The Kindaichi Case Files

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The Kindaichi Case Files
KindaishiCaseFiles vol1 Cover.jpg
Cover of The Kindaichi Case Files volume 1 as published by Kodansha
金田一少年の事件簿
(Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo)
Genre Detective fiction, Mystery
Manga
Written by Yōzaburō Kanari (File and Case series)
Seimaru Amagi (Other series)
Illustrated by Fumiya Satō
Published by Kodansha
English publisher
Demographic Shōnen
Magazine Weekly Shōnen Magazine
Original run 1992 – present
Volumes 71 (List of volumes)
Series titles
  1. File series (1992 – 1997, 27 volumes)
  2. Short File series (1997 – 2000, 6 volumes)
  3. Akechi Case Files (1998 – 2000, 2 volumes)
  4. Case series (1998 – 2001, 10 volumes)
  5. New series (2004 – 2011, 14 volumes)
  6. 20th Anniversary series (2012 – 2013, 5 volumes)
  7. Takato Case Files (2013 – 2014, 1 volume)
  8. Return "R" series (2013 – ongoing, 6 volumes)
Light novel
Written by Seimaru Amagi
Illustrated by Fumiya Satō
Published by Kodansha
Original run September 22, 1994April 20, 2001
Volumes 9 (List of volumes)
Anime film
Operazakan - Aratanaru Satsujin
Directed by Daisuke Nishio
Written by Michiru Shimada
Music by Kaoru Wada
Studio Toei Animation
Released December 14, 1996
Runtime 94 minutes[1]
Anime television series
The File of Young Kindaichi
Directed by Daisuke Nishio
Music by Kaoru Wada
Studio Toei Animation
Network Nippon Television
English network
Original run TV series
7 April 1997
11 September 2000
TV specials
12 November 2007 –
19 November 2007
Episodes 148 + 2 (TV specials) (List of episodes)
Live-action film
Directed by Yukihiko Tsutsumi
Released December 13, 1997
Manga
Akechi Case Files
Written by Seimaru Amagi
Illustrated by Fumiya Satō
Published by Kodansha
Demographic Shōnen
Magazine Weekly Shōnen Magazine[2]
Original run 19982000
Volumes 2 (List of volumes)
Anime film
Satsuriku no Deep Blue
Studio Toei Animation
Released August 21, 1999
Runtime 91 minutes[3]
Original video animation
The Black Magic Murders
Directed by Toshiaki Komura
Written by Isao Murayama
Music by Kaoru Wada
Studio Toei Animation
Released December 17, 2012March 15, 2013
Episodes 2 (List of episodes)
Manga
Takato Case Files
Written by Seimaru Amagi
Illustrated by Fumiya Satō
Published by Kodansha
Demographic Shōnen
Magazine Manga Box
Original run 20132014
Volumes 1 (List of volumes)
Anime television series
The Kindaichi Case Files R
Directed by Yutaka Tsuchida
Music by Kaoru Wada
Studio Toei Animation
Network YTV, NTV
English network
Original run 5 April 201427 September 2014
Episodes 25 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
The Kindaichi Case Files R season 2
Directed by Yoko Ikeda
Produced by Michihiko Suwa
Shinji Shimizu
Written by Atsuhiro Tomioka
Miyuki Kishimoto
Takuya Matsumoto
Yoshifumi Fukushima
Music by Kaoru Wada
Studio Toei Animation
Network YTV, NTV
Original run October 3, 2015March 26, 2016
Episodes 22 + 2 (TV specials) (List of episodes)

The Kindaichi Case Files (Japanese: 金田一少年の事件簿 Hepburn: Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo?) is a Japanese mystery manga series based on the crime solving adventures of a high school student, Hajime Kindaichi, the supposed grandson of the famous (fictional) private detective Kosuke Kindaichi.[5][6] They are written by Yōzaburō Kanari or Seimaru Amagi (depending on series) and illustrated by Fumiya Satō.[7] The Kindaichi series, which started serialization in Weekly Shōnen Magazine in 1992,[7] is one of the earliest works in the mystery manga genre. In 1995, the manga won the Kodansha Manga Award for shōnen.[8]

The serialization of the new Kindaichi series started in 2004,[9][10] but not on a regular basis until 2012. The manga resumed regular serialization in 2012 to commemorate the 20th anniversary. The regular weekly serialization continued in 2013 with the title changed to The Kindaichi Case Files R (Returns) (金田一少年の事件簿R Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Ritānzu?). Kindaichi tankōbon were ranked 2nd and 3rd in a Japanese Comic Ranking in October, 2009.[11]

