Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include biomechanics and orthopedics; strength and conditioning; sport psychology; methods of rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy; and sport and exercise. Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments. Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques.
Kinesiology is the study of human and nonhuman animal-body movements, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human-health include physical education teacher, the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries. Kinesiology is a field of scientific study, and does not prepare individuals for clinical practice. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as in professional programs, such as allied health and medicine.
Whereas the term "kinesiologist" is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries (with the exception of Canada), individuals with training in this area can teach physical education, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics, and occupational health and safety. In North America, kinesiologists may study to earn a Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, or Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Kinesiology or a Bachelor of Kinesiology degree, while in Australia or New Zealand, they are often conferred an Applied Science (Human Movement) degree (or higher). Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.
Adaptation through exercise
Adaptation through exercise is a key principle of kinesiology that relates to improved fitness in athletes as well as health and wellness in clinical populations. Exercise is a simple and established intervention for many movement disorders and musculoskeletal conditions due to the neuroplasticity of the brain and the adaptability of the musculoskeletal system. Therapeutic exercise has been shown to improve neuromotor control and motor capabilities in both normal and pathological populations.
There are many different types of exercise interventions that can be applied in kinesiology to athletic, normal, and clinical populations. Aerobic exercise interventions help to improve cardiovascular endurance. Anaerobic strength training programs can increase muscular strength, power, and lean body mass. Decreased risk of falls and increased neuromuscular control can be attributed to balance intervention programs. Flexibility programs can increase functional range of motion and reduce the risk of injury.
As a whole, exercise programs can reduce symptoms of depression and risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Additionally, they can help to improve quality of life, sleeping habits, immune system function, and body composition.
The study of the physiological responses to physical exercise and their therapeutic applications is known as exercise physiology, which is an important area of research within kinesiology.
Neuroplasticity is also a key scientific principle used in kinesiology to describe how movement and changes in the brain are related. The human brain adapts and acquires new motor skills based on this principle, which includes both adaptive and maladaptive brain changes.
Recent empirical evidence indicates the significant impact of physical activity on brain function; for example, greater amounts of physical activity are associated with enhanced cognitive function in older adults. The effects of physical activity can be distributed throughout the whole brain, such as higher gray matter density and white matter integrity after exercise training, and/or on specific brain areas, such as greater activation in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is also the underlying mechanism of skill acquisition. For example, after long-term training, pianists showed greater gray matter density in sensorimotor cortex and white matter integrity in the internal capsule compared to non-musicians.
Maladaptive plasticity is defined as neuroplasticity with negative effects or detrimental consequences in behavior. Movement abnormalities may occur among individuals with and without brain injuries due to abnormal remodeling in central nervous system. Learned non-use is an example commonly seen among patients with brain damage, such as stroke. Patients with stroke learned to suppress paretic limb movement after unsuccessful experience in paretic hand use; this may cause decreased neuronal activation at adjacent areas of the infarcted motor cortex.
There are many types of therapies that are designed to overcome maladaptive plasticity in clinic and research, such as constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) and virtual reality therapy. These interventions are shown to enhance motor function in paretic limbs  and stimulate cortical reorganization in patients with brain damage.
Motor redundancy is a widely used concept in kinesiology and motor control which states that, for any task the human body can perform, there are effectively an unlimited number of ways the nervous system could achieve that task. This redundancy appears at multiple levels in the chain of motor execution:
- Kinematic redundancy means that for a desired location of the endpoint (e.g. the hand or finger), there are many configurations of the joints that would produce the same endpoint location in space.
- Muscle redundancy means that the same net joint torque could be generated by many different relative contributions of individual muscles.
- Motor unit redundancy means that for the same net muscle force could be generated by many different relative contributions of motor units within that muscle.
The concept of motor redundancy is explored in numerous studies, usually with the goal of describing the relative contribution of a set of motor elements (e.g. muscles) in various human movements, and how these contributions can be predicted from a comprehensive theory. Two distinct (but not incompatible) theories have emerged for how the nervous system coordinates redundant elements: simplification and optimization. In the simplification theory, complex movements and muscle actions are constructed from simpler ones, often known as primitives or synergies, resulting in a simpler system for the brain to control. In the optimization theory, motor actions arise from the minimization of a control parameter, such as the energetic cost of movement or errors in movement performance.
