Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah in 2008
|King of Jordan|
|Reign||7 February 1999 – present|
|Coronation||9 June 1999|
|Heir apparent||Hussein, Crown Prince of Jordan|
30 January 1962 |
|Crown Prince Hussein
|House||House of Hashim|
|Father||Hussein of Jordan|
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (Arabic: عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين, ʿAbdullāh aṯ-ṯānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn; born 30 January 1962) has been the King of Jordan since he ascended the throne on 7 February 1999 upon the death of his father King Hussein. Abdullah is a member of the Hashemite family, which has ruled Jordan since 1921, and claims to be descended from the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdullah was born to Hussein and his second wife, the British-born Princess Muna al-Hussein. Shortly after his birth Abdullah was named Crown Prince. King Hussein transferred the title to his own brother, Hassan, in 1965, only to return it to Abdullah in 1999. Abdullah is married to Queen Rania of Jordan, who is of Palestinian origin. In 1993, Abdullah assumed command of Jordan's Special Forces, and became a Major General in May 1998. The ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed Al Maktoum, is his brother-in-law, through marriage to Abdullah's sister Haya bint Al Hussein.
- 1 Early life
- 2 King of Jordan
- 3 Family and personal life
- 4 Titles, honours and awards
- 5 Ancestry
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Abdullah was born in Amman, to King Hussein, during his marriage to British-born Princess Muna al-Hussein (born Antoinette Avril Gardiner). Abdullah was the king's eldest son and as such he was heir apparent to the throne of Jordan under the 1952 constitution. However, due to unstable times in the 1960s, King Hussein decided to appoint his brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as his heir-apparent.
Abdullah began his schooling at the Islamic Educational College in Amman. Abdullah then attended St Edmund's School, Hindhead, in England, before continuing his education in the United States at Eaglebrook School and Deerfield Academy in Deerfield, Massachusetts. In 1980, Abdullah attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, was commissioned into the British Army as a Second Lieutenant, and served for a year as a troop commander in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars. In 1982, Abdullah was admitted to Pembroke College, Oxford, where he completed a one-year Special Studies course in Middle Eastern Affairs. Upon returning home, Abdullah joined the Royal Jordanian Army, serving as an officer in the 40th Armored Brigade, and undergoing a parachuting and freefall course. In 1985, Abdullah attended the Armored Officer's Advanced Course at Fort Knox, and in 1986, he became commander of a tank company in the 91st Armored Brigade, holding the rank of Captain. He also served with the Royal Jordanian Air Force in its Anti-Tank Wing, where he was trained to fly Cobra attack helicopters.
In 1993, Abdullah assumed command of Jordan's Special Forces, and became a Major General in May 1998.
On 24 January 1999, King Hussein named Abdullah as his heir-apparent, replacing Prince Hassan.
King of Jordan
Abdullah became King on 7 February 1999, upon the death of his father King Hussein. Hussein had recently named him Crown Prince on 24 January, changing the constitution and replacing Hussein's brother Hassan, who had served many years in the position (nearly 34 years, from 1965 to 1999). Abdullah's namesake is King Abdullah I, his great grandfather who founded modern Jordan.
A few hours after the announcement of his father's death, Abdullah went before an emergency session of the Jordanian National Assembly. Wearing a red-and-white Keffiyeh, Abdullah entered the parliament to quiet applause from senators and assemblymen, some weeping. Hussein's two brothers, Hassan and Mohammed, walked ahead of him. Abdullah stood in front of a portrait of Hussein at-attention, drawing more applause. Abdullah then spoke in Arabic the oath taken by Hussein almost fifty years before; "I swear by Almighty God to uphold the constitution and to be faithful to the nation". Zaid al-Rifai, speaker of the House of Notables (Senate), opened the session with Al-Fatiha, the opening Sura (chapter) of the Quran. His voice cracked with emotion as he led the recitation. "God, save his majesty," "God, give him advice and take care of him."
