King's College London
Arms of King's College London
|Motto||Sancte et Sapienter
Motto in English
|"With Holiness and Wisdom"|
|Type||Public research university|
|Established||1829 (oldest medical school est. 1173)|
|Endowment||£179.4 million (as of 31 July 2015)|
|Chancellor||The Princess Royal (as Chancellor of the University of London)|
|Visitor||Archbishop of Canterbury ex officio|
|Location||London, United Kingdom
|Chairman of the Council||The Duke of Wellington|
|Mascot||Reggie the Lion|
|Affiliations||University of London
King's Health Partners
Francis Crick Institute
King's College London (informally King's or KCL; formerly styled King's College, London) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was founded in 1829 by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington and received its royal charter in the same year. On this basis, King's claims to be the fourth oldest university in England, although student groups have also claimed that it is the third-oldest university. King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London in 1836. In the late 20th century it grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology (in 1985), the Institute of Psychiatry (in 1997), and the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery (in 1998). King's is now the largest centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research in Europe by number of students and is regarded as one of the leading multidisciplinary research universities in the world.
King's has five campuses: its main campus on the Strand in central London, three other Thames-side campuses (Guy's, St Thomas' and Waterloo) and another in Denmark Hill in south London. King's has 28,730 students and 5,948 staff and had a total income of £684.2 million in 2014/15, of which £210.8 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, and the largest of all universities in London. Its academic activities are organised into nine faculties which are subdivided into numerous departments, centres and research divisions. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity. It is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the Russell Group, and is often considered to be part of the "golden triangle" of elite English universities.
King's is known for its noted alumni and staff, including 12 Nobel laureates amongst its alumni and current and former faculty. King's is also the alma mater of many heads of states, governments and intergovernmental organisations. 18 members of the current House of Commons of the United Kingdom and 16 members of the current House of Lords are graduates of the college. King's alumni and academics have contributed to a number of important discoveries and advances in many fields, including the discovery of DNA structure, Hepatitis C, the elementary particle Higgs boson and research that led to the development of many inventions such as television and mobile phones. King's performs highly in international rankings. In rankings produced by Times Higher Education based upon the results of the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, King's was ranked 6th overall for "research power" and 7th for GPA.
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 2.1 Strand Campus
- 2.2 Guy's Campus
- 2.3 Waterloo Campus
- 2.4 St Thomas' Campus
- 2.5 Denmark Hill Campus
- 2.6 Redevelopment programme
- 3 Organisation and administration
- 3.1 Governance
- 3.2 Faculties and departments
- 3.2.1 Faculty of Arts and Humanities
- 3.2.2 Dental Institute
- 3.2.3 Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine
- 3.2.4 Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience
- 3.2.5 The Dickson Poon School of Law
- 3.2.6 Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences
- 3.2.7 Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery
- 3.2.8 Faculty of Social Science and Public Policy
- 3.3 Finances
- 3.4 Coat of arms
- 3.5 Affiliations and partnerships
- 4 Academics
- 5 Student life
- 6 Notable people
- 7 In popular culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
King's College London, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" (which later became University College London) in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians, Jews and non-Anglican Christians, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which then educated solely the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More widely, King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London.
Duel in Battersea Fields, 21 March 1829
The Duke of Wellington's simultaneous support for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, which was to lead to the granting of almost full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829. Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, and Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent.
Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State". The letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's College London. When Winchilsea refused to retract the remarks, Wellington – by his own admission, "no advocate of duelling" and a virgin duellist – demanded satisfaction in a contest of arms: "I now call upon your lordship to give me that satisfaction for your conduct which a gentleman has a right to require, and which a gentleman never refuses to give."
The result was a duel in Battersea Fields on 21 March 1829. Winchilsea did not fire, a plan he and his second almost certainly decided upon before the duel; Wellington took aim and fired wide to the right. Accounts differ as to whether Wellington missed on purpose. Wellington, noted for his poor aim, claimed he did, other reports more sympathetic to Winchilsea claimed he had aimed to kill. Honour was saved and Winchilsea wrote Wellington an apology. "Duel Day" is still celebrated on the first Thursday after 21 March every year, marked by various events throughout King's, including reenactments.
King's opened in October 1831 with the cleric William Otter appointed as first principal and lecturer in divinity. Despite the intentions of its founders and the chapel at the heart of its buildings, the initial prospectus permitted, "nonconformists of all sorts to enter the college freely". William Howley, the Archbishop of Canterbury, presided over the opening ceremony in which a sermon was given in the chapel by Charles Blomfield, the Bishop of London, on the subject of combining religious instruction with intellectual culture. The governors and the professors, except the linguists, had to be members of the Church of England but the students did not, though attendance at Chapel was compulsory.
King's was divided into a senior department and a junior department, also known as King's College School, which was originally situated in the basement of the Strand Campus. The Junior department started with 85 pupils and only three teachers, but quickly grew to 500 by 1841, outgrowing its facilities and leading it to relocate to Wimbledon in 1897 where it remains today, though it is no longer associated with King's College London. Within the Senior department teaching was divided into three courses. A general course comprised divinity, classical languages, mathematics, English literature and history. Secondly, there was the medical course. Thirdly, miscellaneous subjects, such as law, political economy and modern languages, which were not related to any systematic course of study at the time and depended for their continuance on the supply of occasional students. In 1833 the general course was reorganised leading to the award of the Associate of King's College (AKC), the first qualification issued by King's. The course, which concerns questions of ethics and theology, is still awarded today to students and staff who take an optional three-year course alongside their studies.
The river frontage was completed in April 1835 at a cost of £7,100, its completion a condition of King's College London securing the site from the Crown. Unlike those in the school, student numbers in the Senior department remained almost stationary during King's first five years of existence. During this time the medical school was blighted by inefficiency and the divided loyalties of the staff leading to a steady decline in attendance. One of the most important appointments was that of Charles Wheatstone as professor of Experimental Philosophy.
At this time, neither King's, nor "London University", had the ability to confer degrees, nor did the medical schools at the London hospitals. Henry Brougham, chairman of the governors of "London University", became Lord Chancellor in 1830, in which position he automatically became a governor of King's. In 1835, following a "prayer" to the King from the House of Commons to grant "London University" their charter, the government announced that it would establish a separate examining board to grant degrees, with "London University" and King's both being affiliated colleges in Arts and Laws. This became the University of London in 1836, the former "London University" becoming University College, London (UCL). In 1839, the first degrees of the University of London were awarded to UCL and King's College London students.
In 1840, King's opened its own hospital on Portugal Street near Lincoln's Inn Fields, an area composed of overcrowded rookeries characterised by poverty and disease. The governance of King's College Hospital was later transferred to the corporation of the hospital established by the King's College Hospital Act 1851, and eventually moved to new premises in Denmark Hill, Camberwell in 1913. The appointment in 1877 of Joseph Lister as professor of clinical surgery greatly benefited the medical school, and the introduction of Lister's antiseptic surgical methods gained the hospital an international reputation. In 1846, King's established a theological college to train Anglican priests while in 1855, King's pioneered evening classes in London. That King's granted students at the evening classes certificates of college attendance to enable them to sit University of London degree exams was cited as an example of the worthlessness of these certificates in the decision by the University of London to end the affiliated colleges system in 1858 and open their examinations to everyone.
In 1882 the King's College London Act amended the constitution. The act removed the proprietorial nature of the college, changing the name of the corporation from "The Governors and Proprietors of King's College, London" to "King's College London" and annulling the 1829 charter (although the college remained incorporated under that charter). The act also changing the college from a (technically) for-profit corporation to a non-profit one (no dividends had ever been paid in over 50 years of operation) and extended the objects of King's to include the education of women. The Ladies' Department of King's College London was opened in Kensington Square in 1885, which later in 1902 became King's College Women's Department.
The King's College London Act 1903, abolished all remaining religious tests for staff, except within the Theological department. In 1910 the college was (with the exception of the Theological department) merged into the University of London under the King's College London (Transfer) Act 1908, losing its legal independence.
During World War I the medical school was opened to women for the first time. The end of the war saw an influx of students, which strained existing facilities to the point where some classes were held in the Principal's house.
In World War II, the buildings of King's College London were used by the Auxiliary Fire Service with a number of King's staff, mainly those then known as college servants, serving as firewatchers. Parts of the Strand building, the quadrangle, and the roof of apse and stained glass windows of the chapel suffered bomb damage in the Blitz. During the post-war reconstruction, the vaults beneath the quadrangle were replaced by a two-storey laboratory, which opened in 1952, for the departments of Physics and Civil and Electrical Engineering.