Scope of practice
In Canada, kinesiology is a professional designation as well as an area of study. In the province of Ontario the scope has been officially defined as, "the assessment of human movement and performance and its rehabilitation and management to maintain, rehabilitate or enhance movement and performance" 
Kinesiologists work in a variety of roles as health professionals. They work as rehabilitation providers in hospitals, clinics and private settings working with populations needing care for musculoskeletal, cardiac and neurological conditions. They provide rehabilitation to persons injured at work and in vehicular accidents. Kinesiologists also work as functional assessment specialists, exercise therapists, ergonomists, return to work specialists, case managers and medical legal evaluators. They can be found in hospital, long term care, clinic, work, and community settings. Additionally,kinesiology is applied in areas of health and fitness for all levels of athletes, but more often found with training of elite athletes. All too often biomechanical analysis focuses on the kinetic energy or the working numbers in execution of technique. More emphasis should be placed on muscle and joints as they are involved in the action and the role they play in execution of the technique is critical.
Licensing and regulation
In Canada, Kinesiology has been designated a regulated health profession in Ontario only Kinesiology was granted the right to regulate in the province of Ontario in the summer of 2007  and similar proposals have been made for other Canadian provinces. The College of Kinesiologists of Ontario (http://www.coko.ca/) achieved proclamation on April 1, 2013, at which time the professional title "Kinesiologist" became protected by law. In Ontario only members of the college may call themselves a Registered Kinesiologist.
- Health Promotion
- Kinesiologists working in the health promotion industry work with individuals to enhance the health, fitness, and well-being of the individual. Kinesiologists can be found working in fitness facilities, personal training/corporate wellness facilities, and industry.
- Kinesiologists work with individuals with disabling conditions to assist in regaining their optimal physical function. They work with individuals in their home, fitness facilities, rehabilitation clinics, and at the worksite. They also work alongside physiotherapists and occupational therapists.
- Kinesiologists work in industry to assess suitability of design of workstations and provide suggestions for modifications and assistive devices.
- Health and Safety.
- Kinesiologists are involved in consulting with industry to identify hazards and provide recommendations and solutions to optimize the health and safety of workers.
- Disability Management/Case Coordination
- Kinesiologists recommend and provide a plan of action to return an injured individual to their optimal function in all aspects of life.
- Management/Research/Administration/Health and Safety
- Kinesiologists frequently fulfill roles in all above areas, perform research, and manage businesses.
- Anatomical terms of motion
- Exercise physiology
- Kinesiotherapy (USA)
- Mental Practice of Action
- Motor imagery
- Movement Assessment
- Sports science
- "Welcome to the Ontario Kinesiology Association". Oka.on.ca. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "CKA - Canadian Kinesiology Alliance - Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie". Cka.ca. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- Bodo Rosenhahn, Reinhard Klette and Dimitris Metaxas (eds.). Human Motion - Understanding, Modelling, Capture and Animation. Volume 36 in 'Computational Imaging and Vision', Springer, Dordrecht, 2007
- Ahmed Elgammal, Bodo Rosenhahn, and Reinhard Klette (eds.) Human Motion - Understanding, Modelling, Capture and Animation. 2nd Workshop, in conjunction with ICCV 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4814, Springer, Berlin, 2007
- Carroll, Robert Todd "These are empirical claims and have been tested and shown to be false". "Applied Kinesiology". The Skeptics Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- Atwood KC (2004). "Naturopathy, Pseudoscience, and Medicine: Myths and Fallacies vs Truth". MedGenMed 6 (1): 33. PMC 1140750. PMID 15208545.
