Kilo-class submarine

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«Краснодар».jpg
Russian Black Sea Fleet's B-265 Krasnodar Improved Kilo-class submarine in 2015.
Class overview
Builders
OperatorsSee Operators
Preceded byTango class
Succeeded byLada class
SubclassesSindhughosh class
Built1980–present
In service1980–present
In commissionDecember 1980–present
Building4
Completed73
Active63
Lost1
Retired16
Preserved1
General characteristics
TypeAttack submarine
Displacement
  • Surfaced: 2,325 (Project 877)–2,350 (Project 636.3) tons
  • Submerged: 3,075 tons full load (Kilo - Project 877 variant); 3,100 tons full load (Improved Kilo - Project 636.3 - variant[1])
Length70.0–73.8 m (229 ft 8 in – 242 ft 2 in)
Beam9.9 m (32 ft 6 in)
Draft6.2 m (20 ft 4 in)
Installed powerDiesel-electric
Propulsion
  • Diesel-electric propulsion
  • 2 × 1000 kW Diesel generators
  • 1 × 5,500–6,800 shp (4,100–5,100 kW) Propulsion motor
  • 1 × fixed-pitch 6 or 7 bladed propeller (6BL project 877) (7BL project 636)
Speed
  • Surfaced: 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph)
  • Submerged: 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
Range
  • With snorkel: 6,000–7,500 nmi (11,100–13,900 km; 6,900–8,600 mi) at 7 kn (13 km/h; 8.1 mph)
  • Submerged: 400 nmi (740 km; 460 mi) at 3 kn (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph)
  • Full run: 12.7 nmi (23.5 km; 14.6 mi) at 21 kn (39 km/h; 24 mph)
Endurance45 days
Test depth
  • Operational: 240 m (790 ft)
  • Maximum: 300 m (980 ft)
Complement52
Armament
Russian Project 877 in the English Channel in 2018
A Russian, Kilo-class diesel-powered attack submarine underway on the surface

The Kilo class, Soviet designation Project 877 Paltus (Russian: Па́лтус, meaning "halibut"), NATO reporting name Kilo, is a class of diesel-electric attack submarines originally designed in the 1970s and built in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. The initial version of Kilo submarines entered operational service in 1980 and were built until the mid-1990s.

Production was switched to the more advanced Project 636 Varshavyanka (Russian: Варшавянка, meaning "Varsovian (inhabitant of Warsaw; feminine)") variant in the mid-1990s, also known as Improved Kilo class in the West.[needs update]

Role[edit]

These attack submarines are mainly intended for anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations in relatively shallow waters. Original Project 877 boats are equipped with Rubikon MGK-400 sonar system (with NATO reporting name Shark Gill), which includes a mine detection and avoidance sonar MG-519 Arfa (with NATO reporting name Mouse Roar).

Newer Project 636 boats are equipped with improved MGK-400EM, with MG-519 Arfa also upgraded to MG-519EM. MGK 400E can detect submarines with 0.05 Pa/Hz noisiness in 16 km and surface vessels with 10 Pa/Hz noisiness in 100 km.[3] The improved sonar systems have reduced the number of operators needed by sharing the same console via automation.

Anechoic tiles are fitted on casings and fins to absorb the sound waves of active sonar, which results in a reduction and distortion of the return signal.[4] These tiles also help attenuate sounds that are emitted from the submarine, thus reducing the range at which the submarine may be detected by passive sonar.[5]

Future[edit]

The Kilo class was planned to have been succeeded by the Lada class. However, by November 2011 it was apparent that the Lada-class would be delayed because Sankt Peterburg (B-585), the lead boat of the class, had shown major deficiencies. On 27 July 2012, the Russian Navy commander-in-chief announced that construction of the Lada-class submarines would resume, having undergone design changes.[6] Series production was reported to be underway in the latter 2010s.[7][needs update]

Nevertheless, the Russian Navy also moved forward in the late 2010s, with the construction of Project 636.3, an improved version of the Kilo class. By November 2019, six units had been built for the Black Sea Fleet and further boats were planned for the Pacific and Baltic Fleets.[8] In June 2022 an unconfirmed report from within Russia's defence industry suggested that a further tranche of six additional Project 636.3 vessels might be ordered to start construction in around 2024.[9]

Variants[edit]

One Kilo-class submarine, B-871, was equipped with pump-jet propulsion.[10][11]

Operators[edit]

The first submarine entered service in the Soviet Navy in 1980, and the class remains in use with the Russian Navy today; 14 original Kilo-class vessels[inconsistent] believed to still be in active service with the Russian Navy, while eight Improved Kilo-class subs had been delivered as of 2021. About forty vessels have been exported to several countries:

