King County Metro fleet

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As of 2017, King County Metro operates the 10th largest fleet of buses in the United States, with a total of 1,540 buses.[1]

Upon taking over transit operations on January 1, 1973, Metro used buses acquired from predecessor agencies Seattle Transit System and the Metropolitan Transit Company, still painted in their original colors.[2] Metro acquired the 91-bus fleet of the Metropolitan Transit Company in December 1972 at a cost of $2.75 million.[3] The first fleet of new 40-foot (12 m) buses ordered by Metro arrived in June 1976, consisting of 145 diesel coaches manufactured by AM General.[4] In 1978, Metro became the first large transit agency in North America to introduce articulated buses to its fleet, which required some bus stops to be rebuilt to accommodate 60-foot (18 m) coaches.[5][6][7] The fleet of 151 buses were manufactured by German maker MAN as part of a bulk order with other large U.S. transit agencies.[8]

Vehicle types[edit]

In 1978, Metro was the first large transit agency to order high-capacity articulated buses (buses with a rotating joint).[9] Today, King County Metro has one of the largest articulated fleets in North America (second only to MTA New York City Transit) and articulated buses account for about 42% of the agencies fleet.[10]

In 1979, the agency ordered some of the first wheelchair lift equipped coaches in the nation,[11][12] promising a completely new level of independence for disabled residents. Early lifts were severely flawed, but by the mid-1980s the lifts were generally reliable and were ordered on all new buses. Metro's entire fleet has been wheelchair-accessible since 1999.

Metro was reluctant to adopt low-floor buses, not buying any until 2003. Low-floor coaches have slightly reduced seating capacity (because the wheelwells intrude further into the passenger compartment) which may have been a concern. Whatever the reason for the delay, Metro has now embraced low-floor buses and all new fleet additions since 2003 have been low-floor and the last high-floor buses are scheduled to be retired in 2018.

Trolleys[edit]

Metro's first low-floor trolleybuses, New Flyer Xcelsior model XT40 vehicles, entered service in 2015.

Metro maintains a fleet of electric trolleybuses that serve 15 routes along almost 70 miles[13] of two-direction overhead wire. This is the second largest trolleybus system in the United States by ridership[14] and fleet size.[15] The trolleybuses are valued by Metro both as zero-emission vehicles,[16] and as vehicles well adapted to Seattle's hilly terrain.

Metro's trolleybus fleet consists of 174 entirely low-floor New Flyer Xcelsior coaches.[17] Of the total, 110 are 40-foot (12 m) vehicles (model XT40) and 64 are 60-foot (18 m), articulated buses (model XT60).[17] The buses include an auxiliary power unit, to allow them to operate off-wire for up to 3 miles (4.8 km).

Occasionally Metro will use diesel or diesel-electric hybrid coaches on trolley routes. Reasons for doing this include construction (weekends only),[18] overhead wire maintenance or events that require coaches to go long distances off-route, "coach changes" (replacing a bus in service that has developed a problem) or to add temporary additional capacity. The latter two cases sometimes lead to diesel buses being used, in order to get the replacement or supplementary vehicle into service as quickly as possible; diesel buses can reach the point of entry into service faster, as they do not need to follow the overhead wires when deadheading.

Diesel-electric hybrids[edit]

New Flyer DE60LF diesel-electric parallel hybrid bus operated by King County Metro

Metro operates the largest fleet of hybrid buses in the country. The first hybrid buses were purchased in 2004 for use with routes that operated in the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel.[19] The National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a one-year comparative study between conventional diesel and hybrid-powered buses operating on a typical King County drive cycle. Results showed that the hybrid powered buses lowered fuel consumption by 23%; NOx by 18%; carbon monoxide (CO) by 60%; and total hydrocarbon (THC) by 56% when compared to conventional diesel buses. Those results have led Metro to purchase hybrid buses exclusively since 2005 (with the exception of the all-electric trolley buses).[20][21] Metro now has over 700 hybrid buses in the fleet, with more on order.