One of the most famous pieces of scientific research performed at King's were the crucial contributions to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA in 1953 by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, together with Raymond Gosling, Alex Stokes, Herbert Wilson and other colleagues at the Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics at King's.
Major reconstruction of King's began in 1966 following the publication of the Robbins Report on Higher Education. A new block facing the Strand designed by E. D. Jefferiss Mathews was opened in 1972. In 1980 King's regained its legal independence under a new Royal Charter. In 1993 King's, along with other large University of London colleges, gained direct access to government funding (which had previously been through the University) and the right to confer University of London degrees itself. This contributed to King's and the other large colleges being regarded as de facto universities in their own right.
The college underwent several mergers with other institutions in the late 20th century, including Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology in 1985, the Institute of Psychiatry in 1997, and the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals were reincorporated in 1998 after becoming independent of King's at the foundation of the National Health Service in 1948. In 1998 Florence Nightingale's original training school for nurses merged with the King's Department of Nursing Studies as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. The same year King's acquired the former Public Record Office building on Chancery Lane and converted it at a cost of £35 million into the Maughan Library, which opened in 2002.
2001 to present
In July 2006, King's College London was granted degree-awarding powers in its own right, as opposed to through the University of London, by the Privy Council. This power remained unexercised until 2007, when King's announced that all students starting courses from September 2007 onwards would be awarded degrees conferred by King's itself, rather than by the University of London. The new certificates however still make reference to the fact that King's is a constituent college of the University of London. All current students with at least one year of study remaining were in August 2007 offered the option of choosing to be awarded a University of London degree or a King's degree. The first King's degrees were awarded in summer 2008.
In November 2010, King's launched a fundraising campaign to raise £500 million by 2015 for research into five areas: cancer, global power, neuroscience and mental health, leadership and society and children's health. Over £400 million has been raised as of March 2013. In 2011 the Chemistry department was reopened following its closure in 2003.
In October 2014, Ed Byrne replaced Rick Trainor as Principal of King's College London, the latter having served for 10 years. In December 2014, King's announced its plans to rebrand its name to 'King's London'. It was emphasised that there were no plans to change the legal name of King's, and that the name 'King's London' was designed to promote King's and to highlight the fact that King's is a university in its own right. King's announced that the rebranding plans had been dropped in January 2015.
On 10 March 2015, King's acquired a 50-year lease for the Aldwych Quarter which includes the historic grand Bush House building. King’s will occupy Bush House and Strand House on a phased basis from September 2016, and adjacent buildings King House and Melbourne House from 2025. Once King’s takes full occupation of the four main buildings, the Aldwych Quarter will provide approximately 300,000 square feet of additional space for student study and social space, new teaching facilities and academic accommodation
The Strand Campus is the founding campus of King's. It is located on the Strand in the City of Westminster, sharing its frontage along the River Thames. Most of the Schools of Arts & Humanities, Law, Social Science & Public Policy and Natural & Mathematical Sciences (formerly Physical Sciences & Engineering) are housed here. The campus combines the Grade I listed King's Building of 1831 designed by Sir Robert Smirke, and the Byzantine Gothic college chapel, redesigned in 1864 by Sir George Gilbert Scott with the more modern Strand Building, completed in 1972. The Chesham Building in Surrey Street was purchased after the Second World War. The Macadam Building of 1975 houses the Strand Campus Students' Union centre and is named after King's alumnus Sir Ivison Macadam, first President of the National Union of Students.
The nearest underground station is Temple, on the District and Circle lines.
The Grade I listed King’s Building was designed by Sir Robert Smirke in 1831. It is the founding building of King's, located next to Somerset House. Sir John Nash (the architect of Buckingham Palace) offered free services for the building, yet this was declined by King's since the same was in favour of the services of Sir Robert Smirke (the architect of the British Museum and King's neighbour, Somerset House).
Marble statues of Sappho and Sophocles were bequeathed by Frida Mond in 1923, a friend of Israel Gollancz, Professor of English Language and Literature at King's. They were placed in the foyer (old entrance hall) of the King's Building, where they have remained ever since. The two statues symbolise King’s motto of ‘sancte et sapienter’ (‘holiness and wisdom’). The Great Hall is one of the central congregation spaces within the King's Building. Many original features and styles of the Hall, such as the oak paneling and the King's College crest, was repaired, and Grade I listed windows, ceiling and column capital were refurbished in the 21st century.
The original King's College London Chapel was designed by Sir Robert Smirke and was completed in 1831 as part of the King's building. Given the foundation of the university in the tradition of the Church of England the chapel was intended to be an integral part of the campus. This is reflected in its central location within the King's Building on the first floor above the Great Hall, accessible via a grand double staircase from the foyer. The original chapel was described as a low and broad room "fitted to the ecclesiological notions of George IV's reign." However, by the mid nineteenth century its style had fallen out of fashion and in 1859 a proposal by King's chaplain, the Reverend E. H. Plumptre, that the original chapel should be reconstructed was approved by King's College London council, who agreed that its "meagreness and poverty" made it unworthy of King's.
King's approached Sir George Gilbert Scott to make proposals. In his proposal of 22 December 1859 he suggested that, "There can be no doubt that, in a classic building, the best mode of giving ecclesiastical character is the adoption of the form and, in some degree, the character of an ancient basilica." His proposals for a chapel modelled on the lines of an classical basilica were accepted and the reconstruction was completed in 1864 at a cost of just over £7,000.
Somerset House East Wing
In December 2009, King's College London signed a 78-year lease to the East Wing of Somerset House. It has been described as one of the longest-ever property negotiations, taking over 180 years to complete. Since King's was built it has been in various discussions to expand into one of the wings of Somerset House itself, however, the relationship between King's and HM Revenue and Customs that occupied the East Wing were sometimes difficult. Sir Robert Smirke's design of King's was sympathetic to that of Somerset House which is situated adjacent to the Strand Campus. A condition of King's acquiring the site in the 1820s was that it should be erected "on a plan which would complete the river front of Somerset House at its eastern extremity in accordance with the original design of Sir William Chambers" which had for so long offended "every eye of taste for its incomplete appearance".
In 1875, a dispute arose when new windows were added to the façade overlooking King's. Following a complaint by King's College London council at the loss of privacy, the response of the Metropolitan Board of Works was that "the terms under which the college is held are not such as to enable the council to restrict Her Majesty from opening windows in Somerset House whenever she may think proper". By the end of World War I, King's began to outgrow its premises which led to rekindled efforts to acquire the East Wing. There was even a suggestion that King's should be relocated to new premises in Bloomsbury to alleviate space concerns, however, these plans never came to fruition. Instead, a new top floor was added to the King's Building to house the Anatomy Department and other buildings along Surrey Street were purchased.
Following the publication of the Robbins Report on Higher Education in 1963 a further attempt was made to acquire the East Wing. The report recommended a large expansion in student numbers accommodated by a new building programme. The "quadrilateral plan" was to create a campus stretching from Norfolk Street in the east to Waterloo Bridge Road in the west. Plans were also drawn up for modern high-rise buildings along the Strand and Surrey Street to house a new library and laboratories. A contemporary report stated that the redevelopment would provide "London with a university precinct on the Strand of which the capital could be proud". The plans were revisited in the early 1970s by the then Principal, Sir John Hackett, however, progress was prevented by funding problems and the unwillingness of the Government to re-house its civil servants. In 1971 the Evening Standard led a public campaign for Somerset House to be transformed into a new public arts venue for London. Proposals were also aired for the relocation of the Tate Gallery to the site. In the 1990s the eventual vacation by government departments and a comprehensive restoration programme saw the opening of the Courtauld Gallery, the Gilbert and Hermitage collections and the Edmond J. Safra Fountain Court.
In early 2010 a £25 million renovation of the East Wing was undertaken and took 18 months to complete. On 29 February 2012, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the building. It is home to the School of Law, a public exhibition space called the Inigo Rooms curated by the King's Cultural Institute as well as adding a further entrance to the Strand Campus.
Strand Lane 'Roman bath'
A Stuart cistern and later eighteenth century public bath protected by the National Trust and popularly known as the 'Roman bath' is situated on the site of the Strand Campus beneath the Norfolk Building and can be accessed via the Surrey Street entrance. Hidden by surrounding King's College London buildings, the bath was widely thought to be of Roman origin giving its popular name, however it is more likely that it was originally a cistern for a fountain built in the gardens of Somerset House for Queen Anne of Denmark in 1612. Evidence of its first use as a public bath was in the late eighteenth century. The 'Roman bath' is mentioned by Charles Dickens in chapters thirty-five and thirty-six of the novel David Copperfield.