Possible purchasers[edit]

  • The government of Venezuela expressed interest in buying three Project 636 Kilo-class submarines[34] In 2019, a source reported the purported usage of a submarine of this class to insert Russian soldiers into Venezuela to protect the Venezuelan government.[35]
  • The Philippine Navy has shown its interest on the Kilo-class submarine as part of its modernization program. Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana said that the country is now evaluating the Russian offer.[36]

Failed bids[edit]

  • The Indonesian Navy was interested in purchasing two Kilo-class submarines. But in 2014 the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy Laksamana Marsetio after a visit to Russia with the team from the Indonesian Navy to inspect the said submarines decided to cancel the plans. He said "The submarines look good on the outside, but the inside is filled with broken equipment, and the two submarines have been in storage for two years." Indonesia chose to buy six Improved Jang Bogo-class submarines later known as Nagapasa-class submarine instead including a transfer of technology, where Indonesia will eventually build four of six of the submarines with South Korea.[37]

Specifications[edit]

Schematic drawing of the Kilo class

There are several variants of the Kilo class. The information below is the smallest and largest number from the available information for all three variants of the ship.[21]

  • Displacement:
    • 2,300–2,350 tons surfaced
    • 3,000–4,000 tons submerged
  • Dimensions:
    • Length: 70–74 meters
    • Beam: 9.9 meters
    • Draft: 6.2–6.5 meters
  • Maximum speed
    • 10–12 knots surfaced (18–22 km/h)
    • 17–25 knots submerged (31–46 km/h)
  • Propulsion: Diesel-electric 5,900 shp (4,400 kW)
  • Maximum depth: 300 meters (240–250 meters operational)
  • Endurance
    • 400 nautical miles (700 km) at 3 knots (6 km/h) submerged
    • 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km) at 7 knots (13 km/h) snorkeling (7,500 miles for the Improved Kilo class)
    • 45 days sea endurance
  • Armament
  • Crew: 52
  • Price per unit is US$200–250 million (China paid[when?] approx. US$1.5-2 billion for 8 Project 636 Kilo-class submarines[citation needed])

Gallery[edit]

Project 877 units[edit]

