Kim Nasmyth

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kim Nasmyth
Prof Kim Nasmyth explains loop extrusion with climbing rope.jpg
Kim Nasmyth explains loop extrusion with climbing rope
Born Kim Ashley Nasmyth
(1952-10-10) 10 October 1952 (age 65)[1]
Alma mater
Awards
Website library.cshl.edu/oralhistory/speaker/kim-nasmyth/
Scientific career
Fields molecular biology, gene regulation, cell cycle control
Institutions
Thesis DNA replication in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (1977)
Doctoral advisor Murdoch Mitchison[citation needed]

Kim Ashley Nasmyth FRS[2] (born 18 October 1952)[1] is an English geneticist, the Whitley Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.[3][4] He is best known for his work on the segregation of chromosomes during cell division.

Early life and education[edit]

Nasmyth was born in London in 1952. He attended Eton College, Berkshire, then the University of York, where he studied Biology.[1] Nasmyth went on to complete his graduate studies in the group of Murdoch Mitchison at the University of Edinburgh. Here he worked on the cell cycle alongside Paul Nurse[5] and his PhD thesis focuses on the control of DNA replication in fission yeast. In Mitchison's lab he made substantial contributions to the study of the cell cycle in fission yeast isolating and characterising cell cycle mutants and the first identification of a gene product (DNA ligase) in these mutants.[6]

Career and research[edit]

Nasmyth joined Ben Hall's lab in Seattle as a postdoctoral researcher where he developed ways of cloning genes by complementation in yeast and, in collaboration with Steve Reed, cloned the CDC28 gene from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[5]

As a group leader in Cambridge Nasmyth became interested in the phenomenon of mating-type switching in yeast. Together with Kelly Tatchell he cloned the S. cerevisiae mating-type locus and found, surprisingly, that 'silent' copies of the mating-type genes including their promoters are maintained in the yeast chromosome. This represented the first case where the position of a gene in the chromosome had demonstrable biological significance, and prompted Nasmyth to abandon work on the cell cycle for a time and concentrate instead on studying gene silencing.[5] He was one of the first to demonstrate that gene expression can be regulated through specific control elements which are distant from the start of transcription.[6]

Max Birnstiel invited Nasmyth to join him at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna, Austria, where he was director. At the IMP Nasmyth changed his focus from gene silencing back to cell cycle control. In the mid-1990s Nasmyth co-discovered the APC/C and showed that its activity induces chromosome segregation.[7] Using temperature-sensitive mutants of the APC/C he found several genes which are required for sister chromatid cohesion[8] which we now know encode subunits of the cohesin complex. Nasmyth has since showed that cohesin forms a ring,[9] that sister chromatids are held together within this ring[10] and that they are released by cleavage of cohesin by separase.[11]

Nasmyth was formerly head of the Department of Biochemistry of the University of Oxford. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and Engineering.[12][13][14] His research has been funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC).[15]

Awards and honours[edit]

Nasmyth has also been awarded the following:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c NASMYTH, Prof. Kim Ashley. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2016 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.  closed access publication – behind paywall (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b "Professor Kim Nasmyth FMedSci FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. 
  3. ^ Anon (2004). "Movers: Kim Nasmyth, Whitley chair of biochemistry, University of Oxford, UK". Nature. 428 (6980): 350. doi:10.1038/nj6980-350c. 
  4. ^ Schwob, E; Böhm, T; Mendenhall, M. D.; Nasmyth, K (1994). "The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. Cerevisiae". Cell. 79 (2): 233–44. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90193-7. PMID 7954792. 
  5. ^ a b c Tebb, Graham (9 April 1998). "Kim Nasmyth: the universal truth". Current Biology. 8 (8): R257–R258. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70165-4. 
  6. ^ a b "DServe Archive Catalog Show". collections.royalsociety.org. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  7. ^ Irniger, S.; Piatti, S.; Michaelis, C.; Nasmyth, K. (21 April 1995). "Genes involved in sister chromatid separation are needed for B-type cyclin proteolysis in budding yeast". Cell. 81 (2): 269–278. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90337-2. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 7736579. 
  8. ^ Michaelis, C.; Ciosk, R.; Nasmyth, K. (3 October 1997). "Cohesins: chromosomal proteins that prevent premature separation of sister chromatids". Cell. 91 (1): 35–45. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(01)80007-6. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 9335333. 
  9. ^ Gruber, Stephan; Haering, Christian H.; Nasmyth, Kim (21 March 2003). "Chromosomal cohesin forms a ring". Cell. 112 (6): 765–777. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00162-4. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 12654244. 
  10. ^ Gligoris, Thomas G.; Scheinost, Johanna C.; Bürmann, Frank; Petela, Naomi; Chan, Kok-Lung; Uluocak, Pelin; Beckouët, Frédéric; Gruber, Stephan; Nasmyth, Kim (21 November 2014). "Closing the cohesin ring: structure and function of its Smc3-kleisin interface". Science. 346 (6212): 963–967. doi:10.1126/science.1256917. ISSN 1095-9203. PMC 4300515Freely accessible. PMID 25414305. 
  11. ^ Uhlmann, F.; Wernic, D.; Poupart, M. A.; Koonin, E. V.; Nasmyth, K. (27 October 2000). "Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast". Cell. 103 (3): 375–386. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00130-6. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 11081625. 
  12. ^ "Advisory Council of the Campaign for Science and Engineering". Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  13. ^ Tóth, A; Ciosk, R; Uhlmann, F; Galova, M; Schleiffer, A; Nasmyth, K (1999). "Yeast cohesin complex requires a conserved protein, Eco1p(Ctf7), to establish cohesion between sister chromatids during DNA replication". Genes & Development. 13 (3): 320–33. doi:10.1101/gad.13.3.320. PMC 316435Freely accessible. PMID 9990856. 
  14. ^ Nasmyth, K; Peters, J. M.; Uhlmann, F (2000). "Splitting the chromosome: Cutting the ties that bind sister chromatids". Science. New York, N.Y. 288 (5470): 1379–85. doi:10.1126/science.288.5470.1379. PMID 10827941. 
  15. ^ "UK Government research grants awarded to Kim Nasmyth". Swindon: Research Councils UK. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. 
  16. ^ de médecine 1997 and Travaux de recherche Archived 30 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Wittgensteinpreis-Träger 1999 Univ. Prof. Dr. Kim Ashley Nasmyth