Kiev Military District
|Kiev Military District|
|Country|| Russian Empire (1862–1918)
Soviet Union (1939–1941), (1944–1991)
|Engagements||Invasion of Poland, Invasion of Romania, World War II|
The Kiev Military District (Russian: Киевский вое́нный о́круг (КВО), translit. Kiyevskiy voyénnyy ókrug (KVO)) was a military district of the Imperial Russian Army and subsequently of the Red Army and Soviet Armed Forces. It was first formed in 1862, and was headquartered in Kiev for most of its existence.
- 1 Imperial Russian Army Formation
- 2 First Red Army Formation
- 3 Kiev Military Region (Oblast)
- 4 Second Red Army Formation
- 5 Ukrainian Military District
- 6 Third Red Army Formation
- 7 Soviet Army Formation
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Imperial Russian Army Formation
The Kiev Military District was a Military District, a territorial division type utilised to provide a more efficient management of army units, their training and other operations activities related to combat readiness. The district originally covered the Kiev Governorate, Podolie Governorate (less Balta County), and Volhynia Governorate.
Assigned formations included the 10th Army.
In 1888 the Kharkov Military District was merged into the Kiev Military District.
After the October Revolution in Petrograd the district came under jurisdiction of the Ukrainian People's Republic and existed until (early February 1918) the advance of the Petrograd-Moscow Red Guards forces of the Antonov's Task Force that was charged to fight counter-revolution in the Southern Russia.
The district was not reinstated during brief Bolshevik period in 1918 nor after the establishment of the Ukrainian State.
Commanders (Russian Empire)
- Lieutenant General Prince Illarion Vasilchikov (July 6, 1862 - November 12, 1862*)
- Lieutenant General Count Adam Rzhevusky (temporary in November 1862)
- Colonel General Nicholas Annenkov (December 1862? - January 19, 1865)
- Colonel General Aleksandr Bezak (January 19, 1865 - December 30, 1868*)
- Lieutenant General Nikolai Kozlyaninov (January 6, 1869 - May 1, 1872)
- Lieutenant General Prince Aleksandr Dondukov-Korsakov (temporary January - April 1877)
- Lieutenant General Mikhail Chertkov (temporary September 13, 1877 - April 15, 1878)
- Lieutenant General Mikhail Chertkov (September 15, 1878 - January 13, 1881)
- Colonel General Alexander Drenteln (January 13, 1881 - July 15, 1888*)
- Colonel General Fyodor Radetsky (October 31, 1888? - 1889)
- Colonel General Mikhail Dragomirov (January 1, 1889 - December 24, 1903)
- Lieutenant General Nikolai Kleigels (December 24, 1903 - October 19, 1905)
- Lieutenant General Vladimir Sukhomlinov (October 19, 1905 - December 2, 1908, since 1906 Colonel General)
- Colonel General Nikolay Ivanov (December 2, 1908 - July 19, 1914)
- Lieutenant General Nikolai Khodorovich (April 16, 1916 - 1917)
Commanders (after Revolution)
- Colonel Konstantin Oberuchev (commissar of Provisional Government March - May 1917)
- Major General Konstantin Oberuchev (May 1917 - October 17, 1917)
- Lieutenant General Mikhail Kvetsinsky (October 17, 1917 - November 7, 1917)
- Lieutenant Colonel Viktor Pavlenko (November 14, 1917 - December 13, 1917)
- Captain Mykola Shynkar (December 13, 1917 - 1918)
First Red Army Formation
The district was reinstated on March 12, 1919 and then again disbanded on August 23, 1919 with the advance of the Denikin's forces.
Kiev Military Region (Oblast)
The Kiev Military Region was formed by the Denikin's forces on August 31, 1919, but already on December 14, 1919 its forces were retrieved and merged with the Forces of Novorossiysk Region. Commander of the military district was Abram Dragomirov.
Second Red Army Formation
The District was formed again in January 1920.
In the early 1920s the District included the following divisions:
- 3rd Crimea Rifle Division
- 7th Chernigov Rifle Division
- 15th Sivashsk Division
- 24th Samaro-Simbirsk Iron Rifle Division
- 25th Chapaev Rifle Division
- 30th Irkutsk Rifle Division
- 44th Kiev Mountain Rifle Division
- 45th Volhynia Rifle Division
- 51st Perekop Rifle Division
Ukrainian Military District
The 6th Rifle Corps was formed on the orders of the Commander of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Crimea number 627/162 from May 23, 1922 in Kiev, part of Kiev and Kharkov Military District.
Third Red Army Formation
On July 26, 1939 the district was renamed into the Kiev Special Military District.
On February 20, 1941, the district formed the 22nd Mechanized Corps (which had 527 tanks) in the 5th Army (Soviet Union), the 16th Mechanized Corps (which had 372 tanks) in the 12th Army, and the 9th mechanized Corps (had 94 tanks), the 24th mechanized Corps (which had 56 tanks), the 15th mechanized Corps (which had 707 tanks), and the 19th Mechanized Corps (had 274 tanks ) in the reserve of the district.,
When the German Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941, on the base of the Kiev Special Military District was created the Soviet Southwestern Front that on September 10, 1941 completely integrated the district.
