Novak in 1959
|Born||Marilyn Pauline Novak
February 13, 1933
Chicago, Illinois, USA
|Residence||Sams Valley, Oregon, USA|
|Education||David Glasgow Farragut High School|
|Alma mater||School of the Art Institute of Chicago|
|Spouse(s)||Richard Johnson (m. 1965–66)
Dr. Robert Malloy (m. 1976)
Marilyn Pauline Novak (born February 13, 1933), professionally known as Kim Novak, is a retired American film and television actress.
She began her career in 1954 after signing with Columbia Pictures. There, she became a successful actress, starring in a string of movies, among them the critically acclaimed Picnic (1955). She later starred in such popular successes as The Man with the Golden Arm (1955) and Pal Joey (1957). However, she is perhaps best known today for her dual role as both Judy Barton and Madeleine Elster in Alfred Hitchcock's classic thriller Vertigo (1958). Novak was popular in box office popularity polls, and she starred opposite several top leading men of the era, including James Stewart, William Holden, Frank Sinatra, Tyrone Power, and Kirk Douglas. Although still young, her career declined in the early 1960s, and after several years in a series of lackluster films, she withdrew from acting in 1966. She has only sporadically returned since. She later returned to the screen in The Mirror Crack'd (1980), and had a regular role on the prime time series Falcon Crest (1986–87).After a disappointing experience during the filming of Liebestraum (1991), she has permanently retired from acting, citing she has no desire to return.
Novak has been married two times. First, to Richard Johnson in 1965; the union lasted just thirteen months. She has been married to veterinarian Robert Malloy since 1976. The couple took up residence on a ranch in Sams Valley, Oregon. Novak, also an accomplished painter, exhibited her works at least once, in March 2012.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Acting career
- 3 Honors
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Filmography
- 6 Awards and nominations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Kim Novak was born Marilyn Pauline Novak in Chicago, Illinois on February 13, 1933. She is the daughter of Joseph and Blanche (née Kral) Novak. Both her parents were of Czech descent. Her father was a history teacher and worked as a dispatcher on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, and her mother was a factory worker.
She attended William Penn Elementary, Farragut High School, and Wright Junior College. She won two scholarships to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and during the summer break in her last semester of junior college, Novak went on a cross-country tour modeling for a refrigerator company at trade shows.
Early career and success (1954–1959)
While stopping by Los Angeles, Novak was crowned "Miss Deepfreeze" by the refrigerator company. While there, she and two other models stood in line to be extras in The French Line (1954), a film starring Jane Russell. It was here that she was discovered by an agent, who signed her to a long-term contract with Columbia Pictures. From the beginning of her career, she wanted to be an original and not another stereotype. Therefore, she fought with Columbia's chief, Harry Cohn, over the changing of her name. He suggested the name "Kit Marlowe", arguing that "Nobody's gonna go see a girl with a Polack name!" But she insisted on keeping her name, saying, "I'm Czech, but Polish, Czech, no matter, it's my name!" The two sides eventually settled on the name "Kim Novak" as a compromise.
Columbia intended for Novak to be their successor to Rita Hayworth, their biggest star of the 1940s, whose career had declined; also, the studio was hopeful that Novak would bring them the same success 20th Century-Fox was having with Marilyn Monroe. Her first role for the studio was in the film noir Pushover (1954), in which she received third billing below Fred MacMurray and Philip Carey. She then co-starred in the romantic comedy Phffft! (1954) as Janis, a Monroe-type character who finds Jack Lemmon's character, Robert Tracey, "real cute". Both films were reasonably successful at the box office, and Novak received favorable reviews for her performances. In her third feature film, 5 Against the House (1955), a gritty crime drama, she received equal billing with Guy Madison. It was only a minor critical and box office success.
She then played Madge Owens in the film version of Picnic (1955), co-starring William Holden and Rosalind Russell. Its director, Joshua Logan, felt that it would be more in character for Novak to have red hair; she agreed to wear a red wig during filming. Picnic was a resounding critical and box office triumph, and Novak won a Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer. She was also nominated for BAFTA Film Award for Best Foreign Actress, but did not win. She appeared as a mystery guest on the popular game show What's My Line? on February 5, 1956 to promote the film's opening at the Radio City Musical Hall. Director Otto Preminger then cast her in The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), in which she played Frank Sinatra's sultry ex-girlfriend. In a cast also consisting of Eleanor Parker, Novak received praise for being one of the film's bright spots, and the film was a box office triumph.
