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Kiki Kogelnik, 1960s
|Born||January 22, 1935
|Died||February 1, 1997
|Education||Vienna Academy of Fine Arts|
Kiki Kogelnik (1935–1997) was an Austrian painter, sculptor and printmaker. Born in southern Austria, she studied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and moved to New York in 1961. Kogelnik is considered Austria’s most important pop-related artist, despite having been known to take issue with being considered part of the pop art movement.[according to whom?]
Life and work: 1960s
Kogelnik began her career at the Galerie Nächst St. Stephan in Vienna in 1961, showing abstract works. At the time she was influenced by Serge Poliakoff of the École de Paris, but later found her own unique genre while surrounded by the pop art movement in New York. At one point she was engaged to Austrian abstract expressionist artist Arnulf Rainer.
Kogelnik was close to another abstract expressionist, the American artist Sam Francis, and spent time with him in 1961 in New York and Santa Monica, California. Kogelnik then moved to New York in 1962 where she joined a close-knit group of artists that included Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, Larry Rivers, Tom Wesselmann, Joan Mitchell, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, among others. Pop was a way of life, and with Kogelnik extravagant hats and outfits Kogelnik became a captivating happening wherever she went.
Her work during that time was strongly influenced by the pop art colors and materials of the time, producing numerous brightly colored euphoric space-themed paintings. Unlike pop artists, she avoided the celebration of commerce or quotidian objects, although she was known to foreground plastics and the artificial over nature.
During the early 1960s Kogelnik began to use life-size cutout paper stencils of her friends to produce her paintings. In 1965 these prototype cut-outs became vinyl hangings, presented on the same clothing racks that she saw pushed down the streets in the vicinity of her studio in New York’s garment district.
While Kogelnik was in London in 1966, her New York studio space was engulfed in an enormous fire. Although Kogelnik had just moved out prior to the fire, her downstairs neighbor, American artist Alfred Leslie, lost his entire artistic output. That same year, Kogelnik married radiation oncologist Dr. George Schwarz in London, giving birth to her son Mono in 1967, returning to New York shortly thereafter. In 1969, Kogelnik created a Moonhappening during the lunar landing of Apollo 11 at the Galerie Nächst St. Stephan in Vienna, producing a series of lunar-themed silkscreens during the live broadcast.
1970s and later
In the 1970s Kogelnik’s focus shifted to what later became known as her Women works, specifically addressing the female role portrayed in commercial advertising. Broaching feminist issues indirectly with irony, humor and a cool pop aesthetic was unique to Kogelnik’s work during this time. In 1974 she also began to work occasionally with ceramics, employing sculptural form as an extension of painting.
In the 1980s, fragmented people, signs and symbols begin to fill Kogelnik’s work and in her Expansions series she used ceramic modules shown in conjunction with her paintings. She also produced and directed a short 16mm B&W film CBGB in 1978, featuring Jim Carroll and others.
In later works, the human body is depicted in increasingly fragmented and manipulated form, until in the 1990s much of her work portrayed highly abstracted yet expressive faces. During this time Kogelnik created a series of glass sculptures, related drawings and prints, in which she sought to comment on decorative and commercial themes in art-making.
Death and legacy
Kiki Kogelnik died of cancer on February 1, 1997 in Vienna. She is buried in Bleiburg, Austria. The Belvedere Museum in Vienna held a large retrospective of her work in the same year. In 1998 Kogelnik was posthumously awarded Austria’s highest medal in the arts, the Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art. She was previously awarded, in 1995, the City of Vienna Prize for Visual Arts.
Since the artist’s death, the Kiki Kogelnik Foundation, a U.S. non-profit organization was established, with offices in Vienna and New York. The foundation’s mission is to protect, document, research and perpetuate the creative legacy of Kiki Kogelnik. As of 2009 the foundation continues to maintain and enlarge a comprehensive database of Kogelnik’s works for art-historical research, and will eventually create a Catalogue Raisonné.
In 2003, the Austrian Post office issued a 55 euro-cent stamp featuring Kogelnik’s 1973 painting, Prenez Le Temps d’Aimer . Kogelnik also designed two fountains, one in Bleiburg, Austria and another in Klagenfurt, Austria, where a street is named after her.
