King Wen of Zhou
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|Count of the West|
|Count of Zhou|
|Reign||1100–1050 BC (50 years)|
|Born||1152 BC (traditional) or 1112 BC (modern estimate)|
Bi (Zhou state)
|Died||1050 BC (aged 62)|
Cheng (Zhou state)
Bi (Zhou state)
King Wu of Zhou
Xian, Marquis of Guan
Du, Marquis of Cai
Feng, Count of Wey
Wu, Count of Cheng
Chu, Monarch of Huo
Zheng, Count of Mao
Zai, Monarch of Dan
Zhenduo, Marquis of Cao
Xiu, Marquis of Teng
Gao, Count of Bi
|Father||King Ji of Zhou|
King Wen of Zhou (Chinese: 周文王; pinyin: Zhōu Wén Wáng; 1152–1050 BC, the Cultured King) was Count of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China. Although frequently confused with his fourth son Duke of Zhou, also known as "Lord Zhou", they are different historical persons. Although it was his son Wu who conquered the Shang following the Battle of Muye, Count Wen was posthumously honored as the founder of the Zhou dynasty and posthumously titled King. Many of the hymns of the Classic of Poetry are praises to the legacy of King Wen. Some consider him the first epic hero of Chinese history.
Chinese scholars (e.g. Wang Yunwu (王雲五), Li Xueqin (李学勤), etc.) identified King Wen with a 周方白[a]; Zhōufāng bó; 'Elder of Zhou region' mentioned in inscriptions H11:82 & H11:84 among oracle bones excavated at Zhouyuan (周原), Qishan County.
Born Ji Chang (姬昌), Wen was the son of Tairen and Ji Jili, the Count of Zhou, a vassal state of the Kingdom of Shang along the Wei River in present-day Shaanxi. Jili was betrayed and executed by the Shang king Wen Ding in the late 12th century BC, leaving the young Chang as the Count of Zhou.
Wen married Taisi and fathered ten sons and one daughter by her, plus at least another eight sons with concubines.
At one point, King Zhou of Shang, fearing Wen's growing power, imprisoned him in Youli (present-day Tangyin in Henan) after he was slandered by the Marquis of Chong. His eldest son, Bo Yikao, went to King Zhou to plead for his freedom, but was executed in a rage by lingchi and made into meat cakes which were fed to his father in Youli. However, many officials (in particular San Yisheng and Hong Yao) respected Wen for his honorable governance and gave King Zhou so many gifts – including gold, horses, and women – that he released Wen, and also bestowed upon him his personal weapons and invested him with the special rank of Count of the West (Western Shang). Wen offered a piece of his land in Western Luo to King Zhou, who in turn allowed Wen to make one last request. He requested that the Burning Pillar punishment be abolished, and so it was.
Subsequently, upon returning home Wen secretly began to plot to overthrow King Zhou. In his first year as Count of the West, he settled a land dispute between the states of Yu and Rui, earning greater recognition among the nobles. It is by this point that some nobles began calling him "king". The following year, Wen found Jiang Ziya fishing in the Pan River and hired him as a military counselor. He also repelled an invasion of the Quanrong barbarians and occupied a portion of their land. The following year, he campaigned against Mixu, a state whose chief had been harassing the smaller states of Ruan and Gong, thus annexing the three of them. The following year, he attacked Li, a puppet of Shang, and the next year he attacked E, a rebel state opposed to Shang, conquering both. One year later he attacked Chong, home of Hu, Marquis of Chong, his arch-enemy, and defeated it, gaining access to the Ford of Meng through which he could cross his army to attack Shang. By then he had obtained about two thirds of the whole kingdom either as direct possessions or sworn allies. That same year he moved his capital city one hundred kilometers east from Mount Qi to Feng, placing the Shang under imminent threat. The following year, however, the Count of the West died before he could cross the Ford. It is worth-noting, nonetheless, that other sources suggest he died in battle during the Zhou campaign against the Yin-Shang.
Four years after his death, his second son, known as King Wu, followed his footsteps and crushed the Shang at Muye, founding the Zhou dynasty. The name "Wen" means "the Cultured" or "the Civilizing" and was made into an official royal name by King Wu in honor of his father.