Novak's next project, The Eddy Duchin Story (1956), cast her as Marjorie Oelrichs, the wife of pianist Eddy Duchin, played by Tyrone Power. Because she and Power did not get along during filming, Novak nearly considered backing out of the production, but decided against it. At the time of its release, the film was a critical and box office hit, with many suggesting that Novak's advertisements for No-Cal diet soda contributed positively to the film's success. Given the choice of her next project, she selected the biopic Jeanne Eagels, in which she portrayed the immensely popular silent screen actress who suffered an addiction to heroin. Co-starring Jeff Chandler, the film was a largely fictional account of Eagels' life, and despite its success, Eagels' family sued Columbia over the way Eagels had been depicted in the movie.
After appearing in a series of successful movies, Novak became one of the biggest box office draws in 1957 and 1958. Columbia then placed her in a film adaptation of Pal Joey in 1957, based on the 1940 novel and Broadway play both written by John O'Hara. Playing Linda English, a naive showgirl, she again co-starred opposite Frank Sinatra, as well as Rita Hayworth. Released in October, the film received favorable reviews; Variety called the film "strong, funny entertainment", although Novak's performance has generated a mixed reaction, partly because of noticeable lack of on-screen charisma. The movie was a box office hit and has been considered one of become regarded as one of Novak's better performances.
Director Alfred Hitchcock was working on his next film, Vertigo, when his leading actress, Vera Miles, became pregnant and had to withdraw from the complex role of Judy Barton. Hitchcock approached Harry Cohn to offer Novak the female lead without even requesting a screen test. Though Cohn hated the script, he allowed Novak to read it because he considered Hitchcock to be a great director. Novak loved it and could identify with the character. At the same time, she was striking for more money from Columbia, and refused to show up for work on the Vertigo set to protest her salary of $1,250 a week. Novak hired new agents to represent her and demanded an adjustment in her contract. Cohn suspended her but, after a few weeks of negotiations, he relented and offered her a new contract worthy of a major star. Novak could identify with the personality of her character Judy as she felt she went through the same thing when she arrived in Hollywood.
The film was poorly received at the time of its release in 1958 and failed at the box office, but has since been re-evaluated and is widely considered one of the director's best works. In the 2012 British Film Institute's Sight & Sound critics' poll, Vertigo was voted as the best film of all time, displacing Orson Welles' Citizen Kane from the position it had occupied since 1962. Novak received mixed reviews for her performance, but she managed to surprise film critics. While Bosley Crowther, writing for The New York Times, described her as "really quite amazing," The consensus regarding her performance also changed with time. For example, film critic David Thomson thought it was "one of the major female performances in the cinema" and film director Martin Scorsese called it "extraordinary," adding that Novak's work was "so brave and emotionally immediate." However, Novak was disappointed by her performance when she watched the film in 2013. "I was really disappointed. Both characters were exaggerated. They'll always remember me in Vertigo, and I'm not that good in it, but I don't blame me because there are a couple of scenes where I was wonderful."
Decline and other early ventures (1958–1969)
In 1958, Novak again worked with Stewart in Richard Quine's Bell, Book and Candle, a comedy tale of modern-day witchcraft, that proved to be a box office success. The following year, she starred opposite Fredric March in the acclaimed Middle of the Night (1959), which she has described as her favorite film that she has been in. Novak also cites her performance in Middle of the Night as her best.
Novak starred opposite Kirk Douglas in Strangers When We Meet (1960). Richard Quine was the director, as well as her fiancé at the time. The studio planned to give them the house that was built as part of the story line during the filming as a wedding gift, but their wedding never came to be. Instead it was during the last film that she and Quine made together in 1962, The Notorious Landlady with Jack Lemmon, that she discovered and purchased her future home by the sea near Big Sur, California. It was to become her retreat and salvation after leaving Hollywood.