The series has also been animated by Toei Animation, first as a feature film, with Kappei Yamaguchi as the voice of Kindaichi, released in 1996 and then a television series, with Taiki Matsuno voicing Kindaichi in this and subsequent productions for 148 episodes from 1997 to 2000,[6][12] and there has since been a live-action film,[13] four live-action drama series, three live-action television specials and further animated features for cinema and television.[12] A new anime television series adaptation, titled The Kindaichi Case Files R (Returns), began airing on April 5, 2014 and concluded on September 27, 2014. The voice actors of the main characters from the first anime television series reprise their roles.[14] A second season began airing on October 3, 2015.[15]

The collected stories are published in English by Tokyopop with the title The Kindaichi Case Files.[16] Only the first 17 volumes (the first series) have been licensed by Tokyopop; the rest are unlikely to see print in the United States unless their relatively poor sales improve.[17] The series was released on television in Southeast Asia as The File of Young Kindaichi.[18]

Overview[edit]

Kindaichi mysteries are whodunnit stories featuring (usually multiple) gruesome murders, often with a supernatural tinge. They are typically of the style of John Dickson Carr, and frequently feature a locked room mystery[6] or other seemingly "impossible" crimes, such as a murder occurring when all surviving suspects have (apparently) airtight alibis.

A notable distinction of The Kindaichi Case Files is that the killers are not depicted as psychopathic murderers and the murders are never committed for financial reasons alone. The identified killers all have deep rooted problems, often involving great emotional trauma through the greed or thoughtlessness of others, as their reasons for committing the murder(s). Thus the killers are often portrayed as sympathetic figures, as opposed to cold, calculating killers in some other mystery series.

In addition of this, after being revealed the criminal usually attempts to commit suicide.[19]

Characters[edit]

Hajime Kindaichi (金田一 一 Kindaichi Hajime?)
Voiced by: Taiki Matsuno and Kappei Yamaguchi (Anime film #1 only)
Played by: Tsuyoshi Domoto (1995 show), Jun Matsumoto (2001 show), Kazuya Kamenashi, Ryosuke Yamada

Fudo High School student Hajime is unmotivated, lazy, and a little lecherous, much to the exasperation of childhood friend Miyuki Nanase. However, only a few people see his great intelligence and deductive prowess by his -180 IQ, possibly inherited from his grandfather, private detective Kosuke Kindaichi. He is also an accomplished sleight of hand artist. Despite his clumsiness and myriad other flaws, he is a loyal friend and a first-rate detective.

Miyuki Nanase (七瀬 美雪 Nanase Miyuki?)
Voiced by: Akiko Nakagawa
Played by: Rie Tomosaka (1995 show), Anne Suzuki (2001 show), Juri Ueno, Haruna Kawaguchi

The childhood friend and next door neighbor of "Hajime-chan"; many question why a model student like Miyuki is friends with a slacker like him. Deep down inside, Miyuki feels Hajime is not an idiot, and they seem to have a love that neither has yet fully expressed. She possesses remarkable logic and perception, although she is obviously not as gifted as he is. Miyuki is the president of Fudo High's student council.

Isamu Kenmochi (剣持 勇 Kenmochi Isamu?)
Voiced by: Jūrōta Kosugi and Isao Natsuyagi (Anime film only)
Played by: Masato Furuoya (1995 show), Masaya Kato, Tomomitsu Yamaguchi

A Tokyo homicide police inspector who met Kindaichi on his first case, and was so impressed that he has lent the youngster his unquestioning support ever since. He is often the investigating officer on Kindaichi's cases, and provides the official stamp of approval Kindaichi often needs to pursue his investigations. He believes fully in Kindaichi's ability.

Kengo Akechi (明智 健悟 Akechi Kengo?)
Voiced by: Toshiyuki Morikawa
Played by: Mansaku Ikeuchi

An extremely intelligent, elite-level police detective (superintendent), who is Kenmochi's supervisor. He is an arrogant and snobbish character that becomes a rival to Kindaichi in crime-solving. However, Akechi (indeliberately) not only helped Kindaichi solve the case, but also aided him out of trouble. His relationship to Kindaichi is abrasive at the least, but they have an unspoken mutual respect for each other's abilities. He often compares the crimes in Japan to his experience in Los Angeles. He is proficient in English and French.

