King Ghidorah

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King Ghidorah
Godzilla film series character
KingGhidorah.jpg
First appearance Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (1964)
Last appearance Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack (2001)
Created by Tomoyuki Tanaka
Portrayed by Shōwa
Shoichi Hirose
Susumu Utsumi
Kanta Ina
Heisei
Hurricane Ryu
Tsutomu Kitagawa[1]
Millennium
Akira Ohashi
Aliases Ghidrah
Ghidora
Monster Zero
Thousand Year-Old Dragon
Grand King Ghidorah[1]
King of Terror[1]

King Ghidorah (キングギドラ Kingu Gidora?) is a kaiju film monster that first appeared in the Toho's 1964 film Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster. Although Toho officially trademarks the character as King Ghidorah,[2] the character is usually referred to as Ghidrah in English markets.[3][4]

Although King Ghidorah's design has remained largely consistent throughout its appearances (an armless, golden-scaled winged dragon with three heads and two tails), its origin story has varied from being an extraterrestrial demon,[5][1] a genetically engineered monster from the future,[6] or a guardian of ancient Japan.[7] The character is usually portrayed as an archenemy of Godzilla and Mothra,[5][1] though it has had one appearance as an ally of the latter.[7] Despite rumors that Ghidorah was meant to represent the threat posed by China, which had at the time of the character's creation just developed nuclear weapons,[8] director Ishiro Honda denied the connection and stated that Ghidorah is simply a modern take on the dragon Yamata no Orochi.[9]

Overview[edit]

Development[edit]

The initial idea for Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster came from Tomoyuki Tanaka, who also created Godzilla. Tanaka's inspiration came from an illustration of the Lernaean Hydra in a book about Greek Mythology, and Orochi of Japanese folklore. Tanaka was enamored with the idea of Godzilla fighting a multi-headed serpent, but considered 7-8 heads to be excessive, and thus the number of heads was reduced to three.[10] The final version was an armless, three-headed dragon with large wings, two tails and of extraterrestrial origin.[11] Screenwriter Shinichi Sekizawa insisted that the Ghidorah suit be fabricated using light-weight silicon-based materials in order to grant the wearer greater mobility.[12] The final Ghidorah design was constructed by special effects artist Teizo Toshimitsu,[13] who had initially painted it green in order to further differentiate it from Godzilla, Rodan and Mothra, but changed it to gold on the insistence of Eiji Tsuburaya, after his assistant noted that being a creature from Venus, the "gold planet", Ghidorah should be that color.[10] The monster costume itself was built by Akira Watanabe, and worn by Shoichi Hirose, who also played King Kong in Toho's King Kong vs. Godzilla. Hirose walked hunched over inside the Ghidorah costume, holding a metal bar for balance, while puppeteers would control its heads, tails and wings off-camera like a marionette.[11] The monster's heads were each fitted with remotely controlled motors, which were connected to operators via a wire extending from the suit's backside.[13] Performing as Ghidorah proved challenging to Hirose, as he had to time his movements in a way that would not conflict with the separately operated heads and wings, as doing so would have resulted in the overhead wires tangling.[12] Because of the suit's weight, it frequently snapped the overhead wires supporting it.[13] Special effects were added as the creature is capable emitting destructive, lightning-like "gravity beams" from its mouths and generating hurricane-force winds from its wings.[14] Despite King Ghidorah's central role in the film's plot, the character was given little screen time, as Hirose had fallen out with special effects director Eiji Tsuburaya, who never forgave Hirose for accepting a Hollywood deal, and subsequently hired Susumu Utsumi to play King Ghidorah after Invasion of Astro-Monster.[12]

In Invasion of Astro-Monster, King Ghidorah was given a darker shade of gold, and its movements both on land and in the air were more fluid than during Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, as the special effects crew had at that point learned from the shortcomings of the previous film's depiction of the creature.[15]

In Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah, the character's ruffs of hairs surrounding its heads were replaced with horns, as it proved difficult for the special effects team to superimpose the individual strands of hair onto footage of people escaping the monster.[16] Special effects director Koichi Kawakita had originally planned on having each of Ghidorah's heads fire differently colored beams, but this was ultimately scrapped in favor of the classic yellow color.[17]

For Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack, director Shūsuke Kaneko had originally planned on using Varan as Godzilla's principal antagonist, but was pressured by Toho chairman Isao Matsuoka to use the more recognizable and profitable King Ghidorah,[18] as the previous film in the franchise, Godzilla x Megaguirus, which featured an original and unfamiliar antagonist, was a box office and critical failure. In order to emphasize Ghidorah's heroic role in the movie, his size was greatly reduced. He was portrayed by Akira Ohashi, who moved the creature's heads as hand puppets.[19]

Fictional biography[edit]

Shōwa era (1964-1973)[edit]

In his debut film, Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, Ghidorah is portrayed as an ancient extraterrestrial entity responsible for the destruction of the Venusian civilization, five thousand years before the film's events. His attempt to destroy Earth is thwarted by the combined efforts of Godzilla, Rodan and Mothra.[5] Subsequent Shōwa era films would portray Ghidorah as the pawn of various alien races seeking to subjugate Earth.[20][21][22]

King Ghidorah also appears in the fifth and sixth episodes of the television series Zone Fighter, where it is revealed that he is a creation of the Garoga aliens.[23][24] As Zone Fighter shares continuity with the Showa era of Godzilla movies, after escaping from Zone Fighter, Ghidorah would next appear chronologically in Destroy All Monsters, set in 1999.