Hush mode[edit]

Buses equipped with the GM-Allison EP50 and the Allison H 50 EP parallel hybrid systems have a special "hush mode" that allows the buses to operate solely on electric power, reducing tailpipe emissions and noise while operating in the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel.[19] Before entering the tunnel, the operator pushes a button that puts the coach into hush mode. While buses are inside stations, the coaches operate solely on electric propulsion (although, while the doors are closed, the engine still rotates in order to operate auxiliary loads). In between the tunnel's stations, the bus uses electric traction to get to 15 mph (24 km/h), after which a combination of the electric and diesel motors are used. The operation of the diesel engine allows the batteries to recharge. Hush mode is normally deactivated by the operator as they exit the tunnel, but the mode will be automatically deactivated after the coach has traveled a certain distance.

Series hybrids[edit]

Orion VII diesel-electric series hybrid bus operated by King County Metro

Metro's newest buses are equipped with the BAE Systems HybriDrive, a series hybrid system.[22] In these buses an electric motor turns the wheels, with power provided by a generator attached to a diesel engine and regenerative breaking. Any excess power is stored in batteries on the roof of the bus. Because the diesel engine is not directly propelling the bus, it can operate at a more steady, fuel-efficient speed.

Buses delivered after 2014 are equipped with the upgraded HybriDrive Series-E which uses electrically powered accessory systems (alternator, air conditioning, air compressor, cooling fans and steering pump) to increase fuel efficiency and allow the diesel engine to stop when the bus is stopped and the batteries are sufficiently charged.

Battery electric buses[edit]

Upholding their history of adopting new technologies to help increase efficiency and cut down on emissions, Metro has begun testing three new Proterra Catalyst battery electric buses.[23] The coaches are capable of traveling over 26 miles[24] before the battery needs to be recharged. A special fast charge station located at the Eastgate Park and Ride allow the bus to be fully recharged in under 10 minutes, during the driver's normally scheduled layover.[25][non-primary source needed] These new vehicles get the equivalent of 20.8 MPG, which is over 6 times better than the 3.18 MPG seen on Metro's series hybrid electric coaches.[26][27] The coaches were purchased with support from a $4.7 million Federal Transit Administration grant and entered service on February 17, 2016.[28] They will operate from King County Metro's Bellevue Base in Bellevue, and will be tested on shorter routes (due to their limited range) across the eastside.[26] This testing will continue for a period of about one year, after which Metro has the option to purchase up to 200 new vehicles over the following five years.[29] If the tests are deemed a success, battery electric buses could be used to replace the oldest diesel-powered coaches in the fleet.

Historic preservation[edit]

Metro has a special fleet of more than a dozen historic motor buses and trolleybuses ranging from ones built in the late 1930s and early 1940s through to ones only recently retired. The coaches are restored, maintained and operated under an agreement with the Metro Employees Historic Vehicle Association (MEHVA), a non-profit organization formed in 1981.[30] Metro maintains ownership of the historic fleet, providing coverage under its fleet self-insurance along with storage, work space and parts on an as available basis.

Money to operate the coaches and purchase parts not in Metro stock is generated by selling tickets to public excursions. The first trips took place in 1984, and nowadays MEHVA typically operates six to eight per year.[30] Each excursion has a different route and a different emphasis.

MEHVA was established in 1981, as Metro prepared to retire trolleybuses that had been operating in Seattle since the 1940s. Since that time, MEHVA acquired other retired transit vehicles which were formerly operated in King County. Often these retired coaches were purchased by private citizens and left on the owner's property for many decades, leaving them in need of restoration. The collection of vehicles has gradually expanded over time, with the addition of newly retired buses when deemed historically notable and not yet represented in the collection.

