This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Region||Luanda Province, Bengo Province , Malanje Province|
|2.1 million (2014)|
Official language in
|Angola ("National language")|
|Country||Ndongo and Matamba|
[ɸ] and [β] are allophones of /p/ and /b/, respectively, before /a/ and /u/. The phoneme /l/ is phonetically a flap [ɾ], the plosive [d] or its palatalized version [dʲ] before the front high vowel /i/. In the same way, the alveolars /s/, /z/ and /n/ are palatalized to [ʃ], [ʒ] and [ɲ], respectively, before [i]. There may be an epenthesis of [g] after /ŋ/ in word medial positions, thus creating a phonetic cluster [ŋg] in a process of fortition.
There is long distance nasal harmony, in which /l/ is realized as [n] if the previous morphemes contain /m/ or /n/, but not prenasalized stops.
There are two contrasting tones: a high (á) and a low tone (à). There is also a downstep in cases of tonal sandhi.
There is vowel harmony in two groups (the high vowels /i, u/ and the mid and low vowels /e, o, a/) that applies only for verbal morphology. In some morphemes, vowels may be consistently deleted to avoid a hiatus.
|Eie / Eye||You|
|Muene||He or she|
Conjugating the verb to be (kuala; also kukala in Kimbundu) in the present:
|Eme ngala||I am|
|Eie uala / Eye uala / Eie wala / Eye wala||You are|
|Muene uala / Muene wala||He or she is|
|Etu tuala / Etu twala||We are|
|Enu nuala / Enu nwala||You are|
|Ene ala||They are|
Conjugating the verb to have (kuala ni; also kukala ni in Kimbundu) in the present :
|Eme ngala ni||I have|
|Eie / Eye uala ni||You have|
|Muene uala ni||He or she has|
|Etu tuala ni||We have|
|Enu nuala ni||You have|
|Ene ala ni||They have|
- Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
- A language name 'mbundu' was used by Guthrie in his 1948 classification, for his group R10 (the language is Umbundu, the Ovimbundu's language. Kimbundu is found as Ndongo-H21). This has become obsolete: In his 1971 classification, the group H20 is called the Kimbundu group, and the R10 group is called 'Umbundu group'. See: M. Guthrie, The Classification of the Bantu Languages (OUP, 1948), and M. Guthrie, Comparative Bantu, Vol 2 (Gregg Press, 1971). Glottolog classifies Kimbundu in a Mbundu group, which is in the Northern Njila group, and Umbundu (the Ovimbundu's language) in the Kunene group, which is itself in the Southern Njila group. see the Glottolog entry
- Ambundu is the short form for Akwa Mbundu, whee 'Akwa' means 'from', or 'of', or more originally 'originally from' and 'belonging to'. In Kimbundu language, the particle Akwa is shortened into simply A, so that instead of Akwa Mbndu, it becomes Ambundu; similarly the term Akwa Ngola becomes ANgola, then Angola. Ngola was the title for kings in the historic Northern Angolan kingdom, before the Portuguese invasion.
- Xavier, Francisco da Silva (2010). Fonologia segmental e supra-segmental do Quimbundo: variedades de Luanda, Bengo, Quanza Norte e Malange (Ph.D. thesis) (in Portuguese). University of São Paulo. doi:10.11606/t.8.2010.tde-20102010-091425.
- "A língua kimbundu". Ciberduvidas da lingua portuguesa (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- The art of the language of Angola, author Father Pedro Dias, published in 1697
- Emuseum article on Kimbundu
- PanAfrican L10n page on Kimbundu
- Kimbundu people
- Ethnic groups of Angola
|This Angola-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|This Bantu language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|