- Haas, Mitchell; Robert Cooperstein; David Peterson (August 2007). "Disentangling manual muscle testing and Applied Kinesiology: critique and reinterpretation of a literature review". Chiropractic & Osteopathy 15 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-15-11. PMC 2000870. PMID 17716373. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Wang, E; Næss, MS; Hoff, J; Albert, TL; Pham, Q; Richardson, RS; Helgerud, J (Nov 16, 2013). "Exercise-training-induced changes in metabolic capacity with age: the role of central cardiovascular plasticity.". Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 36: 665–676. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9596-x. PMID 24243396.
- Potempa, K; Lopez, M; Braun, LT; Szidon, JP; Fogg, L; Tincknell, T (January 1995). "Physiological outcomes of aerobic exercise training in hemiparetic stroke patients.". Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 26 (1): 101–5. doi:10.1161/01.str.26.1.101. PMID 7839377.
- Wilmore, JH; Stanforth, PR; Gagnon, J; Leon, AS; Rao, DC; Skinner, JS; Bouchard, C (July 1996). "Endurance exercise training has a minimal effect on resting heart rate: the HERITAGE Study.". Medicine and science in sports and exercise 28 (7): 829–35. doi:10.1097/00005768-199607000-00009. PMID 8832536.
- Carter, JB; Banister, EW; Blaber, AP (2003). "Effect of endurance exercise on autonomic control of heart rate.". Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 33 (1): 33–46. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333010-00003. PMID 12477376.
- Chen, Chao‐Yin; Dicarlo, Stephen E. (January 1998). "Endurance exercise training‐induced resting Bradycardia: A brief review". Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation 8 (1): 37–77. doi:10.1080/15438629709512518.
- Crewther, BT; Heke, TL; Keogh, JW (February 2013). "The effects of a resistance-training program on strength, body composition and baseline hormones in male athletes training concurrently for rugby union 7's.". The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 53 (1): 34–41. PMID 23470909.
- Schoenfeld, BJ (June 2013). "Postexercise hypertrophic adaptations: a reexamination of the hormone hypothesis and its applicability to resistance training program design.". Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 27 (6): 1720–30. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828ddd53. PMID 23442269.
- Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Lund, C; Rasmussen, C; Petersen, T; Sørensen, H; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Overgaard, K (July 2013). "Neural drive increases following resistance training in patients with multiple sclerosis.". Journal of neurology 260 (7): 1822–32. doi:10.1007/s00415-013-6884-4. PMID 23483214.
- Staron, RS; Karapondo, DL; Kraemer, WJ; Fry, AC; Gordon, SE; Falkel, JE; Hagerman, FC; Hikida, RS (March 1994). "Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women.". Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 76 (3): 1247–55. PMID 8005869.
- Folland, JP; Williams, AG (2007). "The adaptations to strength training : morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength.". Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 37 (2): 145–68. doi:10.2165/00007256-200737020-00004. PMID 17241104.
- Moritani, T; deVries, HA (June 1979). "Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain.". American journal of physical medicine 58 (3): 115–30. PMID 453338.
- Narici, MV; Roi, GS; Landoni, L; Minetti, AE; Cerretelli, P (1989). "Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps.". European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology 59 (4): 310–9. doi:10.1007/bf02388334. PMID 2583179.
- Forrester, LW; Wheaton, LA; Luft, AR (2008). "Exercise-mediated locomotor recovery and lower-limb neuroplasticity after stroke.". Journal of rehabilitation research and development 45 (2): 205–20. doi:10.1682/jrrd.2007.02.0034. PMID 18566939.
- Roig, M; Skriver, K; Lundbye-Jensen, J; Kiens, B; Nielsen, JB (2012). "A single bout of exercise improves motor memory.". PLoS ONE 7 (9): e44594. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044594. PMID 22973462.
- Hirsch, MA; Farley, BG (June 2009). "Exercise and neuroplasticity in persons living with Parkinson's disease.". European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine 45 (2): 215–29. PMID 19532109.
- Schjerve, IE; Tyldum, GA; Tjønna, AE; Stølen, T; Loennechen, JP; Hansen, HE; Haram, PM; Heinrich, G; Bye, A; Najjar, SM; Smith, GL; Slørdahl, SA; Kemi, OJ; Wisløff, U (November 2008). "Both aerobic endurance and strength training programmes improve cardiovascular health in obese adults.". Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 115 (9): 283–93. doi:10.1042/CS20070332. PMID 18338980.