Project 877 – significant dates
Operator # Name Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
 Russia B-248 x Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 16 March 1980 12 September 1980 31 December 1980 Decommissioned 2001
 Russia B-260 Chita Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 22 February 1981 23 August 1981 30 December 1981 PF Decommissioned 2013, sank partially on way to scrap in 2019
 Russia B-227 Vyborg Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 23 February 1982 16 September 1982 23 February 1983 BF Decommissioned 2018 (exhibit patriot park Kronstadt)
 Russia B-229 x Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 23 February 1983 15 July 1983 30 October 1983 Decommissioned 2002
 Russia B-404 x Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 7 May 1983 24 September 1983 30 December 1983 Decommissioned 2002
 Russia B-401 Novosibirsk Nizhniy Novgorod 877 6 October 1982 15 March 1984 30 September 1984 NF Decommissioned 2012
 Russia B-402 Vologda Nizhniy Novgorod 877 24 August 1983 29 September 1984 30 December 1984 NF Decommissioned 2016
 Russia B-405 (ex Tyumenskiy Komsomolets) Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 20 April 1984 21 September 1984 30 December 1984 Decommissioned 2002
 Poland 291 (ex-B-351) Orzeł Nizhniy Novgorod 877E 29 September 1984 7 June 1985 29 April 1986 Active as of 2010
 Romania 581 (ex-B-801) Delfinul Nizhniy Novgorod 877E 1984 1985 August 1985 Unknown (in reserve since 1995)
 India S55 Sindhughosh Saint Petersburg 877EKM 29 May 1983 29 July 1985 25 November 1985 Active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 2002–2005
 Russia B-470 x Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 6 May 1985 27 August 1985 30 December 1985 Decommissioned 2005
 Russia B-806 Dmitrov Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM[citation needed] 15 October 1984 30 April 1986 25 September 1986 BF Active as of 2018[38]
 India S56 Sindhudhvaj Saint Petersburg 877EKM 1 April 1986 27 July 1986 25 November 1986 Decommissioned on 16 July 2022.[39]
 Algeria 012 Rais Hadj Mubarek Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1985 1986 29 November 1986 Upgraded in 2010, able to launch Kalibr/Club missiles
 Russia B-439 x Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 4 April 1986 31 July 1986 30 December 1986 Decommissioned 2005
 India S57 Sindhuraj Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1986 1987 2 September 1987 Active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 1999–2001
 Algeria 013 El Hadj Slimane Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1986 1987 25 November 1987 Upgraded in 2011, able to launch Kalibr/Club missiles
 Myanmar 71 UMS Minye Theinkhathu, (ex-Sindhuvir) Saint Petersburg 877EKM 15 May 1987 13 September 1987 25 December 1987 Modernized to project 08773 in 1997–1999, transferred to Myanmar Navy in 2020
 Russia B-445 Svyatoi Nikolai Chudotvorets Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 21 March 1987 26 September 1987 30 January 1988 PF May have decommissioned 2020;[40] listed as still in service by one source[41]
 India S59 Sindhuratna Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1987 1988 14 August 1988 Active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 2001–2003
 India S60 Sindhukesari Saint Petersburg 877EKM 20 April 1988 16 August 1988 29 October 1988 Active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 1999–2001
 Russia B-808 Yaroslavl Nizhniy Novgorod 877 29 September 1986 30 July 1988 27 December 1988 NF Decommissioned 2022[42]
 Russia B-394 Nurlat Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 15 April 1988 3 September 1988 30 December 1988 PF Active 2018
 Russia B-800 Kaluga (ex-Vologodskij komsomolets) Nizhniy Novgorod 877LPMB[citation needed] 5 March 1987 7 May 1989 30 September 1989 NF Refitted in 2009–2012, active 2022[42]
 India S61 Sindhukirti Saint Petersburg 877EKM 5 April 1989 26 August 1989 30 October 1989 Active, modernized to project 08773
 Russia B-464 Ust'-Kamchatsk Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 26 May 1989 23 September 1989 30 January 1990 PF Active 2018
 Russia B-459 Vladikavkaz Nizhniy Novgorod 877 25 February 1988 29 April 1990 30 September 1990 NF Refitted in 2011–2015, active, entered Baltic Sea 3 July 2018 to take part in Main Naval Parade in St Petersburg on 29 July.
 India S62 Sindhuvijay Saint Petersburg 877EKM 6 April 1990 27 July 1990 27 October 1990 Active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 2005–2007
 Russia B-871 Alrosa Nizhniy Novgorod 877 17 May 1988 September 1989 30 December 1990 BSF Refitted in 2014–2022[43]
 Russia B-471 Magnitogorsk Nizhniy Novgorod 877 26 October 1988 22 September 1990 30 December 1990 NF Active 2018
 Russia B-494 Ust'-Bolsheretsk Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 5 May 1990 4 October 1990 30 December 1990 PF Active 2018
 Iran 901 Taregh Saint Petersburg 877EKM 5 April 1991 25 September 1991 25 December 1991 Active as of 2012[44] Upgraded in Iran shipyard[45]
 Russia B-187 Komsomolsk-on-Amur Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 7 May 1991 5 October 1991 30 December 1991 PF Active 2018[46]
 Russia B-177 Lipetsk Nizhniy Novgorod 877 3 November 1989 27 July 1991 30 December 1991 NF Active 2018
 Russia B-190 Krasnokamensk Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 8 May 1992 25 September 1992 30 December 1992 PF Active 2018
 Iran 902 Noah Saint Petersburg 877EKM 30 April 1992 16 October 1992 31 December 1992 Unknown (probably in modernization in Iranian shipyard)
 Russia B-345 Mogocha Komsomolsk-on-Amur 877 22 April 1993 6 October 1993 22 January 1994 Decommissioned 29 May 2021[40]
 People's Republic of China 364 Yuan Zheng 64 Hao Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM ??? 1994 10 November 1994 Decommissioned 2021
 People's Republic of China 365 Yuan Zheng 65 Hao Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM ??? 1995 14 August 1995 Decommissioned 2021
 Iran 903 Yunes Saint Petersburg 877EKM 5 February 1992 12 July 1994 2 September 1996 Active as 2011[47] (probably in modernization in Iranian shipyard)
 India S63 Sindhurakshak Saint Petersburg 877EKM 16 February 1995 26 June 1997 2 October 1997 On 29 January 2013, the Sindhurakshak began shipment to India from Severodvinsk, Russia after repairs. On 14 August 2013, there was an explosion and fire on the Sindhurakshak suspected to have occurred from the munitions onboard - killing 3 officers and 15 sailors at the Indian Navy's Dockyard at Mumbai Port. The submarine is reported to have been completely destroyed.[48]
 India S65 Sindhurashtra Saint Petersburg 877EKM 12 December 1998 14 October 1999 16 May 2000 Active as of 2010

Project 636 units[edit]