Current fleet roster[edit]

Make/Model Length Thumbnail Engine/
Transmission
Propulsion Year Fleet Series
(Quantity)
Notes
Gillig Phantom 40 feet King County Metro Transit Gillig PHANTOM 3436.jpg diesel 1996–1999 3200–3594
(395)[31]
  • Some coaches retired, approximately 32 remain in service.
  • All remaining coaches scheduled to be retired by 2018.
Gillig Phantom 30 feet King County Metro Gillig PHANTOM 1122.jpg diesel 1999–2000 1100–1194
(95)[32]
  • Some coaches retired, approximately 32 remain in service.
  • All remaining coaches scheduled to be retired by 2018.
New Flyer D40LF 40 feet King County Metro D40LF.jpg diesel 2003 3600-3699
(100)[33]
  • First buses in fleet with low-floor design and air conditioning.[33]
  • Retirement scheduled to begin in 2018.
New Flyer DE60LF 60 feet King County Metro DE60LF 2648.jpg diesel-electric hybrid (parallel) 2004 2600–2812
(214)[34]
  • First buses in fleet to be equipped with diesel-electric hybrid propulsion.[34]
  • Coach 2663 was destroyed by fire
  • Retirement scheduled to begin in 2018.
New Flyer DE60LF 60 feet King County Metro Transit DE60LF 2818.jpg
  • Cummins ISL
    • GM-Allison EP50
diesel-electric hybrid (parallel) 2008–2009 6813–6865
(52)[35]
  • First articulated buses in fleet with separate air conditioning units for front and rear sections.
New Flyer DE60LFA 60 feet King County Metro New Flyer DE60LFA.jpg
  • Cummins ISL
    • GM-Allison EP50
diesel-electric hybrid (parallel) 2009 6000–6019
(20)[35]
  • Dedicated to RapidRide routes.
  • Coach #6000 was built as a prototype and has a rear window, a feature that was eliminated from the production coaches.
Orion VII
(07.501 EPA10 HEV)
40 feet King County Metro Orion VII 7199.JPG diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2010–2012 7001–7199
(199)[35]
  • First buses in fleet to be equipped with series diesel-electric hybrid propulsion.
New Flyer DE60LFR 60 feet King County Metro New Flyer DE60LFR 6968.JPG diesel-electric hybrid (parallel) 2010–2012 6866–6999, 6800
(132)[35]
New Flyer DE60LFR 60 feet King County Metro Rapid Ride New Flyer DE60LFR 6085.JPG
  • Cummins ISL9
    • Allison H 50 EP
diesel-electric hybrid (parallel) 2011–2013 6020–6035, 6040–6073, 6075–6117
(93)[35]
  • Dedicated to RapidRide routes.
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE35 35 feet King County Metro New Flyer XDE35.jpg
  • Cummins ISB6.7
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2014 3700–3759
(60)
  • First buses in fleet with HybriDrive Series-E system that shuts off diesel engine while stopped to decrease emissions and fuel consumption.
  • Buses originally ordered from Orion, order transferred to New Flyer after closure of Orion factory.[22]
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE40 40 feet King County Metro 7251 at Eastgate P&R (23625392165).jpg
  • Cummins ISB6.7
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2015 7200–7259
(60)
  • Buses originally ordered from Orion, order transferred to New Flyer after closure of Orion factory.[22]
New Flyer Xcelsior XT40 40 feet KCM 4317 in Chinatown.jpg electric trolleybus 2014–2015 4300–4409
(110)
  • First trolleybuses in fleet with low-floor design, air conditioning and a battery power system to allow coaches to operate off-wire for short distances.[36]
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE60 60 feet King County Metro 6202 (NFI XDE60) in Downtown Seattle (24055174063).jpg
  • Cummins ISL9
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2015 6200–6219
(20)
  • Dedicated to RapidRide routes.
New Flyer Xcelsior XT60 60 feet King County Metro XT60 trolleybus 4507 on Broadway (2016).jpg
  • Vossloh Kiepe (electric drive system)
  • Škoda (motor)
electric trolleybus 2015–2016 4500-4563
(64)
Proterra Catalyst 40 feet King County Metro Proterra Catalyst electric bus leaving Eastgate P&R (22997295244).jpg battery electric 2015 4601–4603
(3)
  • Capable of traveling over 26 miles between charges,[37] battery can be recharged at special "fast charge" stations in under 10 minutes.[38]
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE60 60 feet
KCM-8006-TRM.jpg
  • Cummins ISL9
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2015–2016 8000–8084
(85)
  • Equipped with three doors for use on urban routes.
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE60 60 feet
  • Cummins L9
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2017–2018 8100–8199
(100)
  • Equipped with two doors for use on suburban routes.
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE60 60 feet KCM coach 8250
  • Cummins L9
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2018 8200–8299
(100)
  • Equipped with three doors for use on urban routes.
  • Coach 8261 is New Flyer's 10,000th Xcelsior.[39]
Proterra Catalyst 40 feet
  • UQM HD220
    • Eaton EEV-7202
battery electric 2018 4604–4611
(8)
  • These coaches will allow Metro to fully electrify routes 226 and 241 in June 2018.[40][41]