Ryuta Saki (佐木 竜太 Saki Ryūta?) and Ryuji Saki (佐木 竜二 Saki Ryūji?)
Voiced by: Keiichi Nanba (Ryuta Saki)
Played by: Tomohiro Hara (1995 show), Jun Hasegawa (2001 show) (Ryuta Saki)
Played by: Daiki Arioka (Ryuji Saki)

He is obsessed with filming through a V8 camera. He basically shoots everywhere at any time. His tape helped Kindaichi solved the case. In "The Santa Slayings", his tape recorded a critical piece of evidence and he was killed for this. In "Kindaichi the Killer", his younger brother, Ryuji Saki, who very much resembled his elder brother, approached Kindaichi at a party, telling him his elder brother told him in a dream that Kindaichi would be in trouble. Soon after, Ryuji helped Kindaichi avoid a murder trap. Afterwards, Ryuji claims himself as Kindaichi's assistant and sometimes really helps Kindaichi in solving cases. In the anime series, Ryuta survived the attack in "The Santa Slayings" story arc and Ryuji did not appear later on.

Reika Hayami (速水 玲香 Hayami Reika?)
Voiced by: Mayumi Iizuka

A famous actress and singer, first appearing in "Death TV", who initially appeared to be arrogant but turned out to be weak and desperate for protection. After this case, Reika has had a crush on Kindaichi and sent her only Valentine's Day gift, a heart-shaped chocolate, to him without revealing her name. Since then, she and Miyuki seem to be rivals over Kindaichi. In "Playing the Fool", Reika's past, that even she lost memory of, was revealed. In "Reika's Kidnapping", it was revealed that Reika's real mother is veteran actress Keiko Mitamura, but throughout the series Reika never knew it, and it was a secret that only Keiko and Kindaichi know.

Fumi Kindaichi (金田一 二三 Kindaichi Fumi?)
Voiced by: Haruna Ikezawa

Kindaichi's cousin. First appeared in "Saint Valentine's Murders" in manga and "The Undying Butterflies" in the anime television series, and later became a regular character appearing in the majority of cases for an extended period. Fumi has good reasoning skills (although not as good as Hajime), she even solves a few mysteries on her own. She sometimes pokes fun at Kindaichi when nobody else is around. Inspector Kenmochi nicknames her "Chibikin" (meaning little Kindaichi).

Yoichi Takato (高遠 遙一 Takatō Yōichi?)
Voiced by: Kenichi Ono
Played by: Hiroki Narimiya

Kindaichi's nemesis, also known as "The Puppeteer From Hell" (地獄の傀儡師 Jigoku no Kugutsushi?). He is known to be extremely intelligent, considers himself to be the evil twin of Kindaichi, and describes their relationship as parallel lines. He is the only son of Reiko Chikamiya, an internationally known magician, who in turn drove Takato to be a magician himself. What he uncovered about the murder of his mother triggered what he is today. A twisted, cold-hearted magician who considers his devilish setups for the perfect crime as masterpieces, and tolerates no mistakes from the people he uses as his puppets.

Media[edit]

Manga[edit]

In Japan, there is a total of 71 volumes with 44 full cases, 17 Kindaichi's short cases, 7 Akechi's short cases, and 1 Takato's full case. Together, the volumes have sold over 90 million copies in Japan, making it one of the best selling manga of the 1990s.[20] There are currently 11 volumes[21] in the new re-run after serialisation of Detective School Q completes.

As of November 4, 2008, 17 volumes have been published in North America, all except 2 with a complete story. New readers are recommended to read the volumes in order, since later stories sometimes reference killers or characters from previous tales, especially Kindaichi's nemesis, who will reappear in at least one of the mysteries not yet published. In general, all the mysteries followed a certain theme (such as a famous legend/story), or have a certain modus operandi.

Light novels[edit]

The novels were written by Seimaru Amagi and illustrated by Fumiya Satō. 9 volumes were released in Japan between September 22, 1994[22] and April 20, 2001.[23]

Anime[edit]

Produced by Toei Animation and directed by Daisuke Nishio, the anime adaptation of the original manga aired on Nippon Television between April 7, 1997 and September 11, 2000,[12] spanning 148 episodes plus one special episode. In addition, two animated films were released on December 14, 1996 and August 21, 1999 respectively. Seven years after the conclusion of the TV anime, two new animated episodes were aired in Japan on November 12, 2007 and November 19, 2007 respectively.[24]

On April 6, 2007, DVD collector's box of Kindaichi was released by Warner Home Video to mark the 10th anniversary of airing of the original TV anime.[25]

To celebrate the 20th Anniversary of the series, two special episodes based on "The Black Magic Murders" were released on DVDs in November 2012 and February 2013.