There was an old Roman bath in those days at the bottom of one of the streets out of the Strand—it may be there still—in which I have had many a cold plunge. Dressing myself as quietly as I could, and leaving Peggotty to look after my aunt, I tumbled head foremost into it, and then went for a walk to Hampstead.— Extract from Chapter 35, David Copperfield by Charles Dickens
Moreover, Aldwych tube station, a well-preserved but disused London Underground station, is integrated as part of the campus. A rifle range used by King's is located on the site of one of the platforms since the closure of the station in 1994.
Guy's Campus is situated close to London Bridge and the Shard on the South Bank of the Thames and is home to the School of Biomedical Sciences (also at the Waterloo Campus), the Dental Institute and the School of Medicine.
Thomas Guy, the founder and benefactor of Guy's Hospital established in 1726 in the London Borough of Southwark, was a wealthy bookseller and also a governor of the nearby St Thomas' Hospital. He lies buried in the vault beneath the eighteenth-century chapel at Guy's. Silk-merchant William Hunt was a later benefactor who gave money in the early nineteenth century to build Hunt's House. The original Hunt’s House was closed due to war damage, and was eventually demolished as part of campus development. Today this is the site of New Hunt's House, which was opened in September 1999 following the merger of UMDS and King’s. The Henriette Raphael building, constructed in 1902, and the Gordon Museum are also located here. In addition, the Hodgkin building, Shepherd's House and Guy's chapel are prominent buildings within the campus. The Students' Union centre at Guy's is situated in Boland House. Guy's Campus is located opposite the Old Operating Theatre Museum, which was part of old St Thomas Hospital in Southwark.
The Grade II* listed Guy's Chapel is one of the oldest parts of the original hospital. It was finished in 1780 and features Victorian stained glass windows and mosaic murals. The chapel is in the centre block of the west wing of the original Guy's Hospital. There is a white marble monument to Thomas Guy by John Bacon inside the main door of the chapel. The monument was erected in 1779, and is set in a semicircular-arched surround made of green marble. The chapel houses the tomb of Thomas Guy, and is the resting place of English surgeon and anatomist Sir Astley Cooper. The coffin-shaped stone tomb of Guy where his remains rest is located in the crypt beneath the chapel. The chapel also contains memorials to hospital's benefactors and members of the hospital staff.
The Colonnade is also part of the original Guy's Hospital. It was built with two courtyards on either side. An round-hooded Portland stone alcove with a figure sitting inside is located at the eastern courtyard of the Colonnade. The alcove was originally part of, and is one of the surviving fragments of the old London Bridge that was demolished in 1831. The alcove was brought to the hospital in 1861, and was re-erected within the eastern internal court in 1926. The alcove now houses the statue of John Keats, an English Romantic poet who studied at Guy's Hospital from 1815 to 1816 to become an apothecary. The statue displayed at the western courtyard on the other side of the Colonnade is that of William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield, another benefactor of Guy's Hospital. The front courtyard, named the General Court, was later built in 1738, and the part of the Georgian complex was completed in 1780. A brass statue of Thomas Guy by Peter Scheemakers stands in the centre of the General Court, upon a pedestal with bas-reliefs of "Christ Healing the Sick" and the "Good Samaritan".
Henriette Raphael House
Henriette Raphael House was opened in 1902. It is the first purpose built nurses' home in London. The house was named after Henriette Raphael, and was funded by donations from her merchant banker husband Henry Louis Raphael, and her sons Walter Raphael and barrister Herbert Raphael.
The Hodgkin Building was named after Thomas Hodgkin, the demonstrator of morbid anatomy (anatomical pathology as it is now called), the former curator of the museum at Guy’s Hospital Medical School and best known for the first account of Hodgkin's disease. The building is the original medical school building of Guy’s Hospital.
The entrance hall and corridor of the Hodgkin Building displays busts of King’s alumni and benefactors, including Thomas Addison, William Babington, Golding Bird, Richard Bright, Astley Cooper and Richard Mead. The Hodgkin Building currently houses lecture theatres, teaching laboratories, dissecting rooms, museums (Gordon Museum of Pathology and Museum of Life Sciences) and research centres. The original medical school library, Wills Library, is also located on the ground floor of the building.
The Waterloo Campus is located across Waterloo Bridge from the Strand Campus, near the South Bank Centre in the London Borough of Lambeth and consists of the James Clerk Maxwell Building and the Franklin–Wilkins Building.
Cornwall House, now the Franklin-Wilkins Building, constructed between 1912 and 1915 was originally the His Majesty's Stationery Office (responsible for Crown copyright and National Archives), but was requisitioned for use as a military hospital in 1915 during World War I. It became the King George Military Hospital, and accommodated about 1,800 patients on 63 wards. King's College London acquired the building in the 1980s and today it is home to the School of Biomedical Sciences (also at the Guy's Campus), parts of the School of Social Science & Public Policy (also at the Strand Campus), Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division (part of the School of Medicine) and LonDEC (London Dental Education Centre), part of the Dental Institute (also at Guy's and Denmark Hill). The building, one of London's largest university buildings, underwent refurbishment and was reopened in 2000. The building is named after Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins for their major contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA.
The James Clerk Maxwell Building houses the Principal's Office, most of the central administrative offices of King's and part of the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery. The Building was named after Scottish mathematical physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who was the Professor of Natural Philosophy at King's from 1860 to 1865.
The nearest Underground station is Waterloo.
St Thomas' Campus
The St Thomas' Campus in the London Borough of Lambeth, facing the Houses of Parliament across the Thames, houses parts of the School of Medicine and the Dental Institute. The Florence Nightingale Museum is also located here. The museum is dedicated to Florence Nightingale, the founder of the Nightingale Training School of St Thomas' Hospital (now King's Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery). St Thomas' Hospital became part of King's College London School of Medicine in 1998. The St Thomas' Hospital and Campus were named after St Thomas Becket. The Department of Twin Research (TwinsUk), King's College London is located in St. Thomas' Hospital.
The nearest Underground station is Westminster.
Denmark Hill Campus
Denmark Hill Campus is situated in south London near the borders of the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Southwark in Camberwell and is the only campus not situated on the River Thames. The campus consists of King's College Hospital, the Maudsley Hospital and the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN). In addition to the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, parts of the Dental Institute and School of Medicine, and a large hall of residence, King's College Hall, are situated here. Other buildings include the campus library known as the Weston Education Centre (WEC), the James Black Centre, the Rayne Institute (haemato-oncology) and the Cicely Saunders Institute (palliative care).
The Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute was opened by the Princess Royal in 2015 at the Denmark Hill Campus. It is named after British philanthropist Maurice Wohl, who had a long association with King’s and supported many medical projects.
As of 2016, King's is undergoing a £1 billion redevelopment programme of its estates. Since 1999 over half of the activities of King's have been relocated in new and refurbished buildings. Major completed projects include a £35 million renovation of the Maughan Library in 2002, a £40 million renovation of buildings at the Strand Campus, a £25 million renovation of Somerset House East Wing, a £30 million renovation of the Denmark Hill Campus in 2007, the renovation of the Franklin-Wilkins Library at the Waterloo Campus and the completion of the £9 million Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care in 2010. King's College London chapel at the Strand Campus was also restored in 2001.
The Strand Campus redevelopment won the Green Gown Award in 2007 for sustainable construction. The award recognised the "reduced energy and carbon emissions from a sustainable refurbishment of the historic South Range of the King's Building". King's was also the recipient of the 2003 City Heritage Award for the conversion of the Grade II* listed Maughan Library.
Current projects include a £45 million development for the Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, £18 million on modernising King's learning and teaching environments, a sports pavilion at Honor Oak Park. In April 2012 a £20 million redevelopment of the Strand Campus Quad was announced and will provide an additional 3,700 square metres of teaching space and student facilities.
King's acquired a lease for the Aldwych Quarter with initial term of 50 years. King's will occupy Bush House and Strand House from September 2016, and King House and Melbourne House from 2025. The Chairman of King's College London, Duke of Wellington said that the King's Strand Campus has had inadequate and cramped teaching space for too long, and the acquisition will transform the original campus of King's which dates back to 1829.
Organisation and administration
The head of King's College London is formally the principal and president, currently held by Ed Byrne. The office is established by the charter of King's as "the chief academic and administrative officer of the College" and King's statutes require the principal to have the general responsibility to the council for "ensuring that the objects of the College are fulfilled and for maintaining and promoting the efficiency, discipline and good order of the College". The charter and statutes granted in 2009 created the additional position of "president". As such the full title of the head of King's College London is the "Principal and President". Senior officers are called the Principal's Central Team. Six vice-principals have specific responsibilities for education; research and innovation; strategy and development; arts and sciences; international (developing the global research networks of King's); and health (where there is also a deputy vice-principal).