Future fleet[edit]

Make/Model Length Engine/Transmission Propulsion Year Quantity Notes
Gillig Low Floor 40 feet
  • Cummins L9
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2018 7300–7439
(140)
  • Scheduled to be delivered in mid 2018.[41]
  • Will replace remaining Gillig Phantom coaches.[41]
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE60 60 feet
  • Cummins L9
    • BAE Systems HybriDrive Series-E
diesel-electric hybrid (series) 2018 8300–8321
(22)
  • Will be equipped for RapidRide service.
New Flyer Xcelsior XT60 60 feet
  • Vossloh Kiepe (electric drive system)
  • Škoda (motor)
electric trolleybus 2018–2019 (13)
  • Will be equipped with five doors (three curb side, two driver's side) for use on RapidRide G Line.
Proterra Catalyst 40 feet
  • UQM HD220
    • Eaton EEV-7202
battery electric 2019 4612–4623
(12)
  • Metro has an option to purchase an additional 50 buses

Historic fleet[edit]

These historic buses are owned by King County Metro, but are restored, maintained and operated by unpaid volunteers who are in the Metro Employee Historic Vehicle Association (MEHVA).

Make/Model Length Thumbnail Propulsion Year Purchasing Agency Fleet Number
Kenworth H-30 Diesel 1938 Seattle Municipal Street Railway 1705
Twin Coach 30-G Diesel 1939 Seattle Transit System 231
Twin Coach GWFT 40 feet Seattle 1940 Twin Coach trolleybus 643 in 1990.jpg Electric trolleybus 1940 Seattle Transit System 643
PCF-Brill 40 SMT 40 feet Seattle 1940 Brill trolleybus 798 in 1990.jpg Electric trolleybus 1940 Seattle Transit System 798
Twin Coach 44 GTT 40 feet Electric trolleybus 1943 Seattle Transit System 636
Pullman-Standard 41CA-100-44CX 40 feet Seattle 1944 Pullman trolleybus 1005 in 2000.jpg Electric trolleybus 1944 Seattle Transit System 1005
Kenworth K-10 Diesel 1947 Suburban Transit System 86
Twin Coach 41-S Diesel 1948 Seattle Transit System 1705
General Motors TDH-5105 40 feet Diesel 1955 Seattle Transit System 263
General Motors TDH-4512 40 feet Preserved Metropolitan Transit Corp. bus 2962 in Bothell in 1985.jpg Diesel 1959 Metropolitan Transit Corporation 2962
Flxible New Look F2D6V-401-1 40 feet Diesel 1963 Seattle Transit System 598
General Motors New Look T8H-5305 40 feet Preserved Seattle Transit System coach 724 (14114965635).jpg Diesel 1968 Seattle Transit System 724
AM General 10240B 40 feet Diesel 1976 Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle 1122
AM General 10240T 40 feet 1979 AM General trolleybus preserved by MEHVA.jpg Electric trolleybus 1979 Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle 1008
MAN/AM General SG 220-18-2 60 feet Diesel 1979 Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle 1455
Flyer D10240C 40 feet Diesel 1979 Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle 1657
MAN Americana SL40102L 40 feet Diesel 1987 Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle 3152
Breda DuoBus 350
(ADPB 350)
60 feet Breda Dual mode coach 5034.jpg Dual-mode
(diesel & electric trolley)
1990 Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle 5034
Gillig Phantom 40102TBM11 40 feet Diesel 1997 King County Metro 3374
Gillig Phantom C28D102N4 40 feet Electric trolleybus 2002 King County Metro 4195