Politics as king
Abdullah is the head of a constitutional monarchy in which the king retains substantial power. In 2010, he was chosen as the fourth most influential Muslim in the world. In the 2016 edition he is leading the field as most influential Muslim.
Jordan's economy has improved since Abdullah ascended to the throne in 1999, and he has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships, and providing the foundation for Aqaba's free trade zone and Jordan's flourishing ICT sector. He also set up five other special economic zones: Irbid, Ajloun, Mafraq, Ma'an and the Dead Sea. As a result of these reforms, Jordan's economic growth has doubled to 6% annually under Abdullah's rule compared to the latter half of the 1990s. Foreign direct investment from the West as well as the countries of the Persian Gulf has continued to increase. He also negotiated a free trade agreement with the United States, which was the third free trade agreement for the United States and the first with an Arab country.
In 2008 Abdullah began his Decent Housing for Decent Living campaign in which all Jordanian citizens, and Palestinian refugees, will be guaranteed residential housing with access to community needs such as health, education, and community activities.
Abdullah's speech at The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law in September 2005 was entitled "Traditional Islam: The Path to Peace." While en route to the United States, Abdullah met with Pope Benedict XVI to build on the relations that Jordan had established with Pope John Paul II to discuss ways in which Muslims and Christians can continue to work together for peace, tolerance, and coexistence.
Abdullah announced on 2 March 2007 municipal elections in Jordan and on 25 November 2006 in his parliament address, told the parliament to work on reforms of the press and publication law.
Abdullah has worked for the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, attending the Arab Summit in 2002, OIC conferences and having several summits with US, Israeli and Palestinian delegations to find a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. On 6 December 2012, Abdullah traveled to the West Bank to visit the Palestinian Authority, becoming the first head of state to visit the territory after it was accepted as a non-member observer state to the United Nations.
Jordan received criticism when Toujan al-Faisal, Jordan's first female member of Parliament and an outspoken advocate for freedom of expression and human rights, was jailed for slandering the government after she charged it with corruption in a letter to Abdullah. She was pardoned and released by Abdullah. Despite these events, Abdullah has continued his aggressive liberalization of Jordan's media. He recently issued a declaration forbidding detention of journalists in Jordan.
Major General Yair Naveh, GOC of the Israel Defense Forces Homefront Command and former GOC of Israeli Central Command, said in a gathering with reporters that Abdullah might fall and that he could be the last king of Jordan. The statement created tension between the two countries, and afterwards Naveh retracted his statement and apologized. Later, the Israeli prime minister Olmert expressed the disagreement of Israel with Naveh's statement, and referred to it as a personal and irrelevant view.
In March 2007, Ehud Olmert commented on any American withdrawal from Iraq by saying that: "Israel is worried a hasty American withdrawal from Iraq could have negative impact on the Hashemite regime in Jordan..." Jordan's spokesman Nasser Jawdeh replied by saying: "The Israeli prime minister should worry about his political future before worrying about us."
Abdullah has a strong belief in a powerful military and has led Jordan into adopting a "quality over quantity" policy. This policy has led Jordan to acquire advanced weaponry and greatly increase and enhance its F-16 fighter jet fleet. The ground forces have acquired the Challenger 1 main battle tank, a vehicle far superior to the T-72/55 tanks that have traditionally dominated Arab armies.
Abdullah has made women's rights an important part of his dynasty.
On 28 November 2004, Abdullah removed the title of crown prince from his half-brother, Hamzah, whom he had appointed on 7 February 1999, in accordance with their father's wishes. In a letter from Abdullah to Hamzah, read on Jordanian state television, he said, "Your holding this symbolic position has restrained your freedom and hindered our entrusting you with certain responsibilities that you are fully qualified to undertake." No successor to the title was named at that time, but it was anticipated that Abdullah intended to appoint formally his own son and new heir apparent, Prince Hussein, as crown prince. Hussein was granted the title on 2 July 2009.