The council is the supreme governing body of King's College London established under the charter and statutes, comprising 21 members. Its membership include the president of KCLSU (as the student member), the principal and president, up to seven other staff members, and up to 12 lay members who must not be employees of King's. It is supported by a number of standing committees. The current chairman of the council is Charles Wellesley, 9th Duke of Wellington. Sir Christopher Geidt will succeed the Duke of Wellington as Chairman of Council from the beginning of the 2016 academic year.
The Dean of King's College is an ordained person, which is unusual among British universities. The dean is "responsible for overseeing the spiritual development and welfare of all students and staff". The Office of the Dean co-ordinate the Associateship of King's College programme, the chaplaincy and the chapel choir, which includes 25 choir scholarships. One of the dean's roles is to encourage and foster vocations to the Church of England priesthood.
Faculties and departments
In the 19th century, King's College London had five departments: Theological, General Literature and Science, Applied Sciences, Medical and Military. The Theological Department provided studies in ecclesiastical history, pastoral theology and Exegesis of testaments. Languages and literature, history, law and jurisprudence, political economy, commerce, fencing, mathematics, zoology and natural history were taught within the Department of General Literature and Science, and natural philosophy, geology, mineralogy and arts-related subjects were taught within the Department of Applied Sciences.
Currently, King's is made up of eight academic faculties, which are subdivided into departments, centres and research divisions.
Faculty of Arts and Humanities
The Faculty of Arts and Humanities is an academic faculty of King's. It was formed in 1989 following the amalgamation of the faculties of Arts, Music and Theology. The faculty encompasses traditional disciplinary subjects, as well as distinctive subjects such as Hellenic, Portuguese and Medieval Studies, and emerging disciplines such as Digital Humanities and Queer Studies.
The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) is administered through King's, and its students graduate alongside members of the departments which form the Faculty of Arts and Humanities. As RADA does not have degree awarding powers, its courses are validated by King's.
The Dental Institute is the dental school of King's. The institute focuses on understanding disease, enhancing health and restoring function. The institute is the successor of Guy's Hospital Dental School, King's College Hospital Dental School, Royal Dental Hospital of London School of Dental Surgery, and the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals. It was a part of King's School of Medicine and Dentistry until 2005, when the dental school became the Dental Institute.
In 1799 Joseph Fox started to give a series of lectures on dental surgery at Guy’s Hospital, and was appointed dental surgeon in the same year. Thomas Bell succeeded Fox as dental surgeon either in 1817 or 1825. Frederick Newland Pedley, who was appointed assistant dental surgeon at Guy’s Hospital in 1885, advocated the establishment of a dental school within the hospital, and he flooded the two dental schools in London, the Metropolitan School of Dental Science and the London School of Dental Surgery, with patients to prove that a further hospital was needed. In December 1888, Guy’s Hospital Dental School was established. Guy’s Hospital Dental School was recognised as a school of the University of London in 1901. In the 1970s, since there was a decline in the demand for dental services, the Department of Health of the UK suggested that there should be a decrease in the number of dental undergraduate students as well as the duration of all courses. In response to the recommendations, Royal Dental Hospital of London School of Dental Surgery amalgamated with the Guy’s Hospital Dental School of the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals on 1 August 1983.
The establishment of King's College Hospital Dental School was proposed by Viscount Hambleden at a Hospital Management Committee meeting on 12 April 1923. The dental school was opened on 12 November 1923 in King’s College Hospital. Under the 1948 National Health Act, King's Medical and Dental School split from King's and became an independent school, but the school remerged with King's in 1983. The school further merged with the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals in 1998.
Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine
The King's Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine was created as a result of the merger of the School of Medicine with the School of Biomedical Sciences in 2014. There are two schools of education in the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. The GKT School of Medical Education is responsible for the medical education and training of students on the MBBS programme, and the School of Bioscience Education is responsible for the biomedical and health professions education and training. The faculty is divided into 18 academic divisions, including Cancer Studies, Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Medical Education and Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics. Formerly divisions of the School of Biomedical Sciences, the MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology and Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases have moved to the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience in 2014.
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience
Formerly known as the Institute of Psychiatry (IoP), the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN) is a school of King's and a research institution dedicated to discovering what causes mental illness and diseases of the brain, and to help identify new treatments of the diseases. The institute is the largest centre for research and postgraduate education in psychiatry, psychology and neuroscience in Europe. Originally established in 1924 as the Maudsley Hospital Medical School, the institute changed its name to the Institute of Psychiatry in 1948, merged with King’s College London in 1997, and was renamed IoPPN in 2014.
The Dickson Poon School of Law
Previously known as King's College London School of Law, the Dickson Poon School of Law is the law school of King's. The school includes various research centres and groups which serve as focal points for research activity, including the Centre of European Law (established in 1974), Centre of Medical Law and Ethics (established in 1978), Centre of British Constitutional Law and History (established in 1988), Centre of Construction Law, Centre for Technology, Ethics and Law in Society, Centre for Politics, Philosophy and Law, Transnational Law Institute and Trust Law Committee. Law has been taught at King's since 1831 and it was taught within the Senior Department, the Department of General Literature and Science in 1839, then the Faculty of Arts in 1893. The Faculty of Laws was founded in 1909 and became the School of Law in 1991.
Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences
Following the reorganisation of the King's School of Physical Sciences and Engineering in 2010, the Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences was established. The faculty provides education and research in chemistry, informatics, physics, mathematics and telecommunications. Physics and Mathematics has been studied at the university since 1829 and 1830 respectively, and there are six Nobel laureates who were either students or academic staff of the faculty.
Chemistry has been taught at King's since its foundation in 1829, and Copley medallist John Frederic Daniell was appointed the first professor. The Department of Chemistry was forced to close in 2003 due to a decline in student numbers and reduced funding. In 2012, a new Department of Chemistry was established and a new undergraduate degree, Chemistry with Biomedicine, was launched. The new department covers traditional areas of chemistry (organic, inorganic, physical and computational chemistry) and other academic discipline including cell biology and physics. King's Department of Engineering was established in 1838, making it arguably the oldest school of engineering in England. The Department of Engineering was the largest engineering school in the UK in 1893, and engineering students were taught by prominent scientists including James Clerk Maxwell, Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Siemens. The Division of Engineering was closed in 2013.
The 1920s were a significant period for the Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences. In 1921, Albert Einstein visited King's and delivered a lecture on the topic ‘The Development and Present Position of the Theory of Relativity’. Einstein referred in the lecture to the work of King's Professor of Natural Philosophy James Clerk Maxwell.
Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery
The Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery is one of the largest schools in King's. It primarily concerned with the education of people to become nurses and midwives, but also carries out nursing research and provides continuing professional development and postgraduate programmes. Formerly known as the Nightingale Training School and Home for Nurses, the faculty was established by Florence Nightingale in 1860, and is the first nursing school in the world to be continuously connected to a fully serving hospital and medical school.
The Nightingale Training School was amalgamated in 1996 with the Olive Haydon School of Midwifery and the Thomas Guy and Lewisham School of Nursing, and all staff and students were integrated at King’s by 1996.
Faculty of Social Science and Public Policy
The Faculty of Social Science and Public Policy was established in 2001, and is one of the largest university schools focusing on policy-oriented research in the UK. The Department of War Studies in the faculty is unique in the UK, and is supported by facilities such as the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, the Centre for Defence Studies, and the King's Centre for Military Health Research (KCMHR).
Set up in 2002, the King's Centre for Risk Management (KCRM) holds international research relating to risk management, governance and communication, and supports various projects, conferences and academic fellowships, facilitating in translating risk research into relevant and practical policy solutions.
The School of Global Affairs was created in 2015 by federating eight King’s Global Institutes; the Brazil Institute, the Lau China Institute, the India Institute, the Russia Institute, the Institute of North American Studies, the International Development Institute, the African Leadership Centre and the Institute of Middle Eastern Studies.
In the financial year ended 31 July 2014, King's had a total income of £603.67 million (2012/13 – £586.95 million) and total expenditure of £605.81 million (2012/13 – £577.38 million). Key sources of income included £201.08 million from tuition fees and education contracts (2012/13 – £174.58 million), £171.55 million from research grants and contracts (2012/13 – £164.03 million), £122.43 million from Funding Council grants (2012/13 – £130.67 million) and £5.77 million from endowment and investment income (2012/13 – £6.4 million). During the 2012/13 financial year King's had a capital expenditure of £105.9 million (2012/13 – £73 million).
At 31 July 2014 King's had total endowments of £162.6 million (31 July 2013 – £154.09 million) and total net assets of £828.37 million (31 July 2013 – £810.05 million). King's has a credit rating of AA from Standard & Poor's.