She made an independent five-picture deal with Martin Ransohoff and Filmways Pictures to co-produce, but it proved to be a bad choice due to clashes with personalities over scripts. Their first endeavor, Boys' Night Out (1962), was unsuccessful. After her Hollywood house survived the big Bel Air fire of 1961, it was finally lost a few years later when it was swept away with most of her belongings in a mudslide in 1966. During that interim, she made W. Somerset Maugham's drama Of Human Bondage (1964) with Laurence Harvey in Ireland.
Kiss Me, Stupid followed for director Billy Wilder. Actor Peter Sellers had originally been selected, but he had suffered a heart attack, so Ray Walston took his place. Also co-starring was Dean Martin. The film had problems getting released due to conflicts with the Legion of Decency. Later it was rediscovered and acclaimed for its forward thinking and got rave reviews, particularly for Novak’s performance as “Polly the Pistol.” In 1965, she made The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders in England with British actor Richard Johnson. Novak married Johnson in 1965 and divorced him in the spring of 1966. They remained good friends. By the end of 1966, she was burned out and no longer wanted to live the life of a Hollywood movie star, in the glare of the spotlight with the press criticizing her every move. When the mudslide took her Bel Air home and cost her entire life’s savings in bulldozer fees, she moved away from Hollywood to discover herself anew.
From then on acting became a job and was no longer a career of choice. Novak preferred to concentrate on her first love, the visual arts, often writing poetry to accompany her paintings, and even writing some song lyrics. Harry Belafonte and the Kingston Trio recorded some of her folk songs in the 1960s.
In 1968, she returned to the screen for The Legend of Lylah Clare (1968), starring Peter Finch and Ernest Borgnine, and directed by Robert Aldrich. She played a dual role, portraying a person who becomes possessed by a look-alike film actress who gets made over by her obsessive-compulsive director lover. Robert Aldrich asked Novak to do a German accent for that role, but she felt it was unbelievable and over the top, so she did not want to do it; however, he never insisted. At the premiere, Novak was totally shocked to hear her voice had been overdubbed by a German actress in many scenes. Aldrich had never told her, nor had he given her the opportunity to dub it herself. She was extremely upset. The last film Novak made in the '60s was The Great Bank Robbery (1969), opposite Zero Mostel, Clint Walker, and Claude Akins.
Acting sporadically (1970–1991)
After spending nearly four years she described as a "self-imposed vacation," Novak agreed to take part in two projects. She returned to the screen with a role in the horror anthology film Tales That Witness Madness (1973). Novak also starred as Las Vegas chorus girl Gloria Joyce, a character she could identify with, in the made-for-TV movie, The Third Girl From the Left (1973), with her real-life boyfriend at the time, Michael Brandon. Novak admitted a preference for TV films as she thought they were faster to shoot than features. She described scripts of that time as offensive, saying she disliked the unnecessary sex she found in most of them. In 1975, Novak took part in the ABC movie Satan's Triangle because she liked the story which dealt in the supernatural. Novak had a small role in The White Buffalo (1977), a western starring Charles Bronson. She ended the decade by playing Helga in Just a Gigolo (1979), opposite David Bowie.
In 1980, Novak played fictional actress Lola Brewster in the British mystery-thriller The Mirror Crack'd, based on the story by Agatha Christie. She co-starred alongside Angela Lansbury, Tony Curtis, Rock Hudson, and Elizabeth Taylor.
Novak did not appear in any feature films during the remainder of the 1980s. Her acting credits during the decade included the ensemble television movie Malibu (1983) and the pilot episode of The New Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1985).
Producers of the successful primetime soap opera Falcon Crest offered Novak a role in their series similar to her character in Vertigo.  She appeared as the secretive "Kit Marlowe" in 19 episodes from 1986 to 1987. It was Novak's idea to name her character Kit Marlowe, as it was the stage name that Columbia had wanted her to use when she started out in the business. The former Marilyn Pauline Novak wryly described this turn of events as effectively being Cohn's revenge on her from beyond the grave.
Novak decided to re-establish contact with her agent and seek challenging roles. She returned to film with the leading role of Rose Sellers in The Children (1990) opposite Ben Kingsley. A British-German coproduction, the film only had a limited release.
