remains unsolved.|
|March 27, 2009||Sandra Cantu||Melissa Huckaby||Tracy, California, US||8||Murdered||Several days after Cantu went missing on April 6, a suitcase was discovered in a pond containing her body. On April 10, 2009, police arrested 28-year-old Melissa Huckaby and charged her with the kidnapping, rape, and murder of Cantu.|
|May 24, 2009||Nevaeh Buchanan||Unknown||Monroe, Michigan, US||5||Murdered||Buchanan was discovered missing from the parking lot of the Charlotte Arms apartment complex. A fishermen discovered Nevaeh's body along the banks of the River Raisin in Raisinville Township on June 4, 2009.|
|June 4, 2010||Kyron Horman||Unknown||Portland, Oregon, US||7||Unknown||Horman disappeared when he did not return home from Skyline Elementary School. Local and state police along with the FBI conducted an exhaustive search for the boy and launched a criminal investigation, but have not uncovered any significant information regarding the boy's whereabouts.|
|July 11, 2011||Leiby Kletzky||Levi Aro||New York City, US||8||Murdered||Kletzky was kidnapped on his way home from day camp in his Hasidic Jewish neighborhood.|
|October 3, 2011||Lisa Irwin||Unknown||Kansas City, Missouri, US||10 months||Unknown||Irwin disappeared from her home in the early hours of the morning.|
|April 21, 2012||Isabel Celis||Unknown||Tucson, Arizona||6||Unknown||Celis was reported missing by her father around 8 a.m. when she was not in her room, and a bedroom window was opened with the screen removed. Her remains were found in a rural area of Pima County, Arizona, on March 31, 2017.|
|January 29, 2013||Ethan Gilman||Jimmy Lee Dykes||Midland City, Alabama, US||5||Rescued||Dykes, a 65-year-old Vietnam War-era veteran, boarded a Dale County school bus, killed the driver, and took Gilman hostage. On the afternoon of February 4, law enforcement agents entered the bunker, killed Dykes, and rescued Gilman.|
|November 2, 2016||Sherri Papini||Two unknown women||Redding, California, US||34||Released on public highway||Sherri Papini was reportedly abducted on November 2, 2016, while jogging a mile from her home in Redding, California. She was found three weeks later, having been freed by her captors, but still restrained by chains, on the side of County Road 17 near Interstate 5 in Yolo County, about 150 miles (240 km) from her home.|
- Concannon, Diana M. (2013). Kidnapping: An Investigator’s Guide. p. 11.
- Fass, Paula S. Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America. Oxford university. p. 189.
- Dabbagh, Maureen (2011). Parental Kidnapping in America: An Historical and Cultural Analysis. McFarland. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9780786489053.
- "Facts & Stats". Childfindofamerica.org. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- Krajicek, David. "Missing Persons Statistics and Facts". Crimelibrary.com. Archived from the original on February 16, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Anderson Cooper 360° Blog". CNN.com. 2007-01-15. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- "Federal Conspiracy Law: A Brief Overview" (PDF). FAS.org. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "18 U.S. Code § 1201 - Kidnapping | LII / Legal Information Institute". Law.Cornell.edu. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "1758: Primary Document: Mary Jemison's Account of Kidnapping by Indians : SAGE Knowledge". Knowledge.sagepub.com. September 6, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Cynthia Ann Parker is kidnapped — History.com This Day in History — 5/19/1836". History.com. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Larcena Pennington: A Reenactment – Saturday, November 16, 2pm". www.Tubacaz.com. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "The Story of Charley Ross". Ushistory.org. July 4, 1995. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Rundquist, Leisa (2007). Pyre: A Poetics of Fire and Childhood in the Art of Henry Darger. ProQuest. p. 15.
- Frater, Jamie (2010). Listverse. Com's Ultimate Book of Bizarre Lists: Fascinating Facts and Shocking Trivia on Movies, Music, Crime, Celebrities, History, and More. Ulysses Press. p. 34.
- Dresbold, Michelle (2008). Sex, Lies, and Handwriting: A Top Expert Reveals the Secrets Hidden in Your Handwriting. Simon and Schuster. p. 52.
- "Mary Agnes Moroney". The Charley Project. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Hartmann, Rudolph H. (1999). The Kansas City Investigation: Pendergast's Downfall, 1938-1939. University of Missouri Press. p. 125.
- McKevitt, Gerald (1979). The University of Santa Clara: A History, 1851-1977. Stanford University Press. p. 239.
- Webb, William. Found: 15 Stories About the Survival and Rescue of Kidnapping Victims. p. 53.
- Nash, Jay Robert (1981). Almanac of world crime. p. 219.
- Hunsicker, A. Understanding International Counter Terrorism. Universal publishers. p. 208.
- Fass, Paul S. Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America. Oxford University Press. p. 134.
- Fass, Paul S. Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America. Oxford University Press. p. 219.
- Hickey, Eric W. Serial Murderers and their Victims. Cengage Learning. p. 198.
- "Anna Christian Waters". The Charley Project. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "What Underlies Stockholm Syndrome?". Psychology Today. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "CNN Programs - People in the News". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "The Trial of Patty Hearst: An Account". law2.UMKC.edu. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Ramsland, Katherine (May 19, 1977). "All about Coleen Stan - The Seven Year Sex Slave, on's Crime Library — The Initial Revelation — Crime Library". Crimelibrary.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Colleen Stan: The Simple Gifts of Life" By Jim B. Green
- Billie J. English; Sharon C. Calhoun. Oklahoma Heritage. Holt, Calhoun, Clark & Quaid Publishers. p. 400.