Retired fleet[edit]

See Trolleybuses in Seattle for a detailed history of Seattle's trolleybus fleet.

Thumbnail Make/Model Propulsion Motor/Powertrain Seated
Capacity
Length Purchased Retired Qty. Fleet Numbers
Seattle 1940 Brill trolleybus 798 in 1990.jpg Brill trolley Electric trolleybus GE 40 40' 1940 1963 100 700–799
Seattle 1940 Twin Coach trolleybus 643 in 1990.jpg Twin Coach trolley Electric trolleybus Westinghouse 41 40' 1940 1978 177 800–976 originally (counting 24 slightly larger units, built in 1943); remaining coaches in 1974 renumbered into series 600–659. No. 643 (originally 905) preserved by Metro.
Seattle 1944 Pullman trolleybus 1005 in 2000.jpg Pullman-Standard trolley Electric trolleybus GE 44 40' 1944 1978 30 977–1006 originally; 642–655 from 1974 until end of service (after some retirements and renumberings). No. 1005 preserved by Metro.
Seattle Metro 1955 GM TDH-5105 bus 291 in 1982.jpg GMC TDH-5105 Diesel 51 40' 1955 1982 105 200–304. No. 263 has been preserved by Metro.[42]
Seattle Flxible bus 552 on Alaskan Way in 1985.jpg Flxible
"New Look"
Diesel Detroit Diesel 6V71 51 40' 1963 1986[43] 100 500-599[43]
Seattle GM New Look bus on Airport Way in 1983.jpg GMC
"New Look" T8H-5305
Diesel Detroit Diesel 8V71N/ Allison VS2-8 48 40' 1968 1987 70 700-769
AMG 10240B8 Diesel Detroit Diesel 8V71N (1100-1313) Detroit Diesel 8V71T (1340-1349) Allison V730 45 40' 1976 1996 323 1100–1313; 1340-1349
Seattle 1979 MAN articulated bus on Lenora St in 1994.jpg MAN SG-220 Diesel MAN D2566 MLUM/ Renk-Doromat 874B 72 60' 1978–1979 1999 151 1400-1550
Muni of Metro Seattle 1979 Flyer D10240C 1657.jpg Flyer D900 Diesel Cummins VTB903/ Allison V730 47 40' 1979 1997 224 1600-1823
Seattle AM General trolleybus downtown, 1986.jpg AMG 10240T Electric trolleybus GE 45 40' 1979 2003 109 900-1009 (no 911)[44]
Flyer D900 Diesel Cummins VTB903/ Allison V730 39 35' 1980 1997 35 1850-1884
Seattle MAN 2108 on Washington St in 1994, repainted in late 1980s livery.jpg MAN SG-310 Diesel MAN D2566 MLUM/ Renk-Doromat 874B 70 60' 1982–1983 2001 202 2000-2201
Seattle MAN Americana bus 3073 in 1994.jpg MAN Americana Diesel MAN D2566 MLUH/ Renk-Doromat 874B 44 40' 1986–1987 2004 157 3000-3146; 3150-3159[45]
MAN Articulated Trolley Bus.jpg MAN ETB Electric trolleybus Siemens[46][47] 64 60' 1987 2007 46 4000-4045[48]
Breda dual-mode bus at Westlake station in Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel, 9-17-1990.jpg Breda DuoBus 350
(ADPB 350)
Dual-mode