Director Mike Figgis offered Novak the role of a terminally ill writer with a mysterious past in his thriller Liebestraum (1991) opposite Kevin Anderson and Bill Pullman. Novak loved the script and thought it was going to be an important picture. However, she had a difficult experience with Figgis. She agreed to do the film under the impression she was going to play the whole character with the flashbacks scenes. Figgis felt Novak was unable to play the flashback role the way he wanted and hired actress Sarah Fearon for those scenes. Novak and Figgis had conflicts on the set as their visions of the script differed, clashed, and were in many ways[which?] diametrically opposed. She felt the story was too personal for the director, as it was about his own life and Novak was playing his mother. She felt he considered her a puppet and, owing to battles with him over how to play her character, most of her scenes were cut. "He wanted what he thought Hitchcock had made over," she said. "But Hitchcock didn’t do that. [Figgis] didn’t know Hitchcock. So he treated me the way he thought Hitchcock must have, tried to manipulate me into doing exactly… I went crazy." Novak was hurt and distraught with the Liebestraum experience as it took her back to her Columbia: "It was such a painful thing for me because it took me right back to Harry Cohn and all that time. And back into saying, 'Look, for God’s sake, haven’t you heard it enough? We don’t want you to do anything. Just be “Kim Novak.”' That movie pained me more than any movie in the world could do." Novak later told Hollywood Life magazine in 2005. "I know he thinks I'm a total bitch. That role was fabulous, full of depth. When I interpreted it the way I thought was evident in the incredible script, he said, 'We're not making a Kim Novak movie, just say the lines. If you continue to play the role this way, I'm going to cut you out of the movie,' and he pretty much did that." In the interview, Novak admitted she was "unprofessional" not to obey her director.
Novak was supposed to do a comedy with the French director Claude Berri and also starring Peter Falk. The film was never made and following the difficult experience with Liebestraum, she has usually cited that experience as the reason for her decision to retire from the film industry. In 2004, she told the Associated Press:
I got so burned out on that picture that I wanted to leave the business, but then if you wait long enough you think, "Oh, I miss certain things." The making of a movie is wonderful. What's difficult is afterward when you have to go around and try to sell it. The actual filming, when you have a good script—which isn't often—nothing beats it.
The 2000s and beyond
After her retirement from acting, Novak has made only rare public appearances and turned down most offers she received. In 1996, Vertigo was given a restoration by Robert A. Harris and James C. Katz and re-released to theaters. Novak loved their work so much she agreed to make appearances at screenings of the film, something she originally refused when Universal asked her in 1984. She also took part in Obsessed with Vertigo, a documentary retracing the making and restoration of the film. In 1997, Novak received an Honorary Golden Bear Award for lifetime achievement at the 47th Berlin International Film Festival. 
In 2003, Novak was presented with the Eastman Kodak Archives Award for her major contribution to film. (Prior honorees include Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, James Stewart, Martin Scorsese and Meryl Streep.) During that time, Novak received several offers to do some major films and to appear on high profile television shows. She made an appearance on Larry King Live in 2004 where she stated she would consider returning to the screen "if it was the right role."  In 2010, Novak was the recipient of a special tribute from the American Cinematheque in Hollywood, where her films were shown at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre. She made a rare personal appearance with a Q&A onstage between showing of Pal Joey and Bell, Book and Candle, earning a two-long minute standing ovation upon her entrance.
In April 2012, Novak was honored at the TCM Classic Film Festival where she introduced a screening of Vertigo. She joined in conversation with Robert Osborne for a Q&A session in which she discussed her career and personal life. The hour-long interview aired on TCM as Kim Novak: Live from the TCM Classic Film Festival on March 6, 2013. Novak broke down in tears while discussing Liebestraum. As she nearly sobbed in front of the audience, Novak said, "I couldn't do a movie after that. I've never done a movie after that. I just couldn't do a movie after that." The interview was an eye-opener for many fans who had wondered why Novak made so few films. Acknowledging that she never reached her potential as an actress, Novak revealed to the audience that she was bipolar and explained, "I was not diagnosed until much later. I go through more of the depression than the mania part." "I don't think I was ever cut out to have a Hollywood life," Novak also commented. "Did I do the right thing, leaving? Did I walk out when I shouldn't have? That's when I get sad." On the possibility of acting again, Novak said in another interview, with the fashion website LifeGoesStrong, "Who knows what the future holds? It would take an awful lot to lure me out there, but I would never say never." Also during the TCM Festival, Novak was honored in a handprint and footprint ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre. That same year, Novak received the San Francisco Cinematic Icon Award from the San Francisco Museum and Historical Society.