In 2013/14, King's had the seventh-highest total income of any British university.
In October 2010 King's launched a major fundraising campaign—"World questions|King's answers"—fronted by former British Prime Minister John Major, with a goal to raise £500 million by 2015. This has been surpassed even before 2015 and King's has now a new target of £600 million.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms displayed on the King's College London charter is that of George IV. The shield depicts the royal coat of arms together with an inescutcheon of the House of Hanover, while the supporters embody King's motto of sancte et sapienter. No correspondence is believed to have survived regarding the choice of this coat of arms, either in King's archives or at the College of Arms, and a variety of unofficial adaptations have been used throughout the history of King's. The current coat of arms was developed following the mergers with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College in 1985 and incorporates aspects of their heraldry. The official coat of arms, in heraldic terminology, is:
Or on a Pale Azure between two Lions rampant respectant Gules an Anchor Gold ensigned by a Royal Crown proper on a Chief Argent an Ancient Lamp proper inflamed Gold between two Blazing Hearths also proper.
The crest and supporters:
On a Helm with a Wreath Or and Azure Upon a Book proper rising from a Coronet Or the rim set with jewels two Azure (one manifest) four Vert (two manifest) and two Gules a demi Lion Gules holding a Rod of Dexter a female figure habited Azure the cloak lined coif and sleeves Argent holding in the exterior hand a Lond Cross botony Gold and sinister a male figure the Long Coat Azure trimmed with Sable proper shirt Argent holding in the interior hand a Book proper.
Coat of arms of the medical schools
Although the St Thomas's Hospital Medical School and Guy’s Medical School became legal bodies separate from St Thomas’ Hospital and Guy's Hospital in 1948, the tradition of using the hospitals' shields and coat of arms continues today.
In 1949, St Thomas's Hospital Medical School was granted its own coat of arms. However, the St Thomas’ Hospital coat of arms has still been used. Guy’s Medical School proposed to apply for its own coat of arms after separating from Guy’s Hospital, yet the school decided to continue to use Guy’s Hospital’s arms in 1954. The two medical schools merged in 1982 and became the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals (UMDS). Simon Argles, secretary of UMDS, said that because of the name of the medical school it was more appropriate to use the hospital's coat of arms.
UMDS merged with King's College Hospital to become Guy's, King's and St Thomas' School of Medicine in 1998. The shields of Guy’s and St Thomas’ hospitals are used in conjunction with King's shield in the medical schools' publications and graduation materials.
Affiliations and partnerships
King's College London is a constituent college and was one of the two founding members of the federal University of London. King's is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU), European University Association (EUA) and Universities UK. In 1998, King's joined the Russell Group, an association of 24 public research universities established in 1994. King's is currently the only British member of the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe (UNICA), a network gathering major higher education institutions in the European capital cities founded in 1990.
King's is a founding member of Global Medical Excellence Cluster (GMEC), the largest life science bio-cluster in the world established with the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, University College London and Imperial College London. King's is also the founding partner of FutureLearn, a massive open online course learning platform founded in December 2012. Launched in 2014, MedCity is the collaboration between King's and the other two main science universities in London, Imperial College and University College London. King's is regarded as part of the "golden triangle", a group of elite universities located in the English cities of Cambridge, Oxford and London including the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London, London School of Economics and University College London.
King's College London is also a part of King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre comprises Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London itself. King's is a participant and one of the founding members of the Francis Crick Institute. King's offers joint degrees with many universities and organisations, including Columbia University, University of Paris I, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Royal Academy of Music, British Library, Tate Modern, Shakespeare’s Globe, National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery and British Museum.
In 2005, the Sunday Times ranked King's as the 6th most difficult UK university to gain admission to. According to the 2015 Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, approximately 30% of King's undergraduates come from independent schools.
A Freedom of Information request revealed that the university received 31,857 undergraduate applications and made 13,302 offers in 2014-15. This yielded an acceptance rate of 18.9% and an offer rate of 41.8%. The School of Medicine received 1,764 applications, only 39 offers were made yielding an offer rate of just 2.2%. Nursery & Midwifery, Physiotherapy and Clinical Dentistry had the lowest offer rates of 14%, 16% and 17% respectively.
King's academic year runs from the last Monday in September to the first Friday in June. Different faculties and departments adopt different academic term structures. For example, the academic year of the Mathematics School and Department of War Studies is divided into three terms (Autumn, Spring and Summer terms); while the Faculty of Arts & Humanities academic year runs in two semesters.
Graduation ceremonies are held in January (winter) and June or July (summer), with ceremonies held in the Barbican Centre. During summer graduation, while most graduands attend the ceremonies in the Barbican, the graduation ceremonies for the School of Medical Education and the Dental Institute are held in Southwark Cathedral; this is owing to St Thomas's Medical School roots that could be traced to St Mary Overie Priory.
After being vested the power to award its own degrees separately from the University of London in 2006, graduates began wearing King's College London academic dress in 2008. King's graduates have since worn gowns designed by Vivienne Westwood.
In 2013/14 King's had a total research income of £171.55 million, of which £47.64 million was from UK charitable bodies; £38.26 million from Research Councils; £32.97 million from UK central government, local authorities, health and hospital authorities; £21.38 million from EU government and other bodies; £17.09 million from overseas ex. EU; £13.11 million from UK industry, commerce and public corporations; and £1.11 million from other sources.
King's submitted a total of 1,369 staff across 27 units of assessment to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) assessment (compared with 1,172 submitted to the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2008)). In the REF results 40% of King's submitted research was classified as 4*, 45% as 3*, 13% as 2* and 2% as 1*, giving an overall GPA of 3.23. In rankings produced by Times Higher Education based upon the REF results King's was ranked 6th overall for research power and 7th for GPA (compared to 11th and joint 22nd respectively in the equivalent rankings for the RAE 2008). The Times Higher Education described King's as "arguably the biggest winner" in REF2014 after it rose 15 places on GPA, while submitting about 200 more people.
King's claims to be the largest centre for healthcare education in Europe. King's College London School of Medicine has over 2,000 undergraduate students, over 1,400 teachers, four main teaching hospitals – Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital, St Thomas' Hospital and University Hospital Lewisham – and 17 associated district general hospitals. King's College London Dental Institute is the largest dental school in Europe. The Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery is the oldest professional school of nursing in the world.
King's is a major centre for biomedical research. It is a founding member of King's Health Partners, one of the largest academic health sciences centres in Europe with a turnover of over £2 billion and approximately 25,000 employees. It also is home to six Medical Research Council centres, and is part of two of the twelve biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England – the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London.
The Drug Control Centre at King's was established in 1978 and is the only WADA accredited anti-doping laboratory in the UK and holds the official UK contract for running doping tests on UK athletes. In 1997, it became the first International Olympic Committee accredited laboratory to meet the ISO/IEC 17025 quality standard. The centre was the anti-doping facility for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
King's library facilities are spread across its campuses. The collections encompass over one million printed books, as well as thousands of journals and electronic resources.
The Maughan Library is King's largest library and is housed in the Grade II* listed 19th century gothic former Public Record Office building situated on Chancery Lane at the Strand Campus. The building was designed by Sir James Pennethorne and is home to the books and journals of the Schools of Arts & Humanities, Law, Natural & Mathematical Sciences, and Social Science & Public Policy. It also houses the Special Collections and rare books. Inside the Library is the octagonal Round Reading Room, inspired by the reading room of the British Museum, and the former Rolls Chapel (renamed the Weston Room following a donation from the Garfield Weston Foundation) with its stained glass windows, mosaic floor and monuments, including a Renaissance terracotta figure by Pietro Torrigiano of Dr Yonge, Master of the Rolls, who died in 1516.
- Foyle Special Collections Library: Situated at Chancery Lane, the library houses a collection of 180,000 printed works as well as thousands of maps, slides, sound recordings and some manuscript material. The collections are built up by purchase, gift and bequest over centuries, which cover all subject areas and contain many special items, including incunabula. The collections are particularly strong in European military and diplomatic history, Jewish and Christian theology, the history of the British Empire, Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean, Germany, voyages and travels, medicine and science.
- Tony Arnold Library: Situated at Chancery Lane, it houses a collection of over 3000 law books and 140 law journals. It was named after Tony Arnold, the longest serving Secretary of the Institute of Taxation. The library was opened on 18 December 1997, and in September 2001, the library became part of the law collection of King's College London.
- Archives Reading Room: Situated at Chancery Lane, it holds a collection of institutional and research papers from King's and organisations merged with or founded by King's (such as King’s College Hospital, Guy’s and St Thomas’ medical and dental schools, the Institute of Psychiatry). The reading room also houses research papers of former staff and students, including Sir Charles Wheatstone, Maurice Wilkins and Eric Mottram.