(diesel & electric trolley)

Diesel:

Detroit Diesel 6V92TA/ ZF 4HP600
Electric Trolley: AEG/Westinghouse

56 60' 1988–1991 2005 236 5000–5235
Seattle Breda trolleybus 4249.jpg Electric trolleybus conversion AEG/Westinghouse 56 60' 1988–1991
(converted
2004–2007)
2016 59 4200–4258[49]
King County Metro 3193.jpg Gillig Phantom Diesel Cummins M11/ Allison B400R Gen III 34 35' 1997 2015 13 3185-3199[31]
King County Metro Transit D60HF 2353.jpg New Flyer D60HF Diesel Cummins M11/ Allison B500R Gen III 64 60' 1998–1999 2018 274 2300–2573[50]
KingCountyMetro 4191.jpg Gillig Phantom Electric trolleybus GE (refurbished by Alstom) 42 40' 2002 2016 100 4100–4199[51]
King County Metro D60LF.jpg New Flyer D60LF Diesel Caterpillar C9/ Allison B500R Gen IV 60' 2004 2018 30

2870–2899(30)[52]

King County Metro Workhorse van 1913.jpg StarTran President LF Diesel GMC Duramax Allison 1000 series 19 28' 2009 2013 35 1900-1934

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roman, Alex (September 25, 2017) [print edition of September–October 2017, pp. 28]. "2017 Top 100 Transit Bus Fleets Survey" (PDF). Metro Magazine. Retrieved September 26, 2017. 
  2. ^ "Metro OK's contracts with two transit lines". The Seattle Times. December 8, 1972. p. E7. 
  3. ^ Lane, Bob (December 1, 1972). "One query asked at Metro bus hearing". The Seattle Times. p. A15. 
  4. ^ Lane, Bob (June 2, 1976). "New buses're here—with quite a difference". The Seattle Times. p. C1. 
  5. ^ Oldham, Kit (June 18, 2006). "Metro: Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle". HistoryLink. Retrieved January 24, 2018. 
  6. ^ Lane, Bob (August 14, 1978). "Bending buses, new lanes pass first test". The Seattle Times. p. A14. 
  7. ^ Anderson, Ross (August 1, 1978). "Rush-hour bus lanes OK'd for downtown". The Seattle Times. p. A14. 
  8. ^ "Shipping on U.S. vessels with increase cost of Metro buses". The Seattle Times. October 6, 1978. p. C8. 
  9. ^ Oldham, Kit (June 18, 2006). "Metro: Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle". HistoryLink. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 
  10. ^ King County Metro (October 2013). "2012 Annual Management Report" (PDF). Retrieved September 30, 2014. 
  11. ^ Voris, Michael. "The evolution of Metro buses - video transcript". Metro Online. King County Metro. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 
  12. ^ Crowley, Walt (1993). Routes: an interpretive history of public transportation in metropolitan Seattle. Seattle: Crowley Associates. pp. 2, 3. 
  13. ^ "Facts". King County Metro. April 16, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  14. ^ "APTA Ridership Report: First Quarter 2009 - Trolleybus Agencies" (PDF). Public Transportation Ridership Statistics. American Public Transportation Association. June 8, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2009. 
  15. ^ Webb, Mary (Ed.) (2009). Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2009-2010. Coulsdon, Surrey (UK): Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2903-6.
  16. ^ Metro Vehicles King County Metro.
  17. ^ a b "King County launches next generation of electric trolleys and previews new battery-powered bus". King County Metro. August 18, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2016. 
  18. ^ "Trolley buses". King County Metro. December 5, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b Chandler, K; K. Walkowicz (December 2006). "King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results" (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved July 16, 2009. 
  20. ^ "New Flyer Receives Order for Up To 715 Buses From King County Metro Totaling Up To US $514 Million" Archived September 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ "Federal stimulus grant delivers more buses for Metro". Auburn Reporter. July 14, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2009. 
  22. ^ a b c Piellisch, Rich (February 12, 2013). "New Flyer Hybrids for Seattle". Fleets and Fuels. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  23. ^ Constantine, Dow (August 18, 2015). "King County launches next generation of electric trolleys and previews new battery-powered bus". King County Metro. Retrieved March 13, 2016. 