In 2013, Novak was recognized as the guest of honor by the Cannes Film Festival. She attended the 2013 Festival where she introduced a new restored version of Vertigo.  She also took part in the festival’s closing ceremony where she presented the Grand Prix Award to Joel and Ethan Coen’s film Inside Llewyn Davis. Audiences gave Novak a standing ovation for every appearance she made during the festival.
In 2014, she appeared as a presenter at the 86th Academy Awards. That same year, she introduced a screening of her 1958 movie, Bell, Book and Candle at the TCM Classic Film Festival. Also in 2014, Novak was invited by Cunard Line to be a speaker onboard during a New York-to-London cruise on RMS Queen Mary 2. She introduced screenings of Vertigo and Bell, Book and Candle, and did a Q&A session with Hollywood expert Sue Cameron, who is also her manager.
In 1955 she won the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer - Female. Two years later she won another Golden Globe for World Favorite Female Actress.
In 1995, Novak was ranked 92nd by Empire Magazine on a list of the 100 sexiest stars in film history.
In 2003 Novak was presented with the Eastman Kodak Archives Award for her major contribution to film. (Prior honorees include Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, James Stewart, Martin Scorsese and Meryl Streep.)
In 2010, Novak was also the recipient of a special tribute from the American Cinematheque in Hollywood, where her films were shown at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre. She made a rare personal appearance with a Q&A onstage between showing of Bell, Book and Candle and Vertigo (both 1958).
Also in 2012, Novak was honored in a handprint and footprint ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre. And for her contribution to motion pictures, Novak was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6332 Hollywood Boulevard.
Novak was a presenter at the 2014 Academy Awards.
Novak's first marriage was to English actor Richard Johnson, for thirteen months (March 15, 1965 – April 23, 1966). The two remained friends afterwards. After her engagement to director Richard Quine, much was made of her relationships with Sammy Davis, Jr., and Ramfis Trujillo from the Dominican Republic. She dated Prince Aly Khan as well as Frank Sinatra, Richard Beymer and actor Michael Brandon. In a BBC Documentary it was disclosed that Columbia Studios chief, Harry Cohn, in order to end her relationship with a black man - had mobsters threaten Sammy Davis, Jr. with being blinded or having his legs broken if he didn't marry a black woman within 48 hours.
In the 1960s Novak left Hollywood for Big Sur, where she started to raise horses and concentrate on painting, not making more than the occasional film. In 1974, she met her present husband, veterinarian Robert Malloy, when he did a house call after one of her Arabian mares started suffering from colic. They have been together ever since, and married on March 12, 1976. Through him, she now has two grown-up step children.
In 1997 Novak bought a 43-acre ranch in Sams Valley, Oregon, which they made into their home. There, Novak began to take classes in painting with pastels from artists Harley Brown and Richard McKinley.
In July 2000 their home on the ranch burned to the ground and she lost all her art and the only draft of the biography she had been working on for ten years.
In October 2010, her manager, Sue Cameron, reported that Novak had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Cameron also noted that Novak is "undergoing treatment" and "her doctors say she is in fantastic physical shape and should recover very well." Upon completion of treatment, Novak was declared cancer-free.