- Franklin-Wilkins Library: Situated at the Waterloo Campus, the libary is home to extensive management and education holdings, as well as wide-ranging biomedical, health and life sciences coverage includes nursing, midwifery, public health, pharmacy, biological and environmental sciences, biochemistry and forensic science.
- Wills Library and Keats Room: Situated in the Hodgkin Building at Guy's Campus, it was originally the main library for the Guy’s Hospital Medical School. The Wills Library was a gift in 1903 by the former governor of Guy's Hospital, the late Sir Frederick Wills and it was opened as the Medical School Library. Many books, archives and documents that were kept in the Wills Library, such as Guy's committee minute books, have been moved to the King's College London Archives in 2004, although the library still contains a collection of books that can be retrieved by request. The Wills Library also incorporates the Keats Room named after King's alumni John Keats, who was a medical student at Guy's Hospital.
- New Hunt's House Library: Situated at Guy's Campus, the libary covers all aspects of biomedical science, including anatomy, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology and physiology. There are also extensive resources for medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and health services.
- St Thomas' House Library: Situated at St Thomas' Campus, its holdings cover all aspects of basic medical sciences, clinical medicine and health services research, and particularly focus on dermatology and paediatrics.
- Institute of Psychiatry Library: The library is largest psychiatric library in Western Europe, holding 3,000 print journal titles, 550 of which are current subscriptions, as well as access to over 3,500 electronic journals, 42,000 books, and training materials. The collections focus on psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, neurology, genetics and psychotherapy.
- Weston Education Centre Library: Situated at the Denmark Hill Campus, the libary has particular strengths in the areas of gastroenterology, liver disease, diabetes, obstetrics, gynaecology, paediatrics and the history of medicine. The collection supports the teaching and research of the GKT School of Medicine and the Dental Institute, and also the clinical work of the King's College Hospital and the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.
Museums, galleries and collections
King's currently operates two museums: Gordon Museum of Pathology and Museum of Life Sciences. Opened in 1905 at Guy's Campus, the Gordon Museum is the largest medical museum in the United Kingdom, and houses a collection of approximately 8000 pathological specimens, artefacts, models and paintings, including Astley Cooper's specimens and Sir Joseph Lister's antiseptic spray. The Museum of Life Sciences was founded in 2009 adjacent to the Gordon Museum, and it houses historic biological and pharmaceutical collections from the constituent colleges of the modern King's College London.
Between 1843 and 1927, the King George III Museum was a museum within King's College London which housed the collections of scientific instruments of George III and eminent nineteenth-century scientists (including Sir Charles Wheatstone and Charles Babbage). Due to space constraints within King's, much of the museum's collections were transferred on loan to the Science Museum, London or kept in King's archives.
The Foyle Special Collections Library also houses a number of special collections, range in date from the 15th century to present, and in subject from human anatomy to Modern Greek poetry. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) Historical Collection is the largest collection contains material from the former FCO Library. The Medical Collection include the historical library collections of the constituent medical schools and institutes of King's. The Rare Books Collection holds 12,000 printed books, including a 1483 Venice printing of Silius Italicus’s Punica, first editions of Charles Dickens' novels, and the 1937 (first) edition of George Orwell's The Road to Wigan Pier.
King’s College London Archives holds the institutional records of the college, which are among the richest higher education records in London. King's archives collections include institutional archives of King's since 1828, archives of institutions and schools that were created by or have merged with King's, and records relating to the history of medicine. Founded in 1964, the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives holds the private papers of over 800 senior British defence personnel who held office since 1900.
Science Gallery London is set to open in 2016 on King's Guy's Campus. It is a public science centre where 'art and science collide', and is a part of Global Science Gallery Network. A flagship project for 'Culture at King’s College London', Science Gallery will include 2,000m² of public space and a newly landscaped Georgian courtyard. There will be exhibition galleries, theatres, meeting spaces and a café; while unlike other science centre, it will have no permanent collection. Daniel Glaser, the former Head of Engaging Science at Wellcome Trust, is Director of Science Gallery London.
Rankings and reputation
Internationally, King's is consistently ranked among the top universities in the world by all major global university rankings compilers, having been placed between 16th by the 2014 QS World University Rankings and 27th worldwide by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
As of 2015, King's is ranked in the Top 7 UK universities in all the six major academic rankings of global universities: QS, THE, ARWU, "University Ranking by Academic Performance", "U.S. News & World Report's Best Global Universities Rankings" and "Center for World University Rankings".
King's was ranked joint 14th overall in The Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance. In recent years, however, the university has performed less well in domestic league tables, being placed outside of the top 20 in all three major tables for 2016. It should be noted that the methodologies of these tables include student satisfaction scores with teaching and feedback as a significant input. In common with most other London institutions, King's performs poorly on the National Student Survey (NSS), ranking 133rd for student satisfaction (out of 160 institutes) in the 2015 survey.
According to the 2015 Times and Sunday Times University Guide, their inclusion of student satisfaction scores, along with international guides including reputation scores from academics and employers, explains the disparity between King's ranking on their (domestic) table and global tables. They add that when the university is ranked according to student satisfaction scores from undergraduates on factors such as academic support, teaching, assessment and feedback, "King’s ranks 106 out of 123 institutions", although "despite the iffy student satisfaction scores, students continue to apply here in their droves" with an average of 8.1 applicants per place available for 2014 entry. However, although the Complete University Guide has used the results of the NSS since at least 2011, King's retained a position in their top 20 until the 2015 tables (published 2014), managing 19th on the 2014 tables despite ranking joint 102nd (out of 124) for student satisfaction.
According to the 2016 Complete University Guide, 10 out of the 26 subjects offered by King's including Food Science, Education, Business Studies, Philosophy, French, Dentistry and Law, rank within the top 10 nationally. King's College London has had 24 of its subject-areas awarded the highest rating of 5 or 5* for research quality, and in 2007 it received a good result in its audit by the Quality Assurance Agency. It is in the top tier for research earnings. The Times Higher Education listed King's College London as eighth in the list of the top 10 universities in clinical, pre-clinical and health subjects in its 2016 rankings.
In a survey by The New York Times assessing the most valued graduates by business leaders, King's College London graduates ranked 22nd in the world and 5th in the UK. In the 2015 Global Employability University Survey of international recruiters, King's is ranked 43rd in the world and 7th in the UK.
In September 2010, the Sunday Times selected King's as the "University of the Year 2010–11". King's was ranked as the 5th best university in the UK for the quality of graduates according to recruiters from the UK's major companies.
Associateship of King's College
The Associateship of King's College (AKC) is the original award of King's College, dating back to its foundation in 1829. The 1829 royal charter states that the purposes of King’s College are to maintain the connection between "sound religion and useful learning" and to teach the "doctrines and duties of Christianity".
Today, the AKC is a modern tradition that offers an inclusive, research-led programme of lectures that gives students the opportunities to engage with religious, philosophical and ethical issues alongside their main degree course. Graduates of King’s College London may be eligible to be elected as 'Associates' of King's College by the authority of King's College London council, delegated to the academic board. After election, they are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "AKC".
Fellowship of King's College
The Fellowship of King's College (FKC) is the highest award that can be bestowed upon an individual by King's College London. The award of the fellowship is governed by a statute of King's College London and reflects distinguished service to King's by a member of staff, conspicuous service to King's, or the achievement of distinction by those who were at one time closely associated with King's College London.
The proposal to establish a fellowship of King’s was first considered in 1847. John Allen, a former chaplain of of King's, was the first FKC. Each fellow have to pay two guineas for the fellowship privilege initially, but the fee was ceased from 1850. A wide variety of people were elected as fellows of King's, including former principal Alfred Barry, former King’s student then professor Thorold Rogers, architect William Burges and ornithologist Robert Swinhoe. The first women fellows were elected in 1904. Lilian Faithfull, vice-principal of the King’s Ladies’ Department from 1894 to 1906, was one of the first women fellows.
Founded in 1873, King's College, London Union Society which later developed into King's College London Students' Union, better known by its acronym KCLSU, is the oldest Students' Union in London (University College London Union being founded in 1893) and has a claim to being the oldest Students' Union in England. The Students' Union provides a wide range of activities and services, including over 50 sports clubs (which includes the Boat Club which rows on the River Thames and the Rifle Club which uses King's College London's shooting range located at the disused Aldwych tube station beneath the Strand Campus), over 200 activity groups, a wide range of volunteering opportunities, two bars/eateries (The Waterfront and Guy's Bar), a shop (King's Shop) and a gym (Kinetic Fitness Club). Between 1992 and 2013 the Students' Union operated a nightclub, Tutu's, named after alumnus Desmond Tutu.
