Kimek tribe

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{{|auxiliary Ottoman troops|Yamaks}}

The Kimek or Kimaek (Yemaek, Yamak, Djamuk) were one of the Tungusic[1][2] tribes known from Arab and Persian medieval geographers as one of the seven tribes in the Kimek Khanate in the period of 850-1050 AD. The other six constituent tribes, according to Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061), were the Yemaek, Kipchaks, Tatars, Bayandur, Lanikaz, and Ajlad. Ancestors of the modern Korean ethnic group.[3][4]

Name[edit]

Yemaek is believed to be a combination of Ye (濊·穢·薉) and Maek (貊·貉) people of two neighboring cultures. The main culture is the Xitunshan culture (西团山文化). He Qiutao (何秋涛) said Ye is the short name of Buyeo.[5] Dongye first appears in history as a vassal state of Gojoseon until its fall to China in 108 BCE.[6] It was known as the Huiyetou (穢邪頭) state in Shuowen Jiezi.[7][8] It later became a vassal of the increasingly powerful Goguryeo. According to the Chinese Records of Three Kingdoms, Ye worshiped tigers,[9] whereas according to Erya, Maek means bears. Gomnaru, the capital of Baekje, also means the "bear port". Historians suggest tigers and bears may have been totems worshiped by Ye and Maek tribes.

History[edit]

These people most commonly dwelt in Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula. They had ancestral ties to various Korean kingdoms including Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, and tribes including Okjeo, Dongye, and Yangmaek (양맥; 梁貊) and Sosumaek (소수맥; 小水貊).[10][11]

A part of the Chuüe tribe intermixed with the Göktürks and formed a tribe called Shato, which lived in southern Dzungaria, to the west of Lake Baikal.[12] In the Western Turkic Khaganate the Chuy tribes occupied a privileged position of being voting members of the confederation, same as the Nushibi (Ch. 弩失畢, left wing) tribes. The Shato separated from the Chuüe in the middle of the 7th century, and presently are a well known ethnic group, listed in censuses taken in Tzarist Russia and in the 20th century.

After the disintegration in 743 AD of the Western Turkic Kaganate, a part of the Chuy tribes remained in its successor, the Uyghur Kaganate (740-840), and another part retained their independence.[13] During the Uyghur period, the Chuy tribes consolidated into the nucleus of the tribes known as Kimaks in the Arab and Persian sources.[14] The head of the Kimek confederation was titled Shad Tutuk, i.e. "Prince Governing, or Ruling”.[15] By the middle of the eighth century, the Kimeks occupied territory between the Ural River and Emba River, and from the Aral sea and Caspian steppes, to the Zhetysu area.

Kimek Khanate[edit]

Main article: Kimek Khanate

After the 840 AD breakup of the Uyghur Kaganate, the Kimeks headed a new political tribal union, creating a new Kimek state. Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061) wrote that the Kimak federation consisted of seven tribes: Kimeks (Imak, Yimaek, Yemaek), Imi, Tatars, Bayandur, Kipchak, Lanikaz and Ajlad. Later, an expanded Kimek Kaganate partially controlled the territories of the Oguz, Kangly, and Bagjanak tribes, and in the west bordered the Khazar and Bulgar territories. The Kimaks led a semi-settled life, while the Kipchaks were predominantly nomadic herders.

In the beginning of the eleventh century the Kipchak Khanlyk moved west, occupying lands that had earlier belonged to the Oguz. After seizing the Oguz lands, the Kipchaks grew considerably stronger, and the Kimeks became dependents of the Kipchaks. The fall of the Kimek Kaganate in the middle of the 11th century was caused by the migration of Central Asian Mongolian-speaking nomads, displaced by the Mongolian-speaking Khitan state of Liao, which formed in 916 AD in Northern China. The Khitan nomads occupied the Kimek and Kipchak lands west of the Irtysh. In the eleventh to twelfth centuries a Mongol-speaking Naiman tribe displaced the Kimeks and Kipchaks from the Mongolian Altai and Upper Irtysh as it moved west.

Between the ninth and thirteenth centuries Kimek nomadic tribes were coaching in the steppes of the modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia. A portion of the Kimeks that left the Ob-Irtysh interfluvial region joined the Kipchak confederation that survived until the Mongol invasion, and later united with the Nogai confederation of the Kipchak descendents. The last organized tribes of the Nogai in Russian sources were dispersed with the Russian construction of zaseka bulwarks in the Don and Volga regions in the 17th-18th centuries, which separated the cattle breeding populations from their summer pastures. Another part of the Nogai were deported from the Budjak steppes after Russian conquest of Western Ukraine and Moldova in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Preucel, Robert; Mrozowski, Stephen (May 10, 2010). Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: The New Pragmatism (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 296. ISBN 1405158328. 
  2. ^ Divitçioğlu, Sencer (2010). Sekiz Türk Boyu Üzerine Gözlemler (YAYLACIK MATBAACILIK ed.). Topkapı/İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası - Kultur Yayinlari. p. 87.88. ISBN 978-605-360-098-5. 
  3. ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State-formation Theories. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 86. ISBN 9780674002449. As the first "Koreans", the Yemaek are considered responsible for the formation of Tan'gun's kingdom of Kochoson 
  4. ^ Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That Glorious Ancient History of Our Nation: The Contested Re-readings of "Korea" in Early Chinese Historical Records and Their Legacy on the Formation of Korean-ness. Ann Arbor: Proquest. p. 220. ISBN 9780549440369. The majority of the Kija Choson and Wiman Choson people were Yemaek, the ancestors of the Korean people 
  5. ^ 民族探幽:夫余与秽貊
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ the Investigation about the Hui Country
  8. ^ 說文解字第十一篇下
  9. ^ Chen Shou,Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 30, Weizhi, Chapter 30, Dongyizhuan, "常用十月節祭天,晝夜飲酒歌舞,名之爲舞天,又祭虎以爲神"
  10. ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State-formation Theories. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 86. ISBN 9780674002449. As the first "Koreans", the Yemaek are considered responsible for the formation of Tan'gun's kingdom of Kochoson 
  11. ^ Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That Glorious Ancient History of Our Nation: The Contested Re-readings of "Korea" in Early Chinese Historical Records and Their Legacy on the Formation of Korean-ness. Ann Arbor: Proquest. p. 220. ISBN 9780549440369. The majority of the Kija Choson and Wiman Choson people were Yemaek, the ancestors of the Korean people 
  12. ^ Gumilev, L.N. "Ancient Turks", Moscow, Science, 1967, Ch.20 http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/OT/ot20.htm
  13. ^ Faizrakhmanov, G. "Ancient Turks in Siberia and Central Asia"
  14. ^ S.A. Pletneva, "Kipchaks", p.26
  15. ^ Faizrakhmanov, G. "Ancient Turks in Sibiria and Central Asia"

References[edit]

  • Faizrakhmanov G., "Ancient Turks in Sibiria and Central Asia" Kazan, 'Master Lain', 2000, ISBN 5-93139-069-3
  • Gumilev L.N., "Ancient Turks", Moscow, 'Science', 1967
  • Gumilev L.N., "Hunnu in China", Moscow, 'Science', 1974
  • Kimball L., "The Vanished Kimak Empire", Western Washington U., 1994
  • Pletneva S.A., "Kipchaks", Moscow, 'Science', 1990, ISBN 5-02-009542-7

External links[edit]