Democracy in Jordan
In 2005 BBC International published an article titled "Jordan edging towards democracy", where Abdullah expressed his intentions of making Jordan a democratic country. According to the article, United States President George W. Bush urged Abdullah to "...take steps towards democracy." Thus far, however, democratic development has been limited, with the monarchy maintaining most power and its allies dominating parliament.
Elections were held in November 2010, and following the Arab Spring in 2011, a new prime minister was appointed. In June 2011 Abdullah announced a move to a British style of Cabinet Government but it is still under debate. In 2015, the one vote system was shed. The move is expected to empower political parties, in an attempt to introduce party-based governments chosen by the parliament in the future.
|Jordanian Royal Family|
HM The King
Jordan embarked on an aggressive economic liberalization program when Abdullah ascended the throne in 1999, in an effort to stimulate the economy and raise the standard of living. Jordan's economy has improved since Abdullah's assumption of power. He has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships and providing the foundation of the Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority and Jordan's flourishing information and communication technology (ICT) sector. He also set up five other special economic zones: Irbid, Ajloun, Mafraq, Ma'an and the Dead Sea. As a result of these reforms, Jordan's economic growth has doubled to 6% annually under Abdullah II's rule compared to the latter half of the 1990s. Direct foreign investment from the West as well as from the countries of the Persian Gulf continued to increase. He also negotiated a free-trade agreement with the United States, which was the third free trade agreement for the United States and the first with an Arab country. Jordan's foreign debt to GDP percentage fell from more than 210 percent in 1990 to 83 percent by the end of 2005, a substantial decrease that was described as an "extraordinary achievement" by the International Monetary Fund. His efforts have turned Jordan into the freest Arab economy and the 9th freest economy in the world according to an 2015 study issued by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Liberty. However, regional turmoil in the 2010s and the Global financial crisis of 2007–08 has severely crippled the Jordanian economy and its growth, making it increasingly reliant on foreign aid.
Nuclear plans for Jordan
In 2007 Abdullah revealed that Jordan has plans to develop nuclear power for internal energy purposes because unlike other countries in the region, Jordan has almost no oil. Jordan is one of the few non-petroleum producing nations in the region and was strategically dependent on subsidized oil from its neighbour Iraq. The 2003 American invasion of Iraq cut the oil supply to Jordan and put its national and energy security at risk. Jordan in 2007 signed a gas deal with Egypt, the pipeline was attacked 37 times by Islamic State affiliates in the Sinai by 2014, this added enormous strain on Jordan's electrical company whose debts rose substantially. The cut in Egyptian gas supplies coincided with Jordan hosting millions of Syrian refugees. The construction of Jordan's first nuclear facility will be completed in 2016. It is called Jordan Research and Training Reactor located in Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid which aims to train Jordanian students in the already existing Nuclear engineering program. There will be two other nuclear reactors to be completed by 2023 and 2025 which will be located near Qasr Amra. In turn, the nuclear power plants will desalinate the water and pump it to northern Jordan. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Jordan is the world's third poorest country in terms of water resources.
In 2010 Abdullah proposed a World Interfaith Harmony Week at the United Nations, to promote a culture of peace; the elimination of all forms of intolerance and discrimination based on religion or belief; and the promotion of interreligious dialogue. In 2016, it was announced that Abdullah will fund the restoration of Christ’s Tomb in Jerusalem’s Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The Royal Court informed the Orthodox Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem of the “makruma” (Royal Benefaction) in a letter of 10 April 2016. According to the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, the aedicule, the place of burial and resurrection of Christ, will be the object of the restoration. It has remained untouched since 1947 when the British put in place steel support beams as part of a restoration project that never took place.