Solo Exhibitions (selection)
1961: Galerie nachst St. Stephan, Vienna, Austria
1964: Jerrold Morris International Gallery Limited, Toronto, ON
1965: Austrian Institute, New York, USA
1967: Kunst kommt von kunstlich, Galerie nachst St Stephan, Vienna, Austria
1969: Moonhappening Apollo II, Galerie nachst St Stephan, Vienna, Austria
1973: Retrospektive. Kiki Kogelnik, Kunstlerhaus Klagenfurt, Austria
1977: Jack Gallery, New York, USA
1978: Galerie Kornfeld, Zurich, Switzerland
1980: Graphics, Gallery One, Montclair State University - College of the Arts, Montclair, NJ
1982: Galerie Ulysses, Vienna Austria
1983: BAWAG Foundation, Vienna, Austria
1986: Broadway Windows, New York, USA
1989: Kiki Kogelnik. Retrospektive, Karntner Landesgalerie, Klagenfurt, Austria
1990: Inside the Clone Factory, Henry Gallery, Washington D.C., USA
1992: Expansions - 30 Year New York, Ernst Museum, Budapest, Hungary; Galerie Úluv, Prague, Czech Republic
1993: Palac Kultury I Nauki, Warsaw, Poland; Palac Sztuki, Krakow, Poland
1994: Expansions/Sterotypes, Metsna Galerija, Ljubljana, Slovenia
1995: Glass & Graphics, Gallery next Gritti, Venice, Italy; Venetian Heads, Österreiche Galerie, Belvedere, Vienna, Austria
1996: Kiki Kogelnik and the Venetian Heads, Chicago Athenaeum, Chicago, IL; Hanging, MAK - Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna, Austria
1998: Retrospektive, 1935-1997, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, Austria; Karntner Landesgalerie, Klagenfurt, Austria
2003: Baby remenber my name, Art Herberstein, Schloß Herberstein, Austria
2004: Palais Liechtenstein, Feldkirch, Austria
2005: Kiki Kogelnik. Happy Birthday, Kunstlerhaus Klagenfurt, Austria; Werner Berg Galerie, Bleiburg, Austria
2006: Strictly KIKI - Perfectly KOGELNIK, Galerie bei der Albertina, Vienna, Austria
2012: Early works: 1964-1970, Simone Subal Gallery, New York, USA; I have seen the future, Hamburger Kunstverein, Hamburg, Germany
2013: Retrospektive, Kunsthalle Krems, Austria
2014: No Coca-Cola, Johann König, Berlin; Cuts, Fissures and Identity: Works from the 1960s and 1970s, Simone Subal Gallery, NY, USA
2015: Fly Me to the Moon, Modern Art Oxford, Oxford, UK
2016: Kiki Kogelnik, König Galerie, Berlin, Germany
Group Exhibitions (selection)
1958: Galerie nächst St. Stephan, Vienna, Austria
1960: Galerie Blauer Apfel, Oslo, Norway
1964: PVI Gallery, New York, USA
1965: Van Bovenkamp Gallery, New York, USA
1965: Pop Op Art – Abstract Expressionism, Gertrude Kastle Gallery, Detroit, USA
1965: 29th Biennial of Contemporary American Paintin, Corcoran Gallery, Washington D.C., USA
1966: Austrian Artists in the United States, Austrian Institute, New York, USA
1967: Accrochage, Galerie nächst St. Stephan, Vienna, Austria
1968: Contemporary Austrian Art, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
1970: Progressive Kunst in Österreich 1970, Galerie Kaiser, Vienna, Austria
1972: GEDOK American Women Artists Show, Kunsthaus Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
1974: Hommage à Msgr. Otto Mauer, Galerie Ulysses, Vienna Austria
1976: Bicentennial Banners, Hirschhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institute, Washington D.C., USA; National Singapore Museum, Republic of Singapore
1977: Spacescapes, Sid Deutsch Gallery, New York, USA
1978: Museum of Drawers, Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich, Schweiz; Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art, USA
1981: Changes: Art in America 1881–1981, Marquette University Wisconsin, USA
1986: Zeichen und Gesten – Informelle Tendenzen in Österreich, Secession, Vienna, Austria
1989: Land in Sicht: Österreichische Kunst im 20 Jahrhundert, Mücsarnok Kunsthalle, Budapest, Hungary
1995: Zwei Jahrzehnte Kunst in der BAWAG, BAWAG Foundation, Vienna, Austria
1996: Kunst aus Österreich 1896–1996, Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der BRD, Bonn, Germany
1997: The Secret of Murano, Museum Het Palais, Den Haag, Netherlands
1999: I Love Pop, Chiostro del Bramante, Rome, Italy
200: Reflexionen – Österreichische Avantgarde nach 1945, Museum Moderner Kunst, Stiftung Wörlen, Passau, Germany
2002: Artists in Glass, National Crafts Gallery, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
2006: PunkEcho – Widerhall von Überall, BrotfabrikGalerie, Berlin, Germany
2010: Long Time No See, Brno House of Art, Brno, Czech Republic
2010: POWER UP – Female Pop Art, Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, AT; Städtische Galerie, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany
2010: Seductive Subversion: Woman Pop Artists 1958–1968, Brooklyn Art Museum, New York, USA
2012: Pop Art Design,Louisiana Museum, Louisiana, Denmark
2014: Pop Art Design, Barbican Center, London, UK
2014: I Multiplied Myself to Feel Myself, Kunstraum Niederoesterreich, Vienna, Austria
2015: Mother of the year, LENTOS Kunstmuseum Linz, Linz, Austria
2015: Pop in Space. We Choose to Go to the Moon, WAVE/Wolverhampton Art Gallery, Wolverhampton, UK
2015: The World Goes Pop,Tate Modern, London, UK
2016: Louisiana Classics, from the Collection, Louisiana Museum, Denmark
2016: We Pioneers. Trailblazers of Postwar Modernism, MUMOK, Vienna, Austria
2016: Illumination, New contemporary art at Louisiana, Louisiana Museum, Denmark
2016: Stano Filko, Kiki Kogelnik, Lira Gallery, Rome, Italy
2016: Untitled Body Parts, Simone Subal Gallery, New York, USA