Heisei period (1991-1998)[edit]

Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah (1991) and Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II (1993)[edit]

In Kazuki Ōmori's Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah, the character's backstory is completely re-envisioned: he originates as a trio of diminutive genetically engineered creatures called "Dorats" owned by members of the 23rd century Equal Environment Earth Union, a group dedicated to equalizing the power of Earth's nations. Seeking to stop Japan's global economic dominance in their timeline by transforming the Dorats into King Ghidorah through nuclear exposure, the Earth Unionists hope to plant the Dorats on Lagos Island during the 1944 H-bomb tests there. Prior to doing so, they remove the dinosaur that would ultimately become Godzilla from the island, so that the resulting King Ghidorah would be able to attack Japan without opposition. In 1992, the Earth Unionists unleash Ghidorah onto Japan, but he is defeated by a recreated Godzilla. The wounded King Ghidorah lies dormant under the sea for two centuries before being outfitted with robotic parts by a disillusioned Earth Unionist and sent back to 1992 in order to stop Godzilla's rampage.[6] In Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II, "Mecha-King Ghidorah's" remains are salvaged by the United Nations Godzilla Countermeasures Center (UNGCC) and reverse engineered to create Mechagodzilla.[25]

Rebirth of Mothra III (1998)[edit]

Okihiro Yoneda's 1998 film Rebirth of Mothra III portrays King Ghidorah as an extraterrestrial that landed on earth during the Cretaceous and wiped out the dinosaurs by draining them of their life-force. Ghidorah left earth, only to return in modern times to feed on humans. Mothra fails to defeat the monster, so it travels back to the Cretaceous in order to kill Ghidorah retroactively. Mothra defeats the younger Ghidorah, but the monster's severed tail allows it to regenerate back into its adult form in modern times. Mothra finally kills the monster by transforming into "Armor Mothra".[1]

Millenium period (2001)[edit]

In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack, Ghidorah is portrayed as having been one of the three guardians of Yamato, originating 1,000 years before the events of the film. Initially an antagonist, Ghidorah was imprisoned in Mount Fuji, only to be reawakened in 2001 to halt Godzilla's destruction of Tokyo. He is defeated, but then revived and empowered by his ally Mothra.[7]

Powers[edit]

Throughout its appearances, King Ghidorah's only consistent abilities are flight and the capacity to fire "gravity beams" from its mouths. Its first incarnation is shown travelling through space within a meteor capable of generating magnetic fields.[5] Ghidorah's mechanized form in Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah is equipped with Capture Cables and a large Machine Hand restraint that can discharge electricity, and is strong enough to lift Godzilla.[6] In Rebirth of Mothra III, King Ghidorah gains energy from eating victims, and can construct a dome to house its victims for future consumption. It is also portrayed as capable of firing lightning bolts from its wings and regenerating its entire body from severed body parts.[1] Ghidorah's incarnation in Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack can electrocute enemies through its teeth, and can gain power by absorbing the spirits of dead monsters, allowing it to form an energy shield capable of deflecting Godzilla's atomic ray.[7]

Appearances[edit]

Spin-off characters related to and based on Ghidorah (although quadruped in appearance) were featured in other Toho films: "Desghidorah" (or Death Ghidorah) in Rebirth of Mothra and "Keizer Ghidorah" in Godzilla: Final Wars. In July 2014, Legendary Pictures confirmed to have obtained the rights to King Ghidorah, Mothra, and Rodan from Toho and plan to feature them in their sequel.[26][27]

Films[edit]

Television[edit]

Video games[edit]

King Ghidorah fighting Godzilla in Godzilla (PS3 - 2014 PS3 PS4 - 2015)

Literature[edit]

Music[edit]

  • Take Me To Your Leader is the second studio album by English hip hop artist Daniel Dumile (also known as MF DOOM)[30] and was released under the alias "King Geedorah" on June 17, 2003. The cover features a figure very similar to the appearance of King Ghidorah.