Speaking about the unrest in Syria and Iraq, Abdullah told a delegation of US congressmen in June 2014 of his fears of wider unrest in the Middle East the turmoil in Iraq could spill over into the entire region. He added that any solution to the problems in the war-torn country must involve all of the people of Iraq. Abdullah’s comments put him at odds with Israel on Iraq’s future. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had called for full independence for Iraq’s northern Kurdish region, echoing earlier statements by President Shimon Peres. Abdullah’s comments came as the Iraqi army continued to attack jihadist forces that had recently seized large areas of the country north of Baghdad. In the biggest operation at the time against the Islamic State, troops backed by tanks and helicopter gunships battled to retake the city of Tikrit.
This followed reports of ISIS activity inside Jordan itself, at two rallies in Ma'an tens of protesters took it to the street raising their fists while waving home-made banners bearing the logo and inscriptions of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and shouted, "Down, down with Abdullah," the king of Jordan. Supporters of Islamic State in Jordan is extremely low and even might have become non-existent after the murder of the Jordanian pilot Muath Al-Kasasbeh by the Islamic State in February 2015.
In 2014, two constitutional amendments, approved by the majority of both upper and lower houses, granted the King of Jordan sole authority to appoint the head of the armed forces and director of the kingdom’s General Intelligence Department (GID). Almost three years earlier, in October 2011, in response to public protests calling for political reforms, Abdullah had approved a number of constitutional amendments that curtailed some of his powers and allowed for the creation of a Constitutional Court and an Independent Elections Commission.
In 2016 a series of constitutional amendments were approved by the overwhelming majority of both upper and lower houses, that would grant the King of Jordan absolute power to appoint his crown prince, deputy, the chief and members of the constitutional court and the head of the paramilitary police force.
According to The Royal Hashemite Court, King Abdullah conducted a total of 1,381 activities in 2015. Of which; 835 were meetings with Jordanian figures, 435 meetings with foreign figures, 92 phone calls with Arab and foreign leaders, 52 military events, 19 speeches and interviews, 36 working visits and received 123 leaders and officials from Arab and foreign countries. Of the total 835 meetings with Jordanian figures; 647 were meetings with officials and 52 were with military staff.
Family and personal life
- Crown Prince Hussein (born 28 June 1994)
- Princess Iman (born 27 September 1996)
- Princess Salma (born 26 September 2000)
- Prince Hashem (born 30 January 2005), who shares his birthday with his father
Abdullah has listed sky diving, rally racing, scuba diving, football, and science fiction among his interests and hobbies. He promotes tourism in Jordan, having served as a tour guide for Discovery Channel travel host Peter Greenberg in the "Jordan: The Royal Tour". In the program Abdullah said that he is no longer permitted to sky dive since his assumption of the throne. Abdullah also likes motorcycles, and toured Northern California on a Harley-Davidson in July 2010.
Prince Ali bin Al Hussein, one of his brothers and president of the Jordan Football Association, has claimed that King Abdullah is the biggest fan of the Jordan national football team. King Abdullah himself was a former president of the football association until he assumed his father's throne and became King of Jordan and was succeeded by Prince Ali.
Abdullah attended Deerfield Academy in his youth, and in appreciation of the schooling he received, he has created King's Academy, a sister institution, in Jordan. He hired Deerfield Headmaster Eric Widmer to lead it, along with many other Deerfield staff. Prior to Deerfield, King Abdullah attended Eaglebrook School. He is the Colonel-in-Chief of the UK Light Dragoons regiment; his previous connection to the unit includes his service as a Troop Leader in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars.
He is a fan of the science fiction series Star Trek. In 1996, while still a prince, he appeared briefly in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Investigations" in a non-speaking role, as he is not a member of the Screen Actors Guild. A Star Trek theme park is planned to open in 2020 as part of the $1.5-billion The Red Sea Astrarium (TRSA) project in Aqaba, with the King being the majority local investor.
His interest in the film industry has also influenced his decision to create the Red Sea Institute of Cinematic Arts in the Red Sea coastal town of Aqaba, in partnership with the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts on 20 September 2006. When the producers of Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen chose to film in Jordan, he called on 38 military helicopters to help transport equipment into Petra.