Novak continues her creative endeavors today as a photographer, poet and visual artist who paints in watercolor, oil and pastel. Her paintings are impressionistic and surrealistic.
|1954||The French Line||Model||Uncredited|
|1955||Son of Sinbad||Harem Girl||Uncredited|
|1955||5 Against the House||Kay Greylek|
|1955||Picnic||Marjorie "Madge" Owens|
|1955||The Man with the Golden Arm||Molly|
|1956||The Eddy Duchin Story||Marjorie Oelrichs|
|1957||Jeanne Eagels||Jeanne Eagels|
|1957||Pal Joey||Linda English|
|1958||Bell, Book and Candle||Gillian "Gil" Holroyd|
|1959||Middle of the Night||Betty Preisser|
|1960||Strangers When We Meet||Margaret "Maggie" Gault|
|1962||The Notorious Landlady||Mrs. Carlyle "Carly" Hardwicke|
|1962||Boys' Night Out||Cathy|
|1964||Of Human Bondage||Mildred Rogers|
|1964||Kiss Me, Stupid||Polly the Pistol|
|1965||The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders||Moll Flanders|
|1968||The Legend of Lylah Clare||Lylah Clare/Elsa Brinkmann/Elsa Campbell|
|1969||The Great Bank Robbery||Sister Lyda Kebanov|
|1973||Tales That Witness Madness||Auriol||Segment 4" "Luau"|
|1973||The Third Girl From the Left||Gloria Joyce||Television film|
|1975||Satan's Triangle||Eva||Television film|
|1977||The White Buffalo||Mrs. Poker Jenny Schermerhorn||Alternative title: Hunt to Kill|
|1979||Just a Gigolo||Helga von Kaiserling|
|1980||The Mirror Crack'd||Lola Brewster|
|1983||Malibu||Billie Farnsworth||Television film|
|1985||The New Alfred Hitchcock Presents||Rosa||Segment: "Man from the South"|
|1986–87||Falcon Crest||Kit Marlowe||19 episodes|
|1990||The Children||Rose Sellars|
|1991||Liebestraum||Lillian Anderson Munnsen||Final film appearance (to date)|
Awards and nominations
|Year||Award||Category||Title of work||Result|
|1957||BAFTA Awards||Best Foreign Actress||Picnic||Nominated|
|1997||47th Berlin International Film Festival||Honorary Golden Berlin Bear||
|1957||Golden Apple Award||Most Cooperative Actress||
|1955||Golden Globe Award||Most Promising Newcomer - Female||
|1957||Golden Globe Award||World Film Favorite - Female||
|1958||Laurel Awards||Top Female Star||
|1959||Laurel Awards||Top Female Star||
|1960||Laurel Awards||Top Female Star||
|1961||Laurel Awards||Top Female Star||
|1962||Laurel Awards||Top Female Star||
|1963||Laurel Awards||Top Female Star||
|1956||Photoplay Awards||Most Popular Female Star||
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- IMDb Bio
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- "Platinum Career: A Tribute to Kim Novak". 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- TCM, April 2012: Kim Novak: Live From The TCM Classic Film Festival Relinked 2014-06-20
- "'Vertigo' Star Kim Novak to Be Honored at TCM Classic Film Festival". The Hollywood Reporter. March 6, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Hollywood Star Project: Kim Novak". LA Times Hollywood Star Project. 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "Kim Novak, Guest of Honour at the 66th Festival de Cannes". Cannes. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Kim Novak’s artworks unveiled at the Old Mint, San Francisco
- "Kim Novak: Pastel Paintings - Butler Institute of American Art". Youngstown Live. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- According to his official website, michaelbrandon.net
- December 2014 BBC Documentary, Sammy Davis, Jr. "The Kid in the middle"
- CNN, January 5, 2004: Larry King Live: Interview With Kim Novak (transcript) Relinked 2014-06-20
- Army Archerd: "Novak talks of quitting" (July 24, 1967)
- Johnston, Alex (October 19, 2010). "Kim Novak, Star of 1958's 'Vertigo,' Has Cancer". The Epoch Times. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
- Kim Novak's official artist website Linked March 21, 2014
- Barnett, Vincent L. (2007). "Dualling for Judy: The concept of the double in the films of Kim Novak". Film History (Indiana University Press) 19 (1): 86–101. doi:10.2979/fil.2007.19.1.86. ISSN 0892-2160.
- I Was In Life: Kim Novak Remembers (photo feature) LIFE
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kim Novak.|
- Kim Novak at the Internet Movie Database
- Kim Novak at the TCM Movie Database
- Kim Novak at the American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures
- Kim Novak Official Artist Website
- Photographs and literature