Little is known about Kim. Born on 10 July 1894, in the small village of Mangyungdai, situated on top of a peak called "Mungyungbong" (translated as "All Seeing Peak") located just 12 kilometers down stream on the Diadong River from the city of Pyongyang, Kim was the son of Kim Bo-hyon (金輔鉉, 1871–1955). Kim attended Sungshil School, which was run by American missionaries, and became a teacher and later an herbal pharmacist. He died as a result of numerous medical problems, including third-degree frostbite.
Kim and his wife attended Christian churches. It was reported that his son, Kim Il-sung, attended church services during his teenage years before becoming an atheist later in life.
Kim Il-sung spoke a lot of his father's idea of chiwŏn (righteous aspirations).
Kim Jong-Il's official government biography states that Kim Hyong-jik was "the leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement and was a pioneer in shifting the direction from the nationalist movement to the communist movement in Korea." This is widely disputed among foreign academics and independent sources, who claim that Kim Hyong-jik's opposition was little more than general grievances with life under the Japanese occupation. Kim Il-sung claimed his ancestors, including his grandfather Kim Bo-hyon and great-grandfather Kim Un-u (1848–1878) were involved in the General Sherman incident, but this is also disputed and believed to be a fabrication.
^To keep the tree of manageable size, it omits some members, e. g., brothers and sisters of Kim Jong-il.
^Names of Supreme Leaders of the DPRK (and the name of the article being viewed if any) are in bold font.
^Korean names often have a variety of transliterations into English, which can be confusing. For example, "Kim Jong-chul" may also be written "Gim Jeong-cheol" or "Kim Jŏng-ch'ŏl" among many other variations. See Korean romanization for more information.
^ abcdOfficial biographies of Kim Jong-suk and Kim Jong-il give birth years of 1917 and 1942, respectively, while Kim Jong-un's birth year may actually be 1984. Kim Ju-ae may have been born in late 2012 or early 2013.
April 15th Writing Staff, Central Committee of Korean Writers' Union. Dawn of a New Age: A Novel1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC154676863.
The Party History Institute of the C. C. Of the Workers' Party of Korea (1973). Kim Hyong Jik: Indomitable Anti-Japanese Revolutionary Fighter. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC252037406.
Ponghwa Revolutionary Site. The Korean Preparatory Committee for the 13th WFTYS. 1988. KPEA 2JB070.