Abdullah has an interest in the internet and information technology, and commented on two Jordanian blogs that discussed his interview with the Petra News Agency: the Black Iris and the newspaper daily Ad-Dustor.
He is also a fan of stand-up comedian Russell Peters, granting him an audience in 2009 and inviting him for dinner. Abdullah helped push a car stuck in snow in Amman during the 2013 Middle East cold snap.
Titles, honours and awards
King Abdullah II of Jordan
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
- 30 January 1962 – 1 March 1965: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan.
- 1 March 1965 – 24 January 1999: His Royal Highness The Prince Abdullah of Jordan.
- 24 January 1999 – 7 February 1999: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan.
- 7 February 1999 – present: His Majesty the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Jordanian national honours
- Jordan :
- Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (January 2001)
- Collar of the Order of al-Khalifa of Bahrain (4 November 1999)
- Czech Republic:
- Medal for the tenth anniversary of the capital Astana (18 May 2008)
- Order of the Grand Conqueror, 1st class (1 September 1999)
- South Korea:
- Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Charles III (21 April 2006)
- Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Isabel the Catholic (18 October 1999)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Naval Merit, with white distinctive (15 September 1995)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Aeronautical Merit, with white distinctive (23 December 1999)
- Ukraine :
- United Kingdom:
|Ancestors of Abdullah II of Jordan|
- Abdullah II of Jordan (1 March 2012). Our Last Best Chance: The Pursuit of Peace in a Time of Peril. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-104879-6.
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdullah II". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- "Jordan profile - Leaders - BBC News". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Kingabdullah.jo (2006), His Majesty King Abdullah II: King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Royal Hashemite Court. Retrieved on 14 December 2007
- Robins, 193.
- Teller, Matthew (26 August 2014). "Sandhurst's sheikhs: Why do so many Gulf royals receive military training in the UK?". BBC News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- King Abdullah II of Jordan (22 February 2011). Our Last Best Chance: A Story of War and Peace. Penguin Group US. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-101-19013-5.
Publitec Publications (1 January 2007). Who's Who in the Arab World 2007-2008. Walter de Gruyter. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-11-093004-7.
- Jordan Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments, p. 116
- "His Majesty King Abdullah II is the 43rd generation direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammad". Jordanembassy.ro. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- Robins, 196.
- "King Abdullah II Official Website - Profile". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- WILKINSON, TRACY; TROUNSON, REBECCA (8 February 1999). "Jordan Mourns King as Leaders Gather at Funeral". Retrieved 13 July 2016 – via LA Times.
- "Welcome to The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre". Rissc. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Jordan—Concluding Statement for the 2006 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Post-Program Monitoring Discussions, International Monetary Fund, 28 November 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Trade and Investment, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- White House Office of the Press Secretary (28 September 2001), Overview: U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
- Hussein, Mohammad Ben. King opens Parliament today, Jordan Times, 28 November 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Kershner, Isabel (6 December 2012). "Visit to West Bank by King Gives Palestinians a Lift". The New York Times. Jerusalem. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- "Jordan jails outspoken dissident", BBC News, 16 May 2002. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Israeli general in Jordan apology, BBC News, 23 February 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Olmert apologises to King, Jordan for general's remarks". Jordanembassyus.org. 24 February 2006. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Israeli general in Jordan apology". BBC. 23 February 2006. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Jordan irked by Olmert remarks on Iraq pullout, Khaleej Times, 19 March 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Defense Industry Daily (14 February 2007). "Jordan Buys 20 F-16 MLU from Holland, Belgium (updated)". Watershed Publishing. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
- "FV4030/4 Challenger 1 Main Battle Tank". Inetres.com. 11 July 2006. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- Jordan crown prince loses title, BBC News, 29 November 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Prince Hussein named Crown Prince, Jordan Times, 3 July 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2009
- "Jordan edging towards democracy", BBC News, 27 January 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "New elections bill sheds one-vote system". 31 August 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Jordan—Concluding Statement for the 2006 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Post-Program Monitoring Discussions". International Monetary Fund. 28 November 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Trade and Investment". Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. 11 September 2006. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Overview: U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement". White House Office of the Press Secretary. 28 September 2001. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Jordan, UAE share top place among Arab countries on economic freedom index". 18 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Jordan is Sliding Toward Insolvency". KIRK H. SOWELL. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2016-03-18. Retrieved 2016-03-20.