- Komandarm 1st rank Iona Yakir - 1935 - 1937
- Komandarm 1st rank Ivan Fedko - 1937 - 1938
- Komandarm 2nd rank Semyon Timoshenko - 1938 - 1940
- General of the Army Georgy Zhukov - 1940 - 1941
- Colonel General Mikhail Kirponos - 1941
- Lieutenant General Vsevolod Yakovlev - 1941
Soviet Army Formation
|Kiev Military District|
|Active||25 October 1943 - 1 November 1992|
|Part of||South-Western Strategic Direction|
|Engagements||World War II|
The District was formed again on 25 October 1943, with the Headquarters in Kiev. In June 1946, 7 oblasts of the disbanded Kharkov Military District were added to the Kiev Military District. The District now included the oblasts (provinces) of Kiev, Cherkasy, Uman, Voroshilovgrad, Dnipropetrovsk, Poltava, Stalin, Sumy, Kharkiv and Chernihiv.
Units stationed in the District were 1st Guards Army and 6th Guards Tank Army. 69th Air Army was active from the early 1950s to at least 1964 in the district.(See ru:Колесник, Василий Артёмович) In 1959 the 17th Air Army was relocated to the District from Mongolia to provide air support. The 60th Corps of the 8th Air Defense Army provided air defense for the District.
The 43rd Rocket Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces was formed at Vinnitsa within the District's boundaries in 1960. It comprised the 19th Rocket Division (Khmelnitsky), 37th Guards Rocket Division (Lutsk), 43rd Rocket Division (Kremenchug), 44th Rocket Division (Kolomyia, Ivano-Frankovsk Oblast, disbanded 31 March 1990. Previously 73rd Engineer Brigade RVGK at Kamyshin.), and the 46th Rocket Division (Pervomaisk, Mykolaiv Oblast). The 43rd Rocket Army's last commander was Colonel-General Vladimir Alekseevich Mikhtyuk, who served from 10.1.1991 to 8.5.1996. It was finally disbanded on 8 May 1996.
Also in the district in 1988 was the 72nd Центральная артиллерийская база вооружения (средств управления), at Krasnograd. (Feskov et al. 2004, 56)
In 1991 the district included 6th Guards Tank Army at Dnipropetrovsk, 1st Guards Army at Chernihiv, 36th Motor Rifle Division (Artemovsk), 48th Motor Rifle Division (Chuguev) and the 48th Guards Tank Training Division (Desna), the 9th independent Special Forces Brigade GRU (activated 15.10.62 in Kirovograd, Kirovograd Oblast, Kiev Military District, formation complete 31.12.62., taken over by Ukraine 1992) the 17th Air Army, and the 60th Air Defence Corps of the 8th Air Defence Army (Soviet Air Defence Forces). Among the district's air force units were the Chernigov Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots at Chernigov.
Also located within the district's boundaries but responsible to HQ South-Western Strategic Direction was the 23rd independent Landing-Assault Brigade (effectively an airmobile brigade), at Kremenchug, Poltava Oblast.
In 1991, Colonel General Viktor S. Chechevatov was dismissed as District commander for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to Ukraine. The District was disbanded after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, by 1 November 1992, and its structure utilized as the basis for the new Ukrainian Ministry of Defense and General Staff.
- Lieutenant General Viktor Kosyakin - 1943 - 1944
- Lieutenant General Vasyl Herasymenko - 1944 - 1945
- Colonel General Andrei Grechko - 9 July 1945 - 25 May 1953
- Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Chuikov - 26 May 1953 - April 1960
- General of the Army Pyotr Koshevoy - April 1960 - January 1965
- General of the Army Ivan Yakubovsky - January 1965 - April 1967
- Colonel General Viktor Kulikov - April 1967 - 1969
- Colonel General G. Salmanov - April 1969 - 1975
- Colonel General Ivan Gerasimov - 1975 - 1984
- Colonel General V. Osipov - 1984 - 1989
- Colonel General Boris Gromov - 1989 - January 1990
- Colonel General Viktor Chechevatov - January 1990 - 1991
- Tynchenko, Ya. Conflict between the Central Council and the Soviet People's Commissariat. First Ukrainian-Bolshevik War (December 1917 - March 1918). Kiev: "Krypiakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies", 1996
- Trotsky, Leon. "Leon Trotsky: 1921-1923 - How The Revolution Armed/Volume IV (The Case of Red Army Man Kozlov)". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- Lenskii 2001
- Meltyuhov MI Lost Chance of Stalin.
- Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, 1976 .
- Kiev RedStar. M., 1974 pg431
- Feskov,, V.I.; K.A. Kalashnikov; V.I. Golikov (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the 'Cold War' (1945-1991). Tomsk: Tomsk University Press. p. 8. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7.
- "44th Missile Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "43rd Missile Army". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "23rd independent Landing-Assault Brigade". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Persons - NUPI". Archived from the original on 20 March 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Про розформування Київського військового округу - від 16.10.1992 № 497/92". zakon.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "ANALYSIS: Ukraine adopts program for military reform (03/02/97)". Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- Feskov et al., The Soviet Army during the period of the Cold War, Tomsk University, Tomsk, 2004 pg 16
- The Red Kiev. Studies in the History of the Red Banner Kiev Military District (1919-1979). Second edition, revised and expanded. Kiev, Ukraine Political Literature Publishing House. 1979.