  24. ^ Proterra (July 2014). "Proterra Specifications" (PDF). Retrieved August 29, 2014. 
  25. ^ Proterra. "Proterra FAQ". Retrieved August 29, 2014. ...fast-charge, which allows the bus to charge in less than 10 minutes during regularly scheduled stops but requires more frequent charging. 
  26. ^ a b "Metro to test battery-electric buses" (PDF). King County Metro. Summer 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2016. 
  27. ^ Ranganathan, Shefali (March 2007). "Hybrid buses costs and benefits" (PDF). Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Retrieved March 13, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Executive Constantine launches Metro Transit's first all-electric battery-powered bus" (Press release). King County Metro. February 17, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016. 
  29. ^ Proterra (August 21, 2014). "Seattle Area Transit Agency Chooses Proterra for EV Transit Program". Retrieved March 13, 2016. 
  30. ^ a b Tan, Vinh (October 15, 2009). "Take a ride down memory lane — or to see fall foliage — aboard a vintage transit bus". The Seattle Times. Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  31. ^ a b King County Metro. "Gillig Standard Diesel Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  32. ^ King County Metro. "Gillig Small Diesel Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  33. ^ a b King County Metro. "New Flyer Low-floor, clean-air Diesel Bus with Air Conditioning". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b King County Metro. "New Flyer Articulated Low Floor Hybrid Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c d e "King County Metro Transit". Canadian Public Transit Discussion Board. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  36. ^ "Metro to partner with New Flyer on next generation of electric trolley buses". King County Metro. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  37. ^ Proterra. "Proterra Specifications" (PDF). Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  38. ^ Proterra. "Proterra FAQ". Retrieved 29 August 2014. ...fast-charge, which allows the bus to charge in less than 10 minutes during regularly scheduled stops but requires more frequent charging. 
  39. ^ "New Flyer Celebrates Delivery of 10,000th Xcelsior Bus and Evolution in Transit Innovation - New Flyer | North America's Bus Leader". New Flyer | North America’s Bus Leader. 2018-05-22. Retrieved 2018-05-25. 
  40. ^ "SEPTA, Foothill Transit and King County Metro Join Proterra's Growing Roster of FTA Low-No Grant Program Winners". Proterra, Inc. April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016. 
  41. ^ a b c "East Campus Base Operations Bulletin" (PDF). King County Metro. November 29, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017. 
  42. ^ "Our Fleet". Metro Employees Historic Vehicle Association. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  43. ^ a b "Seattle Transit System 598". Metro Employees Historic Vehicle Association. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Metro 1008". Metro Employees Historic Vehicle Association. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  45. ^ "MAN Standard Diesel Bus". King County Department of Transportation. 2003-05-28. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  46. ^ Trolleybus Magazine (UK) No. 141 (May–June 1985), p. 72. ISSN 0266-7452.
  47. ^ Bushell, Chris (ed.) (1994). Jane's Urban Transport Systems 1994–95, p. 539. Coulsdon, Surrey (UK): Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-1156-0.
  48. ^ "Retired - MAN Articulated Trolley Bus". King County Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2012-11-19. 
  49. ^ King County Metro. "Breda Articulated Trolley Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  50. ^ King County Metro. "New Flyer Articulated Diesel Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  51. ^ King County Metro. "Gillig Trolley Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  52. ^ King County Metro. "New Flyer Articulated Low Floor Bus". metro.kingcounty.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 

External links[edit]