The former President of KCLSU, Sir Ivison Macadam, after whom the Students' Union building on the Strand Campus has since been named, went on to be elected as the first President of the National Union of Students.
"Reggie the Lion" (informally "Reggie") is the official mascot of the Students' Union. In total there are four Reggies in existence. The original can be found on display in the Macadam Building in the Students' Union student centre at the Strand Campus. A papier-mâché Reggie lives outside the Great Hall at the Strand Campus. The third Reggie, given as a gift by alumnus Willie Kwan, guards the entrance of Willies Common Room in Somerset House East Wing. A small sterling silver incarnation is displayed during graduation ceremonies.
Roar News is a tabloid newspaper for students at King's which is owned and funded by KCLSU. It is editorially independent of both the university and the students' union and its award winning website is read by tens of thousands of people per month in over 100 countries. In 2014 it had a successful awards season, scooping several national awards and commendations, including a Mind Media Award and Student Media of the Year.
The radio station of KCLSU, KCL Radio, was founded in 2009 as a podcast producer. The first live broadcast of KCL Radio was in 2011 at the London Varsity. In 2013, KCL Radio relaunched as a live station with more than 45 hours of live programming a week. The schedule of the radio station includes news, music, entertainment, debate, sport and live performance. KCL Radio won Gold for Best Outside Broadcast at Student Radio Association Awards in 2011.
There are over 50 sports clubs, many of which compete in the University of London and British Universities & Colleges (BUCS) leagues across the South East. The annual Macadam Cup is a varsity match played between the sports teams of King's College London proper (KCL) and King's College London Medical School (KCLMS). King's students and staff have played an important part in the formation of the London Universities and Colleges Athletics.
Created in January 2013, King’s Sport, a partnership between the college and KCLSU, manages all the sports activities and facilities of King's. King’s Sport runs the King’s Sport Health and Fitness Centre situated at the Waterloo Campus, which has been refurbished in 2014 and features an indoor cycling studio, fixed resistance and free weights and cardiovascular areas. King’s Sport also operates 3 sports grounds in New Malden, Honor Oak Park and Dulwich. There are also on-campus sports facilities at Guy’s, St Thomas's and Denmark Hill campuses. King's students and staff can utilize Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust's fitness centre and swimming pool based within the Guy's and St Thomas' hospitals.
Student-led think tank
In February 2011, King's College London students founded London's first student-led think tank, the King’s Think Tank (formerly known as KCL Think Tank). With a membership of more than 2000, it is the largest organisation of its kind in Europe. This student initiative organises lectures and discussions in seven different policy areas, and assists students in lobbying politicians, NGOs and other policymakers with their ideas. Every September, it produces a peer-reviewed journal of policy recommendations called The Spectrum.
All the King's Men
All the King's Men (AtKM) is an all-male a cappella ensemble from King's College London. Founded in 2009, it has since risen to prominence in the collegiate scene, becoming the first group outside of Oxford and Cambridge to win The Voice Festival UK.
Rivalry with University College London
Competition within the University of London is most intense between King's and University College London, the two oldest institutions. Indeed, the University of London when it was established has been described as "an umbrella organisation designed to disguise the rivalry between UCL and KCL." In the early twentieth century, King's College London and UCL rivalry was centred on their respective mascots. University College's was Phineas Maclino, a wooden tobacconist's sign of a kilted Jacobite Highlander purloined from outside a shop in Tottenham Court Road during the celebrations of the relief of Ladysmith in 1900. King's later addition was a giant beer bottle representing "bottled youth". In 1923 it was replaced by a new mascot to rival Phineas – Reggie the Lion, who made his debut at a King's-UCL sporting rag in December 1923, protected by a lifeguard of engineering students armed with T-squares. Thereafter, Reggie formed the centrepiece of annual freshers' processions by King's students around Aldwych in which new students were typically flour bombed.
Although riots between respective college students occurred in central London well into the 1950s, rivalry is now limited to the rugby union pitch and skulduggery over mascots, with the annual London Varsity series culminating in the historic match between King's College London RFC and University College London RFC.
Rivalry with the London School of Economics
On 2 December 2005, tensions between King's and the London School of Economics (LSE) were ignited when at least 200 students from LSE (located in Aldwych near the Strand Campus) diverted off from the annual "barrel run" and caused an estimated £32,000 (The Beaver, LSESU student newspaper, 26 September 2006) of damage to the English department at King's. King's principal, Sir Rick Trainor, called for no retaliation and the LSE Students' Union were forced to issue an apology as well as foot the bill for the damage repair. While LSE officially condemned the action, a photograph was published in The Beaver which was later picked up by The Times that showed LSE director Sir Howard Davies drinking with members of the LSE Students' Union shortly before the barrel run and subsequent "rampage" began. King's appears to have been targeted, however, principally owing to its close proximity to LSE rather than by any ill-feeling. There is also somewhat of a sporting rivalry between the two institutions, albeit to a lesser extent than with UCL.
Halls of residence
King's has a total of nine halls of residence located throughout London. Priority is given to students whose home address is outside the M25 motorway. Great Dover Street Apartments, Wolfson House and Iris Brook and Orchard Lisle are located on Guy's Campus in London Bridge. Brian Creamer House, which was named after Dean of St Thomas's Hospital Medical School Brian Creamer, and the Rectory are situated in the grounds of Lambeth Palace near St Thomas' Campus. Stamford Street Apartments is within walking distance of Waterloo Campus, and Champion Hill Residence is close to Denmark Hill Campus in south London. Urbanest Tower Bridge is located within a walking distance from the Tower of London and Tower Bridge. Angel Lane in Stratford, Ewen Henderson Court, Julian Markham House in Elephant and Castle, Moonraker Point in Southwark and Stratford-One are nominated residences run by the Unite Group. Hampstead Residence was a residence near the former King's Hampstead Campus, but was sold by King's College London and is no longer a King's venue.
Intercollegiate halls of residence
In addition to halls of residence run by King's, full-time students are eligible to stay at one of the Intercollegiate Halls of Residence offered by the University of London. King's has the largest number of bedspaces in the University of London Intercollegiate Halls. There are a total of eight intercollegiate halls of the University of London. Canterbury Hall, College Hall, Commonwealth Hall, Connaught Hall, Hughes Parry Hall and International Hall are located near the Russell Square in Bloomsbury. Lillian Penson Hall is situated in Paddington, and Nutford House is situated in Marble Arch. Additionally, students can apply to live in International Students House.
King's has educated numerous foreign Heads of State and Government including two former Presidents of Cyprus, Tassos Papadopoulos (Law, 1955), and Glafcos Clerides (Law, 1948), Prime Minister of Moldova Natalia Gherman (War Studies, 1999), Prime Minister of Jordan Marouf al-Bakhit (War Studies, 1990), President of the Seychelles France-Albert René (Law), Prime Minister of the Bahamas Sir Lynden Pindling (Law, 1952), President of Uganda Godfrey Binaisa (Law, 1955), Prime Minister of Iraq Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz (Law, 1938), Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop; Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis Sir Lee Moore (Law & Theology), Governor General of Ghana William Hare, 5th Earl of Listowel (PhD, 1932), Governor General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sir Sydney Gun-Munro (Medicine, 1943), and Governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands Martin Bourke (War Studies, 1970). At ministerial level King's alumni include Deputy Prime Ministers of Canada (Anne McLellan), Singapore (S. Rajaratnam) and Egypt (Ziad Bahaa-Eldin); Vice Presidents of Kenya (Michael Kijana Wamalwa) and Sierra Leone (Francis Minah and Abdulai Conteh); Foreign Ministers of Bulgaria (Nikolay Mladenov, now UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process), Japan (Hayashi Tadasu), Malaysia (Rais Yatim), Pakistan (Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, later President of the UN General Assembly and the International Court of Justice), Ghana (Obed Asamoah), Kenya (James Nyamweya), Sierra Leone (J. B. Dauda), Jamaica (Marlene Malahoo Forte) and Guyana (Sir Shridath Ramphal, later Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, and Frederick Wills); and Irish Finance Minister Michael Collins.
Notable King's alumni to have held senior positions in British politics include a British Foreign Secretary, Lord Owen, two Speakers of the House of Commons in Lord Maybray-King (English) and Lord Ullswater, and the former Cabinet ministers Lord MacGregor (Law, 1962), Lord Watkinson (Engineering), Lord Passfield, and Lord Wilmot. As of the current Parliament there are 18 King's graduates in the House of Commons and 16 King's graduates in the House of Lords.