- Jozsi, AC; Campbell, WW; Joseph, L; Davey, SL; Evans, WJ (November 1999). "Changes in power with resistance training in older and younger men and women.". The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 54 (11): M591–6. doi:10.1093/gerona/54.11.m591. PMID 10619323.
- Campbell, WW; Crim, MC; Young, VR; Evans, WJ (August 1994). "Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults.". The American journal of clinical nutrition 60 (2): 167–75. PMID 8030593.
- El-Khoury, F; Cassou, B; Charles, MA; Dargent-Molina, P (Oct 29, 2013). "The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 347: f6234. doi:10.1136/bmj.f6234. PMID 24169944.
- Hartig, DE; Henderson, JM (Mar–Apr 1999). "Increasing hamstring flexibility decreases lower extremity overuse injuries in military basic trainees.". The American journal of sports medicine 27 (2): 173–6. PMID 10102097.
- Brand, S; Gerber, M; Beck, J; Hatzinger, M; Pühse, U; Holsboer-Trachsler, E (February 2010). "High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls.". The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 46 (2): 133–41. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.06.018. PMID 20113919.
- Cederberg, H; Mikkola, I; Jokelainen, J; Laakso, M; Härkönen, P; Ikäheimo, T; Laakso, M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S (June 2011). "Exercise during military training improves cardiovascular risk factors in young men.". Atherosclerosis 216 (2): 489–95. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.02.037. PMID 21402378.
- Borghouts, LB; Keizer, HA (January 2000). "Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review.". International journal of sports medicine 21 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1055/s-2000-8847. PMID 10683091.
- Tsai, JC; Yang, HY; Wang, WH; Hsieh, MH; Chen, PT; Kao, CC; Kao, PF; Wang, CH; Chan, P (April 2004). "The beneficial effect of regular endurance exercise training on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension.". Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) 26 (3): 255–65. doi:10.1081/ceh-120030234. PMID 15132303.
- Nieman, DC (October 1994). "Exercise, infection, and immunity.". International journal of sports medicine. 15 Suppl 3: S131–41. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021128. PMID 7883395.
- Marston, A (May 1967). "Self-reinforcement and external reinforcement in visual-motor learning.". Journal of experimental psychology 74 (1): 93–8. doi:10.1037/h0024505. PMID 6032584.
- Marchant, David C.; Clough, Peter J.; Crawshaw, Martin; Levy, Andrew (January 2009). "Novice motor skill performance and task experience is influenced by attentional focusing instructions and instruction preferences". International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 7 (4): 488–502. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2009.9671921.
- Yoo, Kwangsun; Sohn, William S.; Jeong, Yong (2013). "Tool-use practice induces changes in intrinsic functional connectivity of parietal areas". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00049.
- Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G. (November 2011). "Neuroplasticity Subserving Motor Skill Learning". Neuron 72 (3): 443–454. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.10.008.
- Nudo, RJ; Wise, BM; SiFuentes, F; Milliken, GW (Jun 21, 1996). "Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct.". Science 272 (5269): 1791–4. doi:10.1126/science.272.5269.1791. PMID 8650578.
- Nudo, RJ; Milliken, GW (May 1996). "Reorganization of movement representations in primary motor cortex following focal ischemic infarcts in adult squirrel monkeys.". Journal of neurophysiology 75 (5): 2144–9. PMID 8734610.
- Pascual-Leone, A; Nguyet, D; Cohen, LG; Brasil-Neto, JP; Cammarota, A; Hallett, M (September 1995). "Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills.". Journal of neurophysiology 74 (3): 1037–45. PMID 7500130.
- Liepert, J; Terborg, C; Weiller, C (April 1999). "Motor plasticity induced by synchronized thumb and foot movements.". Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale 125 (4): 435–9. doi:10.1007/s002210050700. PMID 10323289.
- Eickhoff, SB; Dafotakis, M; Grefkes, C; Shah, NJ; Zilles, K; Piza-Katzer, H (July 2008). "Central adaptation following heterotopic hand replantation probed by fMRI and effective connectivity analysis.". Experimental neurology 212 (1): 132–44. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.03.025. PMID 18501895.