- "Father: "Remember the Good Times With Us"". NBC. February 4, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- Newton, Michael (2002). The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings. Infobase Publishing. p. 223.
- "ORIGINS | Child Kidnapping in America". Ehistory.osu.edu. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Gelles, Richard J (2011). The Third Lie: Why Government Programs Don't Work—and a Blueprint for Change. Left Coast Press. p. 86.
- Linedecker, Clifford L. (1990). Thrill Killers: True Portrayals of America's Most Vicious Murders. Knightsbridge Publishing Company Mass. p. 73.
- AROUND THE NATION; Houston Men Convicted In Abduction at Tourney. The New York Times, 19 December 1984. Retrieved 3 April 2011
- Postal Bulletin, United States Postal Service, Directives Control Division., 1991, Page 17
- Anderson, John T. (2012). Three Angels, One Message. Review and Herald Pub Assoc,. p. 319.
- "Tara Calico has been missing for 25 years". September 19, 2013.
- Newton, Michael (2002). The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings. Infobase Publishing. p. 20.
- Williams, Brandt (September 6, 2016). "Heinrich confesses to taking, killing Jacob Wetterling". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- Siegel, Larry (2014). Criminology: The Core. Cengage Learning. p. 358.
- Kidnapped Woman Still Missing As Suspect Is an Apparent Suicide. The New York Times, October 2, 1991. Retrieved April 3, 2011
- Kessler, Ronald (1994). The FBI. Simon and Schuster. p. 53.
- Newton, Michael (2002). The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings. Infobase Publishing. p. 21.
- Newsweek - Volume 123, by Newsweek, Incorporated, 1994
- "Michael Anthony Hughes". The Charley Project. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- The Postal Record, Volume 108, by National Association of Letter Carriers (AFL-CIO), 1995, page 56
- Bilchik, Shay (1999). When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide. DIANE Publishing. p. 87.
- Hornig, Jessica (September 2, 2009). "Before Jaycee Dugard: Kidnap Victim Jessyca Mullenberg Kept in Captivity - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Congressional Record, V. 146, Pt. 16, October 13, 2000 to October 24, 2000", p. 24025, Government Printing Office, 2005
- Kopenec, Stefani G. (January 12, 1997), "Young girl's kidnapper elusive: A year has passed without leads on 'low-life killer'", Houston Chronicle, retrieved August 8, 2008
- "Police task force dissolved", Houston Chronicle, June 24, 1997, retrieved August 8, 2008
- Nicole Weisensee: Mom finds kidnapped daughter six years later. CNN, March 2, 2004. Retrieved May 15, 2013
- - 7:56pm (February 14, 2013). "Court orders convicted killer's case reopened". Arkansas News. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Pamela Butler's mother frustated [sic] by execution delays | Local News - KMBC Home". KMBC.com. June 10, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Pellegrini, Laura A. (2008). An Argument for the Criminal Hoax. ProQuest. p. 78.
- Jones, J. Harry (February 2, 2012). "Van Dam case shook nation 10 years ago". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Ferraro, Eugene F. (2002). Investigations in the Workplace, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 371. ISBN 9781439814802.
- Concannon, Diana M. (2013). Kidnapping: An Investigator’s Guide. p. 10.
- "Michelle Knight: 'I was the punching bag' for Ariel Castro - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. May 6, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Congressional Record, V. 153, PT. 2, January 18, 2007 to February 1, 2007, p. 1632, Government Printing Office, 2010
- "Samantha Nicole Burns". The Charley Project. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Brett Barrouquere (October 10, 2013). "FBI took Fulks from death row in search for Samantha Burns". The Herald-Dispatch. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Cimino, Al. The Disappeared - The Cleveland Kidnappings and Other Shocking Cases. John Blake Publishing. p. 19.
- Hall, Allan (2013). Captive: One House, Three Women and Ten Years in Hell. Penguin UK. p. 27.
- Siegel, Larry (2011). Criminology. Cengage Learning.
- "CNN.com - Transcripts". Transcripts.cnn.com. October 6, 2005. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Haleigh Cummings, Kayleah Wilson Still Missing - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. April 16, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Melissa Huckaby, who killed 8-year-old Sandra Cantu in 2009, pleads guilty to avoid death penalty". NY Daily News. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Rupa Mikkilineni, Nancy Grace Producer (2010). "Police seek tips in child's 2009 abduction and slaying - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Kyron Horman's Stepmother Called 'Prime Suspect' by Judge - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. August 22, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Shaer, Matthew (December 4, 2011). "The Story Behind the Murder of Leiby Kletzky and the Trial of Levi Aron - New York Magazine". Nymag.com. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Missing Baby Lisa Irwin: Family Moving Back Into Home Where She Disappeared - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. November 15, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Isabel Celis 911 Calls Released: 'My Little Girl … I Believe She Was Abducted' - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. May 14, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Bunker where Alabama boy was held hostage revealed by FBI". NY Daily News. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Sheriff: Sherri Papini Was Kidnapped; Captors Still At Large « CBS Sacramento". Sacramento.CBSLocal.com. November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.