Kim Jo-sun (politician)

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Kim Jo-sun
김조순
Internal Prince Yeongan
김조순 (노년).jpg
Portrayal of Kim Jo-sun in his declining age (1832)
Chief State Councilor of Joseon
In office
31 January 1800 – 9 January 1811
Appointed byJeongjo of Joseon
Sunjo of Joseon
Regent of Joseon
In office
December 1803 – March 1804
MonarchSunjo of Joseon
Personal details
Born
Kim Jo-sun

1765
Kingdom of Joseon
Died1832 (aged about 66)
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
SpouseInternal Princess Consort Cheongyang of the Cheongsong Shim clan
Children4 sons and 4 daughters, including Queen Sunwon and Kim Jwa-geun
Parents
  • Kim Yi-jung (father)
  • Lady Shin of the Pyeongsan Shin clan (mother)
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationGim Josun
McCune–ReischauerKim Chosun
Pen name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationPunggo
McCune–ReischauerPunggo
Courtesy name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSawon
McCune–ReischauerSawon
Posthumous name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationChungmun
McCune–ReischauerCh'ungmun

Kim Jo-sun (Korean김조순; Hanja金祖淳; 1765 — 1832) was a Korean political figure during the late Joseon period.[1] He came from the (new) Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏). He served as a minister in the royal court and orchestrated the Andong Kim clan's takeover of power.[2] He was the father of Queen Sunwon.[3][4] After his daughter became the Queen Consort, his son-in-law, Sunjo of Joseon, honored him as the Internal Prince Yeongan (영안 부원군, 永安 府院君).

Political influence[edit]

After Queen Jeongsun stepped down as regent, Kim Jo-sun, already held an influential court member, purged his political rivals to help secure the position of his family and political faction.[5] This began the era of Sedo politics, or oligarchic rule,[6] of the Andong Kim clan. Kim was a leading member of the Noron Faction. This marked the beginning of a sixty-year period, spanning the reign of three kings (Sunjo, Heonjong, and Cheoljong), in which the real power in the country was wielded by the Andong Kims.

Kim Jo-sun acted as regent for Sunjo, with the reins of power firmly in his grip. Local magistrates and provincial governors alike had to curry favor with the Andong Kim clan to maintain their positions. Kim Jo-sun's son, Kim Jwa-geun, took over the Andong Kim clan as it was attaining the height of its influence.[7][8]

Family[edit]

  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Saeng-hae (김생해, 金生海)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Geuk-hyo (김극효, 金克孝) (16 September 1542 - 3 February 1618)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Jeong of the Dongnae Jeong clan (동래 정씨)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Sang-gwan (김상관, 金尙觀) (9 January 1556 – 12 May 1621)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Gwang-chan (김광찬, 金光燦) (1597 - 24 February 1668)[9]
  • Great-great-great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Kim of the Yeonan Kim clan (연안 김씨)[10]
  • Great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Su-hang (김수항, 金壽恒) (1629 - 9 April 1689)
  • Great-great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Na of the Anjeong Na clan (안정 나씨)[11]
  • Great-great-grandfather
    • King Chang-jib (김창집, 金昌集) (1648 - 2 May 1722)
  • Great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Park (박씨)
  • Great-grandfather
    • Kim Je-gyeom (김제겸, 金濟謙)[12]
  • Grandfather
    • Kim Dal-haeng (김달행, 金達行)[13]
  • Father
    • Kim Yi-jung (김이중, 金履中)[14]
  • Mother
    • Lady Shin of the Pyeongsan Shin clan (평산 신씨)
      • Grandfather: Shin Sa-jeok (신사적, 申思迪)
      • Grandmother: Lady Yi of the Hansan Yi clan (한산 이씨);[15] daughter of Yi Jib (이집, 李潗)
  • Wife
    • Internal Princess Consort Cheongyang of the Cheongsong Shim clan (청양부부인 청송 심씨, 靑陽府夫人 靑松沈氏) (1766 –1828)
      • Father-in-law: Shim Geon-ji (심건지, 沈健之)
      • Mother-in-law: Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (증 정경부인 전주 이씨); Shim Geon-ji’s 2nd wife
  • Children
    • Son: Kim Yu-geun (김유근, 金逌根) (March 1785 – July 1840); became the adoptive son of Kim Yong-sun (김용순, 金龍淳)
      • Adoptive grandson: Kim Byeon-ju (김병주, 金炳㴤); son of Kim Hong-geun (김홍근, 金弘根)
    • Son: Kim Won-geun (김원근, 金元根) (1786 – 1832)
      • Grandson: Kim Byeon-ji (김병지, 金炳地)
    • Daughter: Queen Sunwon of the Andong Kim clan (순원왕후 김씨) (8 June 1789 – 21 September 1857)
    • Son: Kim Jwa-geun (김좌근, 金左根) (1797 – 5 June 1869)
      • Daughter-in-law: Lady Yun (윤씨, 尹氏)
        • Adoptive grandson: Kim Byeon-gi (김병기, 金炳冀) (1818 – 1875); son of Kim Yeong-geun (김영근, 金泳根)
          • Adoptive granddaughter-in-law: Lady Nam (남씨, 南氏)
    • Daughter: Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏)
      • Son-in-law: Nam Gu-sun (남구순, 南久淳)
        • Grandson: Nam Byeong-cheol, Duke Munjeong (남병철 문정공, 南秉哲) (1817 – 1863)
        • Granddaughter: Lady Nam (남씨, 南氏)
          • Grandson-in-law: Kim Byeong-gi (김병기, 金炳冀) (1818–1875); son of Kim Yeong-geun (김영근, 金泳根) and adoptive son of Kim Jwa-geun (김좌근, 金左根)
    • Daughter: Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏)
      • Son-in-law: Lee Gyeom-jae (이겸재, 李謙在)
    • Daughter: Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏)
      • Son-in-law: Lee Geung-woo (이긍우, 李肯愚)
    • Son: Kim Son-geun (김손근, 金遜根)