- Johansson, B. B. (1 January 2000). "Brain Plasticity and Stroke Rehabilitation : The Willis Lecture". Stroke 31 (1): 223–230. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.1.223.
- Gomez-Pinilla, F. (1 November 2002). "Voluntary Exercise Induces a BDNF-Mediated Mechanism That Promotes Neuroplasticity". Journal of Neurophysiology 88 (5): 2187–2195. doi:10.1152/jn.00152.2002. PMID 12424260.
- Mora, F (March 2013). "Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.". Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 15 (1): 45–52. PMID 23576888.
- Hopkins, ME; Bucci, DJ (September 2010). "BDNF expression in perirhinal cortex is associated with exercise-induced improvement in object recognition memory.". Neurobiology of learning and memory 94 (2): 278–84. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2010.06.006. PMID 20601027.
- Thomas, C; Baker, CI (June 2013). "Teaching an adult brain new tricks: a critical review of evidence for training-dependent structural plasticity in humans.". NeuroImage 73: 225–36. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.03.069. PMID 22484409.
- Erickson, KI; Weinstein, AM; Lopez, OL (November 2012). "Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease.". Archives of medical research 43 (8): 615–21. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.09.008. PMID 23085449.
- Han, Y; Yang, H; Lv, YT; Zhu, CZ; He, Y; Tang, HH; Gong, QY; Luo, YJ; Zang, YF; Dong, Q (Jul 31, 2009). "Gray matter density and white matter integrity in pianists' brain: a combined structural and diffusion tensor MRI study.". Neuroscience letters 459 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.056. PMID 18672026.
- PANTEV, C.; ENGELIEN, A.; CANDIA, V.; ELBERT, T. (25 January 2006). "Representational Cortex in Musicians". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 930 (1): 300–314. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05740.x.
- Cramer, SC; Sur, M; Dobkin, BH; O'Brien, C; Sanger, TD; Trojanowski, JQ; Rumsey, JM; Hicks, R; Cameron, J; Chen, D; Chen, WG; Cohen, LG; deCharms, C; Duffy, CJ; Eden, GF; Fetz, EE; Filart, R; Freund, M; Grant, SJ; Haber, S; Kalivas, PW; Kolb, B; Kramer, AF; Lynch, M; Mayberg, HS; McQuillen, PS; Nitkin, R; Pascual-Leone, A; Reuter-Lorenz, P; Schiff, N; Sharma, A; Shekim, L; Stryker, M; Sullivan, EV; Vinogradov, S (June 2011). "Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications.". Brain : a journal of neurology 134 (Pt 6): 1591–609. doi:10.1093/brain/awr039. PMID 21482550.
- Nahum, A; Sznajder, JI; Solway, J; Wood, LD; Schumacker, PT (May 1988). "Pressure, flow, and density relationships in airway models during constant-flow ventilation.". Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 64 (5): 2066–73. PMID 3391905.
- Kadota, H; Nakajima, Y; Miyazaki, M; Sekiguchi, H; Kohno, Y; Amako, M; Arino, H; Nemoto, K; Sakai, N (July 2010). "An fMRI study of musicians with focal dystonia during tapping tasks.". Journal of neurology 257 (7): 1092–8. doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5468-9. PMID 20143109.
- Taub, E; Crago, JE; Burgio, LD; Groomes, TE; Cook EW, 3rd; DeLuca, SC; Miller, NE (March 1994). "An operant approach to rehabilitation medicine: overcoming learned nonuse by shaping.". Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior 61 (2): 281–93. doi:10.1901/jeab.1994.61-281. PMID 8169577.
- Jones, TA; Allred, RP; Jefferson, SC; Kerr, AL; Woodie, DA; Cheng, SY; Adkins, DL (June 2013). "Motor system plasticity in stroke models: intrinsically use-dependent, unreliably useful.". Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 44 (6 Suppl 1): S104–6. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000037. PMID 23709698.