- Eldar, Akiva. King Abdullah to Haaretz: Jordan aims to develop nuclear power, Haaretz, 20 January 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Water shortage remains a constant headache". Irin News. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "H.M. King Abdullah proposes World Interfaith Harmony Week at the UN". 26 September 2010.
- Winer, Stuart (30 June 2014). "Jordan's king: We fear spread of Iraq chaos". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- Booth, William; Luck, Taylor (27 June 2014). "Jordan fears homegrown ISIS more than invasion from Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "Islamic State shows burning of hostage, Jordan vows 'earth-shaking' response". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Robson, Steve (3 February 2015). "Muath al-Kasaesbeh: Recap updates after Jordanian pilot 'burned alive by Islamic State'". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Al-Sharif, Osama (25 August 2014). "Jordan's king pushes to expand military, intelligence authority". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "Jordan King Abdullah set to consolidate executive power". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "King carries out 1,381 activities in 2015, with focus on local scene". 9 January 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Jordan: The Royal Tour". 1 April 2002. Retrieved 13 July 2016 – via IMDb.
- Paradise Post newspaper article published 15 July 2010
- The London Gazette: . 19 August 2003. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "The King of Star Trek". BBC. 11 February 1999. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "(Jordanie) The Red Sea Astrarium incluant parc d'attractions Paramount (2017)". disneycentralplaza.com. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- Levy, Glen (3 August 2011). "Captain Kirk's Coaster: 'Star Trek' Theme Park Coming to Jordan". Time (magazine). Retrieved 4 August 2011.
King Abdullah II is a massive Star Trek fan and in 2014, a theme park called the Red Sea Astrarium, which is based on the cult show (though 'cult' barely does it justice) in the coastal town of Aqaba will open for business.
- Jordan Signs Agreement With USC To Create Middle East Cinema Institute.
- "Blogging | King Abdullah II comments on Jordan's Black Iris blog and Addusstor". Arab Crunch. Archived from the original on 26 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Peters hangs out with Jordan's king". Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- Jill Reily (16 December 2013). "Can you gives us a push, your highness? King of Jordan helps family after their car became stuck in freak snow storm". Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Royal Ark, Jordanian genealogy details
- "Nuevo duelo de reinas: una Rania muy demodé no puede con una Matilde sublime. Noticias de Casas Reales". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Italian Presidency Website, S.A.R. Abdullah Bin Al Hussein Principe di Giordania : Cavaliere di Gran Croce ; S.M. Abdullah II Bin Al Hussein Re di Giordania Decorato di Gran Cordone
- PPE Agency, State visit of Jordan in Netherlands 2006, Photo
- "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas" (in Portuguese). Portuguese Presidency (presidencia.pt). Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- (Ukrainian) Order of President of Ukraine № 698/2011 "About awarding Abdullah II Order of Merit"
- (Ukrainian) Order of President of Ukraine № 366/2002 "About awarding Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise"
- Alan George (2 December 2005). Jordan: Living in the Crossfire. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-84277-471-7.
- Philip Robins (9 February 2004). A History of Jordan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59895-8.
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- Abdullah II of Jordan at the Internet Movie Database
- "Abdullah II of Jordan collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- "Abdullah II of Jordan collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Works by or about Abdullah II of Jordan in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Abdullah II of JordanBorn: 30 January 1962
|King of Jordan
Hussein bin Abdullah