Project 636 – significant dates
Operator # Name Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
 People's Republic of China 366 Yuan Zheng 66 Hao Saint Petersburg 636 16 July 1996 26 April 1997 26 August 1997 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 367 Yuan Zheng 67 Hao Saint Petersburg 636 28 August 1997 18 June 1998 25 October 1998 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 368 Yuan Zheng 68 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 18 October 2002 27 May 2004 20 October 2004 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 369 Yuan Zheng 69 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 18 October 2002 19 August 2004 2005 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 370 Yuan Zheng 70 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 2004 May 2005 2005 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 371 Yuan Zheng 71 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 2004 2005 2005 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 372 Yuan Zheng 72 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 2005 2005 2006 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 373 Yuan Zheng 73 Hao Nizhniy Novgorod 636M July 1992 8 May 2004 5 August 2005 Active as of 2007
 People's Republic of China 374 Yuan Zheng 74 Hao Severodvinsk 636M 29 May 2003 21 May 2005 30 December 2005 Active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 375 Yuan Zheng 75 Hao Severodvinsk 636M 29 May 2003 14 July 2005 30 December 2005 Active as of 2006
 Algeria 021 Messali el Hadj Saint Petersburg 636M 2006 20 November 2008 28 August 2009 Active[citation needed]
 Algeria 022 Akram Pacha Saint Petersburg 636M 2007 9 April 2009 29 October 2009 Active[citation needed]
 Vietnam 182 Hà Nội Saint Petersburg 636.1 25 August 2010 28 August 2012[49] 3 April 2014 Active as of 2014[50][51]
 Vietnam 183 Hồ Chí Minh City Saint Petersburg 636.1 28 September 2011 28 December 2012 3 April 2014 Active as of 2014[52][non-primary source needed][53]
 Vietnam 184 Hải Phòng Saint Petersburg 636.1 August 2013[54] 1 August 2015 Active as of 2014[55]
 Vietnam 185 Khánh Hoà Saint Petersburg 636.1 2013 28 March 2014[56][non-primary source needed] 1 August 2015 Active as of 2015[57]
 Vietnam 186 Đà Nẵng Saint Petersburg 636.1 28 December 2014 28 February 2017 Active as of 2016[58]
 Vietnam 187 Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu Saint Petersburg 636.1 28 May 2014[59] 28 September 2015 28 February 2017 Active as of 2017[60]
 Algeria 031 El Ouarsenis Saint Petersburg 636.1 2015 14 March 2017 9 January 2019 Active aso of 2019[61]
 Algeria 032 El Hoggar Saint Petersburg 636.1 18 June 2018 9 January 2019 Active as of 2019[61]

Project 636.3 units[edit]

Italics indicate estimates

Project 636.3 – significant dates
Operator # Name Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
 Russia B-261 Novorossiysk [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 20 August 2010[62] 28 November 2013[63] 22 August 2014[64][65] BSF Active
 Russia B-237 Rostov-on-Don [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 21 November 2011[66] 26 June 2014[67] 30 December 2014 BSF Active[68]
 Russia B-262 Stary Oskol [ru][69] Saint Petersburg 636.3 17 August 2012[70] 28 August 2014[71] 25 June 2015 BSF Active
 Russia B-265 Krasnodar [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 20 February 2014[72] 25 April 2015[73] 5 November 2015 BSF Active
 Russia B-268 Velikiy Novgorod [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 30 October 2014[74] 18 March 2016[75] 25 October 2016[76] BSF Active
 Russia B-271 Kolpino [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 30 October 2014[74] 31 May 2016[77] 24 November 2016 BSF Active
 Russia B-274 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 28 July 2017[78] 28 March 2019[79] 25 November 2019[80] PF Active
 Russia B-603 Volkhov [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 28 July 2017[78] 26 December 2019[81] 24 October 2020[82] PF Active; carried out land-attack cruise missile tests in January 2022[83]
 Russia B-602 Magadan [ru] Saint Petersburg 636.3 1 November 2019[84] 26 March 2021[85] 12 October 2021[86][87][88][89][90][91] PF Active; deployed in the Baltic as of late 2021[88][92][93]
 Russia B-588? Ufa Saint Petersburg 636.3 1 November 2019[84] 31 March 2022[94] 2022[90][95] PF Sea trials[96]
 Russia B-??? Mozhaysk Saint Petersburg 636.3 23 August 2021[97][98] 2023[99][95] PF Under construction
 Russia B-??? Yakutsk Saint Petersburg 636.3 23 August 2021[97][98] 2024[100][101][90][95] PF Under construction[102]
 Russia B-??? Petrozavodsk Saint Petersburg 636.3 2022[95] 2025[95] BF[95] Ordered in 2020,[103][104] improved design[105]
 Russia B-??? Saint Petersburg 636.3 2023[106][107] 2026 BF Ordered in 2022
 Russia B-??? Saint Petersburg 636.3 2024 2027 BF Ordered in 2022
 Russia B-??? Saint Petersburg 636.3 2025 2028 BF Ordered in 2022

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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