Reception[edit]

The character has been well-received and is considered to be the most famous enemy of Godzilla. WatchMojo.com listed King Ghidorah as #1 on their "Top 10 Godzilla Villains" list,[31] and #6 on their "Top 10 Giant Movie Monsters" list,[32] while IGN listed the creature as #2 on their "Top 10 Japanese Movie Monsters" list.[33] Complex listed the character as #4 on its "The 15 Most Badass Kaiju Monsters of All Time" list, calling him "iconic" and "he simply looks cooler than some of the more powerful bugs, crabs, and robots."[34] In his review of Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, Ethan Reed of Toho Kingdom praised King Ghidorah, calling him "a fantastic addition to the franchise" and "no less than pure evil, a relentless force of destruction that wipes out the life of entire planets just for the sake of it" and concluded that "King Ghidorah is not only one the best characters in the series, but one [of] the best movie villains as well."[35] Similar views were expressed in Paste, which listed Ghidorah as #5 on its "10 Best Movie Dragons", describing it as "probably the deadliest beast in all of Godzilla lore".[36]

Godzilla historian Steve Ryfle however criticized Ghidorah's design in Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah, citing its stiff movements and recycled Rodan screech, as well as noting that it didn't deviate enough from Eiji Tsuburaya's original design.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Rebirth of Mothra III (1998). Directed by Okihiro Yoneda. Toho
  2. ^ "King Ghidorah Official Trademark". Toho. Retrieved September 12, 2014. 
  3. ^ "North American poster for GHIDRAH". Continental Releasing-1965. Retrieved September 12, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Ghidorah Original Motion Picture Soundtrack". Toho. Retrieved September 12, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (1964). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho.
  6. ^ a b c Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah (1991). Directed by Kazuki Ōmori. Toho
  7. ^ a b c d Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack (2001). Directed by Shusuke Kaneko. Toho.
  8. ^ Jess-Cooke, C. (2009), Film Sequels: Theory and Practice from Hollywood to Bollywood, Edinburgh University Press, p. 38, ISBN 0748689478
  9. ^ David Milner, "Ishiro Honda Interview", Kaiju Conversations (December 1992)
  10. ^ a b CHO Japan (2012-10-31). "1970's Godzilla FX Director - PART I - 70年代のゴジラの特技監督 (SciFi Japan TV #06)". YouTube. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  11. ^ a b David Kalat - Ghidorah: The Three Headed Monster, Classic Media R1 DVD Audio Commentary
  12. ^ a b c Kalat, D. (2010), A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series, McFarland, p. 77-78, ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7
  13. ^ a b c Yasuyuki Inoue: 1922-2012, SciFi Japan (February 24, 2012)
  14. ^ King Ghidorah character profile - Godzilla Movie Studio Tour (PC Game), 1998
  15. ^ Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. p. 124. ISBN 1550223488. 
  16. ^ David Milner, "Shinji Nishikawa Interview", Kaiju Conversations (December 1995)
  17. ^ David Milner, "Koichi Kawakita Interview", Kaiju Conversations (December 1994)
  18. ^ Ed Godziszewski and Norman England, "Interview with Shusuke Kaneko", Japanese Giants, Issue #9 (June, 2002)
  19. ^ Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. pp. 240–41. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7. 
  20. ^ Invasion of Astro-Monster (1965). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho.
  21. ^ Destroy all Monsters (1968). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho.
  22. ^ Godzilla vs. Gigan (1972). Directed by Jun Fukuda. Toho.
  23. ^ "Attack King Ghidorah!". Zone Fighter. Directed by Jun Fukuda. April 30, 1973
  24. ^ "King Ghidorah's Counterattack!". Zone Fighter. Directed by Jun Fukuda. May 7, 1973
  25. ^ Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II (1993). Directed by Takao Okawara. Toho
  26. ^ Jeffries, Adrianne (July 26, 2014). "Gareth Edwards returns to direct 'Godzilla 2' with Rodan and Mothra". The Verge. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  27. ^ Sullivan, Kevin P. (2014-08-14). "'Godzilla 2′ Gets Release Date: 'Let Them Wait'". MTV. 
  28. ^ "Graphic Novel: Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah". Tohokingdom.com. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  29. ^ "Book: Godzilla Saves America: A Monster Showdown in 3-D!". Tohokingdom.com. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  30. ^ "King Geedorah "Take Me To Your Leader"". HipHop-Elements.com. Retrieved 2014-06-23. 
  31. ^ WatchMojo.com (September 25, 2015). "Top 10 Godzilla Villains". YouTube. Retrieved September 25, 2015. 
  32. ^ WatchMojo.com (August 31, 2013). "Top 10 Giant Movie Monsters". YouTube. 
  33. ^ Hawker, Tom (May 15, 2014). "Top 10 Japanese Movie Monsters". IGN. Retrieved May 17, 2016. 
  34. ^ Josh Robertson, "The 15 Most Badass Kaiju Monsters of All Time", Complex (May 18, 2014)
  35. ^ Ethan Reed, "Review: Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (1964)", Toho Kingdom (July 22, 2009)
  36. ^ Curt Holman, "The 10 Best Movie Dragons", Paste (January 3, 2013)
  37. ^ Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. pp. 271–2. ISBN 1550223488. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Legendary Pictures and Gareth Edwards, director of Godzilla, confirmed that the rights to King Ghidorah, Mothra, and Rodan from the Toho Studios films have been acquired, and that the characters may appear in "future franchise installments"