An anime television series, The Kindaichi Case Files R aired from April 5 to 27 September 2014.[26] A second season aired from October 3, 2015 to March 26, 2016. They are streamed on Crunchyroll.

Video games[edit]

7 Kindaichi video games were released as of September 17, 2009. All of them were released in Japan only. Many of the game voice actors differ from those in the anime version.

No. Title Platform Release Date
1 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Hihō Island: The New Tragedy" (金田一少年の事件簿 悲報島 新たなる惨劇 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Hihōtō Arata Naru Sangeki"?) Windows, PlayStation November 29, 1996[27]
2 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Star Viewing Island: Sad Demon of Revenge" (金田一少年の事件簿 星見島 悲しみの復讐鬼 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Hoshimitō Kanashimi no Fukushūki"?) Sega Saturn (Hudson Soft) January 15, 1998[28]
3 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Hell Park Murder Case" (金田一少年の事件簿 地獄遊園殺人事件 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Jigoku Yūen Satsujin Jiken"?) PlayStation March 26, 1998[29]
4 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Azure Dragon Legend Murder Case" (金田一少年の事件簿 青龍伝説殺人事件 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Seiryū Densetsu Satsujin Jiken"?) PlayStation August 5, 1999[30]
5 "The Kindaichi Case Files: 10th Year's Invitation" (金田一少年の事件簿 10年目の招待状 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Jūnenme no Shōtaijō"?) Game Boy Color December 16, 2000[31]
6 "Detective Conan & The Kindaichi Case Files: The Meeting of the Two Famous Detectives" (名探偵コナン&金田一少年の事件簿 めぐりあう2人の名探偵 "Meitantei Konan to Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Meguri Au Futari no Meitantei"?) Nintendo DS February 5, 2009[32][33]
7 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Devil's Killing Navigation" (金田一少年の事件簿 悪魔の殺人航海 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Akuma no Satsujin Kōkai"?) Nintendo DS September 17, 2009[34]

CD books[edit]

Kodansha released two CD books in 1996 and 1997 respectively. Both have been made into anime. However, nearly all CD books voice actors are not the same as those in the anime version.

No. Title Publisher Release Date
1 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Devil Suite Murder Case" (金田一少年の事件簿 悪魔組曲殺人事件 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Akuma Kumikyoku Satsujin Jiken"?) Kodansha January 17, 1996[35]
2 "The Kindaichi Case Files: Death God Hospital Murder Case" (金田一少年の事件簿 死神病院殺人事件 "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo Shinigami Byōin Satsujin Jiken"?) Kodansha April 21, 1997[36]

Live action series[edit]

The first issue of the crossover series between Case Closed and The Kindaichi Case Files

NTV aired four live action series in 1995, 1996, 2001, and 2014.[37] Specials were aired in 2005,[38] 2013, and 2014.

Tsuyoshi Dōmoto of the Kinki Kids and Rie Tomosaka starred as Kindaichi and Nanase Miyuki in the first two series. In season 3, Matsumoto Jun of Arashi starred as Kindaichi and Suzuki Anne starred as Nanase Miyuki. In season 4, Ryosuke Yamada starred as Kindaichi while Haruna Kawaguchi portrayed Nanase Miyuki.

In 2005, a special based on "The Legendary Vampire Murders" was aired featuring Kamenashi Kazuya of KAT-TUN and Ueno Juri as Kindaichi and Nanase Miyuki.

In 2013, a special based on "Treasure in Kowloon, Hong Kong" was aired featuring Ryosuke Yamada of Hey! Say! JUMP and Haruna Kawaguchi as Hajime Kindaichi and Miyuki Nanase.

In 2014, a special based on "Gate of Jail Private School Murders" was aired also featuring Ryosuke Yamada and Haruna Kawaguchi.

Live action film[edit]

A live action film entitled Shanghai Mermaid Legend Murder Case, was released on December 13, 1997 in Japan. The film was directed by Yukihiko Tsutsumi and starring Tsuyoshi Dōmoto and Rie Tomosaka.[13][39] It is an adaptation of the Kindaichi novel of the same title.