Notable alumni in the sciences include Nobel laureates Peter Higgs (Physics, 1954), Michael Levitt (Physics, 1967), Max Theiler and Sir Frederick Hopkins; polymath Sir Francis Galton; pathologist Thomas Hodgkin; pioneer of IVF Patrick Steptoe; discoverers of Hepatitis C Michael Houghton and Qui-Lim Choo; DNA researchers Raymond Gosling and Herbert Wilson, and the botanist David Bellamy.
In law, King's alumni include the current High Court judges Sir David Foskett (Law, 1970), Dame Geraldine Andrews (Law, 1982) and Dame Bobbie Cheema-Grubb (Law); Judge of the International Court of Justice, Patrick Lipton Robinson (Law, 1972); a former Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, Lord Carlile (Law, 1969); Chief Justice of Western Australia, Wayne Martin (Law, 1975) and the Attorneys General of Trinidad and Tobago (Faris Al-Rawi) and Bermuda (Trevor Moniz).
King's alumni in religion include the Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, Desmond Tutu (Theology, 1966), former Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Carey (Theology, 1962), Head of the Church of Ireland, Richard Clarke (Theology & Religious Studies, 1975), former Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, Lord Sacks (Theology & Religious Studies, 1981), Archbishops of Cape Town, Njongonkulu Ndungane and Joost de Blank, Archbishop of the West Indies, John Holder, Archbishop of New Zealand, Churchill Julius and the Ethiopian cardinal Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel.
Notable King's alumni in poetry and literature include the poet John Keats (Medicine) and the writers Thomas Hardy (French), Sir Arthur C. Clarke (Mathematics & Physics), Virginia Woolf, Alain de Botton (Philosophy), Michael Morpurgo (French & English), W. Somerset Maugham, Charles Kingsley, C. S. Forester, John Ruskin, Radclyffe Hall, Susan Hill, Hanif Kureishi (Philosophy), Maureen Duffy, Khushwant Singh, Sir Leslie Stephen and the Booker Prize winner Anita Brookner (History). In addition, the dramatist Sir W. S. Gilbert of Gilbert and Sullivan graduated from King's.
King's alumni in the arts include the impressionist Rory Bremner (Modern Languages, 1984); Queen bassist John Deacon; Chief Executive of the Royal Opera House Alex Beard; Oscar winners Greer Garson and Edmund Gwenn; Grammy Award winners Boris Karloff, Sir John Eliot Gardiner (Music) and Peter Asher (Philosophy); Emmy Award winning director Sacha Gervasi (History, 1988), and the Golden Globe winning composer Michael Nyman (Music, 1971).
King's alumni in the military include the current Chairman of the NATO Military Committee Petr Pavel (International Relations, 2006), Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe Sir Adrian Bradshaw (Defence Studies & International Relations), the former head of the British Army Lord Harding, head of the Singapore Armed Forces Neo Kian Hong (engineering, 1988), head of the Nigerian Armed Forces Ola Ibrahim (War Studies), head of the Maltese Armed Forces Martin Xuereb (International Relations), head of the Malaysian Army Md Hashim bin Hussein (War Studies, 1991), head of the Pakistan Air Force Sohail Aman (Defence Studies, 1998), head of the Sri Lankan Air Force Harsha Abeywickrama (International Studies) and two heads of the Indian Air Force (Pratap Chandra Lal and Sir Richard Peirse; three Commandant General's of the Royal Marines, Ed Davis (Defence Studies, 1998), Andy Salmon (Defence Studies), and Sir Robert Fry (War Studies, 1987); Commandant of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Stuart Skeates (History & Defence Studies), and two recipients of the Victoria Cross, Ferdinand Le Quesne and Mark Sever Bell.
King's is also the alma mater of the founder of Bentley Motors, Walter Bentley; Foursquare co-founder Naveen Selvadurai; journalists Martin Bashir (Religious History, 1985), Sophie Long (War Studies), Jane Corbin (English, 1975), David Bond, Sean Fletcher (Geography) and Anita Anand; and the Olympic gold medalists Katherine Grainger (Law, 2013), and Kieran West (War Studies, 2005).
Polymath Sir Francis Galton (Medicine, 1839)
Dramatist Sir W. S. Gilbert of Gilbert and Sullivan (BA, 1856)
Novelist and poet Thomas Hardy (French, 1863)
Writer Virginia Woolf (Languages, 1901)
President of the UN General Assembly Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan (LLB, 1914)
Science fiction writer Sir Arthur C. Clarke (BSc, 1948)
President and Prime Minister of the Seychelles France-Albert René (LLB, 1957)
Archbishop of Canterbury Lord Carey (BD, 1962)
Co-discoverer of Hepatitis C Michael Houghton (PhD, 1977)
Impressionist and comedian Rory Bremner (BA, 1984)
Prime Minister of Jordan Marouf al-Bakhit (PhD, 1990)
Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe Sir Adrian Bradshaw (MA 1991; MA, 2005)
Writer and philosopher Alain de Botton (MPhil, 1992)
UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process Nikolay Mladenov (MA, 1996)
Chief of Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force Sohail Aman (MA, 1998)
Governor of Gibraltar Ed Davis (MA, 1998)
Prime Minister of Moldova Natalia Gherman (MA, 1999)
Chairman of the NATO Military Committee Petr Pavel (MA, 2006)
Four-time Olympic medal winning rower Katherine Grainger (PhD, 2013)
Heads of state, government and international organisations
|Bahamas||Sir Lynden Pindling||Prime Minister (1969–1992)
|Commonwealth of Nations||Sir Shridath Ramphal||Secretary-General (1975–1990)|
|Cyprus||Tassos Papadopoulos||President (2003–2008)|
|Cyprus||Glafcos Clerides||President (1993–2003)|
|Cyprus||John Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton||Governor (1955–1957)|
|Ghana||William Hare, 5th Earl of Listowel||Governor-General (1957–1960)|
|Gibraltar||Ed Davis||Governor (2016–)|
|Grenada||Maurice Bishop||President (1979–1983)|
|Iraq||Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz||Prime Minister (1965–1966)|
|Ireland||Michael Collins||Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government (1922)|
|Jordan||Marouf al-Bakhit||Prime Minister (2005–2007; 2011)|
|Moldova||Natalia Gherman||Acting Prime Minister (2015)|
|NATO||Petr Pavel||Chairman of the NATO Military Committee (2015-)|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Sir Lee Moore||Prime Minister (1979–1980)|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Sir Sydney Gun-Munro||Governor (1976–1979)
|Seychelles||France-Albert René||Prime Minister (1976–1977)
|Turks and Caicos Islands||Martin Bourke||Governor (1993–1996)|
|Uganda||Godfrey Binaisa||President (1979–1981)|
|United Nations||Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan||President of the UN General Assembly (1962)|
Notable academics and staff
King's has benefited from the services of academics and staff at the top of their fields, including Sir Charles Lyell (lawyer and geologist), Sir Charles Lyell (best known for the Wheatstone bridge), Robert Bentley Todd (best known for describing Todd's paresis), James Clerk Maxwell (mathematical physicist), Florence Nightingale (the founder of modern nursing), Lord Lister (pioneer of antiseptic surgery), Charles Barkla (best known for the study of X-rays), Sir Charles Sherrington (known for his work on the functions of neurons), Sir Edward Appleton (physicist), Sir Owen Richardson (physicist), Maurice Wilkins (best known for contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA), Rosalind Franklin (best known for contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA), Mario Vargas Llosa (writer), Sir Roger Penrose (mathematical physicist) and John Ellis (theoretical physicist).
In popular culture
In some of the paintings of Henry Hudson, Young Sen – a Chinese scientific prodigy who has been offered an unconditional place at King's to read medicine, is depicted his biographical painting series, showing the rise and fall of the protagonist.
Nicole Kidman has been playing the life of Rosalind Franklin in a play called Photograph 51 at the Noël Coward Theatre in the City of Westminster which started at the beginning of September 2015. Franklin's colleague at King’s, Maurice Wilkins, was played by Stephen Campbell Moore. The title refers to Photo 51, an x-ray crystallography image of the DNA double helix structure produced by Franklin and a PhD student in 1952 at King’s College, London.
The neoclassical facade of King's, with the passage which connects the Strand to the Somerset House terrace has been utilised to reproduce the late Victorian Strand in the opening scenes of Oliver Parker's 2002 film The Importance of Being Earnest. The East Wing of King's appears, as a part of Somerset House, in a number of other productions, such as Wilde, Flyboys, and The Duchess.
The Maughan Library has also been the location of some film shoots of popular movies, most notably The Da Vinci Code, Johnny English (see Maughan Library description), The Imitation Game and V for Vendetta.
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