- Macko, RF; Smith, GV; Dobrovolny, CL; Sorkin, JD; Goldberg, AP; Silver, KH (July 2001). "Treadmill training improves fitness reserve in chronic stroke patients.". Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 82 (7): 879–84. doi:10.1053/apmr.2001.23853. PMID 11441372.
- Wolf, SL; Winstein, CJ; Miller, JP; Taub, E; Uswatte, G; Morris, D; Giuliani, C; Light, KE; Nichols-Larsen, D; EXCITE, Investigators (Nov 1, 2006). "Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial.". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (17): 2095–104. doi:10.1001/jama.296.17.2095. PMID 17077374.
- Turolla, A; Dam, M; Ventura, L; Tonin, P; Agostini, M; Zucconi, C; Kiper, P; Cagnin, A; Piron, L (Aug 1, 2013). "Virtual reality for the rehabilitation of the upper limb motor function after stroke: a prospective controlled trial.". Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation 10: 85. doi:10.1186/1743-0003-10-85. PMID 23914733.
- Orihuela-Espina, F; Fernández del Castillo, I; Palafox, L; Pasaye, E; Sánchez-Villavicencio, I; Leder, R; Franco, JH; Sucar, LE (May–Jun 2013). "Neural reorganization accompanying upper limb motor rehabilitation from stroke with virtual reality-based gesture therapy.". Topics in stroke rehabilitation 20 (3): 197–209. doi:10.1310/tsr2003-197. PMID 23841967.
- Szaflarski, JP; Page, SJ; Kissela, BM; Lee, JH; Levine, P; Strakowski, SM (August 2006). "Cortical reorganization following modified constraint-induced movement therapy: a study of 4 patients with chronic stroke.". Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 87 (8): 1052–8. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.04.018. PMID 16876549.
- Yang, YR; Chen, IH; Liao, KK; Huang, CC; Wang, RY (April 2010). "Cortical reorganization induced by body weight-supported treadmill training in patients with hemiparesis of different stroke durations.". Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 91 (4): 513–8. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.11.021. PMID 20382280.
- Bernstein, Nikolai (1967). The Co-ordination and Regulation of Movement. Long Island City, NY: Permagon Press. p. 196.
- Latash, ML; Scholz, JP; Schöner, G (January 2002). "Motor control strategies revealed in the structure of motor variability.". Exercise and sport sciences reviews 30 (1): 26–31. doi:10.1097/00003677-200201000-00006. PMID 11800496.
- Tresch, MC; Jarc, A (December 2009). "The case for and against muscle synergies.". Current opinion in neurobiology 19 (6): 601–7. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2009.09.002. PMC 2818278. PMID 19828310. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Todorov, E; Jordan, MI (November 2002). "Optimal feedback control as a theory of motor coordination.". Nature Neuroscience 5 (11): 1226–35. doi:10.1038/nn963. PMID 12404008.
- d'Avella, A; Saltiel, P; Bizzi, E (March 2003). "Combinations of muscle synergies in the construction of a natural motor behavior.". Nature Neuroscience 6 (3): 300–8. doi:10.1038/nn1010. PMID 12563264.
- Mussa-Ivaldi, FA; Giszter, SF; Bizzi, E (Aug 2, 1994). "Linear combinations of primitives in vertebrate motor control.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91 (16): 7534–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.16.7534. PMID 8052615.
- Harris, CM; Wolpert, DM (Aug 20, 1998). "Signal-dependent noise determines motor planning.". Nature 394 (6695): 780–4. doi:10.1038/29528. PMID 9723616.
- Dr. Michael Yessis (2006). Build A Better Athlete. Ultimate Athlete Concepts. ISBN 978-1930546783.
- Hoffman, S. J. (2008). Shirl J. Hoffman, ed. Introduction to Kinesiology (3 ed.). Human Kinetics. ISBN 9780736076135.
- "Kinesiology Act, 2007, S.O. 2007, c. 10 , Sched. O". E-laws.gov.on.ca. 2007-06-04. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "CKA - Canadian Kinesiology Alliance - Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie". Cka.ca. Retrieved 2009-07-25.