Books[edit]

  • Punggomunjib (풍고문집)
  • Odaegeomhyeopjeon (오대검협전)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lee, Janghee (16 August 2018). Seoul's Historic Walks in Sketches. Seoul Selection. ISBN 978-1-62412-114-2.
  2. ^ Tapsahoe, Han'guk Munhwa Yusan (2007). Seoul: A Field Guide to History. Dolbegae Publishers. ISBN 978-89-7199-289-0.
  3. ^ 韓國史研究論選: 朝鮮後期史 (in Korean). 百頭文化. 2000.
  4. ^ "[DBR] '안동金씨' 최고 권력 터 닦은 김조순. 왕실만을 섬긴 '겸손', 명과 암을 낳다". 동아비즈니스리뷰 (in Korean). February 2016.
  5. ^ Kang, Chae-ŏn; Kang, Jae-eun (2006). The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism. Homa & Sekey Books. ISBN 978-1-931907-30-9.
  6. ^ Eom, Tae Yeon (2012). "Collusive oligopolistic politics : sedo and the political structure of early-nineteenth-century Chosŏn Korea". University of British Columbia. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  7. ^ 제작팀, KBS 역사저널 그날 (29 November 2016). 역사저널 그날 7: 영조에서 순조까지 (in Korean). 민음사. ISBN 978-89-374-1747-4.
  8. ^ 조선군주의정치기술 (in Korean). 거송미디어. 2003. ISBN 978-89-87948-30-0.
  9. ^ Internal Princess Consort Yeongga of the Andong Kim clan, the daughter of his uncle, Kim Sang-yong (김상용, 金尙容) and a half-niece of Kim Jang-saeng, is the mother of Queen Inseon; making him first cousins of the queen
  10. ^ She is a niece of Queen Inmok and the cousin of Princess Jeongmyeong. She is also a distant relative of Kim Ahn-ro
  11. ^ Her brother, Na Myeong-jwa (나명좌), married Song Jun-gil’s daughter and Queen Inhyeon’s maternal aunt, Lady Song of the Eunjin Song clan. Another sister married King Sejong’s 8th generation descendant, Yi Sa-myeong (이사명, 李師命) (1647 - 1689)
  12. ^ His younger sister, Lady Kim of the (new) Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏), became the wife of Min Chang-su (민창수, 閔昌洙); the nephew of Queen Inhyeon
  13. ^ His younger brother, Kim Won-haeng (김원행, 金元行) (14 February 1703 - 5 August 1772), became the great-great-grandfather of Queen Cheorin. His youngest brother, Kim Tan-haeng (김탄행, 金坦行) (1714 - 1774), became the great-great-grandfather of Queen Hyohyeon
  14. ^ He is a second cousin of Lady Hyegyeong
  15. ^ One of her sisters became the mother of Lady Hyegyeong and the maternal grandmother of Crown Prince Uiso and King Jeongjo