Detective Conan & Kindaichi[edit]

In celebration of the 50th anniversary of Weekly Shōnen Sunday and Weekly Shōnen Magazine, the two magazines collaborated to publish twelve biweekly magazines consisting of chapters from Weekly Shōnen Sunday's Case Closed and Weekly Shōnen Magazine's The Kindaichi Case Files.[40][41] The magazine ran between April 10, 2008 and September 25, 2008.[41]

Reception[edit]

In 1995, the manga won the Kodansha Manga Award in the shōnen's category.[8]

Allen Divers of Anime News Network said that while The Kindaichi Case Files "presents some whoppers", the series also has mysteries that are very "familiar", calling it "the Japanese version of the Hardy Boys or Nancy Drew."[42] In Manga: The Complete Guide Jason Thompson described the mystery scenarios as "inventive and intricate, offering genuine brain teasers", but criticised the artwork as "bland".[43]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "YOUNG KINDAICHI'S CASE BOOK". Toei Animation. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved 2016-01-02. 
  2. ^ "Akechi Shōnen no Karei Naru Jikenbo" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ https://corp.toei-anim.co.jp/english/film/the_file_of_young_kindaichi_de.php
  4. ^ "Animax Asia to Air , Grimgar, Ashes and Illusions, Kindaichi R". Anime News Network. January 6, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  5. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files 2008 New Anime" (in Japanese). Tokyo MX. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  6. ^ a b c "Toei Anime Premium - The Kindaichi Case Files" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  7. ^ a b "Weekly Shōnen Magazine – The Kindaichi Case Files" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  8. ^ a b Joel Hahn. "Kodansha Manga Awards". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  9. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Vampire Legend Murder Case" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  10. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Vampire Legend Murder Case" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  11. ^ "Japanese Comic Ranking". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  12. ^ a b c "The Kindaichi Case Files Anime" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  13. ^ a b "The Kindaichi Case Files Movie Information" (in Japanese). Yahoo! Japan. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  14. ^ "Revival: The Kindaichi Case Files Returns" (in Japanese). Sankei Shimbun. Retrieved 2014-04-15. 
  15. ^ "The File of Young Kindaichi Returns Manga Gets 2nd Anime Adaptation in October". Anime News Network. July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015. 
  16. ^ "Manga+Comics: The Kindaichi Case Files". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  17. ^ The Kindaichi Case Files - When are the new ones going to be released ? [URGENT TOKYOPOP] - TOKYOPOP Message Board
  18. ^ "THE FILE OF YOUNG KINDAICHI." Animax Asia. Retrieved on 8 June 2015.
  19. ^ Furukawa, Takuya; Gene, Tim (2008). The Case Closed Casebook: An Essential Guide. DH Publishing Inc. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-932-89730-2. 
  20. ^ "金田一少年の事件簿 : 誕生20周年で12年ぶり通年連載" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved 2016-01-02. 
  21. ^ "Published Comic Volumes" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  22. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files Novel No.1" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  23. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files Novel No.9" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  24. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files Anime Special" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  25. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: DVD Collector's Box" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  26. ^ "Detective Manga The Kindaichi Case Files Gets New TV Anime". Anime News Network. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  27. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Hihō Island: The New Tragedy" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  28. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Star Viewing Island: Sad Demon of Revenge" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  29. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Hell Park Murder Case" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  30. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Azure Dragon Legend Murder Case" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  31. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: 10th Year's Invitation" (in Japanese). Yahoo! Japan. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  32. ^ "Detective Conan & The Kindaichi Case Files: The Meeting of the Two Famous Detectives" (in Japanese). Bandai. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  33. ^ "Detective Conan & The Kindaichi Case Files: The Meeting of the Two Famous Detectives" (in Japanese). Famitsu. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  34. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Devil's Killing Navigation" (in Japanese). Nintendo. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  35. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Devil Suite Murder Case" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  36. ^ "The Kindaichi Case Files: Death God Hospital Murder Case" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  37. ^ "NTV The Kindaichi Case Files series" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  38. ^ "NTV The Kindaichi Case Files TV Special" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  39. ^ "Kindaichi Shōnen no Jikenbo: Shanghai Ningyo Densetsu". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2010-02-18. 
  40. ^ "Shonen Magazine, Shonen Sunday Mark 50th Anniversary". Anime News Network. March 18, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  41. ^ a b 名探偵コナン&金田一少年の事件簿 [Detective Conan & The Kindaichi Case Files] (in Japanese). Aga-search.com. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  42. ^ Divers, Allen (February 11, 2004). "Tankobon Tower - and then, there was another column". Anime News Network. Retrieved August 11, 2013. 
  43. ^ Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide. Del Rey. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8. 

External links[edit]