Ah! Solemn is the clear temple,
reverent and concordant the illustrious assistants.
Dignified, dignified are the many officers,
holding fast to the virtue of King Wen.
Responding in praise to the one in Heaven,
they hurry swiftly within the temple.
Greatly illustrious, greatly honored,
may [King Wen] never be weary of [us] men.
Many of the older odes from the Classic of Poetry (Shijing 詩經) are hymns in praise of King Wen. King Wen is also credited with having stacked the eight trigrams in their various permutations to create the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching. He is also said to have written the judgments which are appended to each hexagram. The most commonly used sequence of the 64 hexagrams is attributed to him and is usually referred to as the King Wen sequence.
In 196 BC, Han Gaozu gave King Wen the title "Greatest of All Kings".
- Tai Si, of the Youshen lineage of the Si clan (太姒 姒姓 有莘氏)
- Lady, of the Zi clan of Shang (子姓), a daughter of Wen Ding and a younger sister of Di Yi
- Other spouses.
- By Tai Si:
- First son: Bo Yikao;
- Second son: Fa (發); ruled as King Wu of Zhou;
- Third son: Xian (鮮), ruled Guan;
- Fourth son: Dan (旦),
- Served as Grand Tutor and regent for King Cheng of Zhou;
- Dan's son Boqin ruled as Duke of Lu;
- Fifth son: Du (度), ruled Cai;
- Sixth son: Zhenduo (振鐸), ruled Cao;
- Seventh son: Wu (武), ruled Cheng (郕);
- Eight son: Chu (處), ruled Huo;
- Ninth son: Feng (封), ruled Kang then Wey;
- Tenth son: Zai (載), ruled Ran (冉) or Dan (聃).
- By other spouses:
- Yuanhe Xingzuan "Register of surnames of the Yuanhe reign" lists King Wen's sons in a slightly different order of birth:
- Eldest son: Bo Yikao (伯邑考)
- Second son: Fa, King Wu of Zhou (周武王)
- Third son: Xian, Ruler of Guan (管叔鮮)
- Fourth son: Dan, Duke of Zhou (周公旦)
- Fifth son: Du, Ruler of Cai (蔡叔度)[c]
- Sixth son: Chu, Ruler of Huo (霍叔處)
- Seventh son: Wu, Ruler of Cheng (郕叔武)
- Eight son: Feng, Ruler of Kang then Wey ([衛]康叔封)
- Ninth son: Zheng, Ruler of Mao (毛叔鄭)
- Tenth son: Zai, Ruler of Ran (冉[d]季載)
- Eleventh son: Ruler of Gao (郜叔)
- Twelfth son: Count of Yong (雍伯)
- Thirteenth son: Zhenduo, Ruler of Cao (曹叔振鐸)
- Fourteenth son: Xiu, Marquis of Teng (滕侯 / 滕叔繡)
- Fifteenth son: Gao, Duke of Bi (畢公高)
- Sixteenth son: Count of Yuan (原伯)
- Seventeenth son: Marquis of Feng (豐侯)[e]
- Eighteenth son: Count of Xun (郇伯)[f]
|Yayu (d. 1192 BC)|
|Zulei (1192–1158 BC)|
|King Tai of Zhou|
|King Ji of Zhou|
|Tai Jiang of Pang|
|King Wen of Zhou (1125–1051 BC)|
|Tai Ren of Zhi|
- ^ Rebus for 伯.
- ^ Not listed among King Wen's sons by Book of Han & Yuanhe Xingzuan
- ^ Possibly due to scribal error, Yuanhe xingzuan ranks Du as King Wen's 10th son like Zai. Here Du is treated as the 5th son following Shiji's & Zuozhuan's orderings
- ^ 𥅆 in Yuanhe Xingzuan; note the same phonetic component 冉; possibly due to scribal error, Yuanhe xingzuan ranks Zai as King Wen's 10th son like Du. Here Zai is treated as the 10th son following Shiji's & Zuozhuan's orderings
- ^ Possibly due to scribal error, Yuanhe xingzuan ranks him as King Wen's 17th son like Count of Xun. Here Marquis of Feng is treated as the 17th son following Zuozhuan's ordering
- ^ Possibly due to scribal error, Yuanhe xingzuan ranks him as King Wen's 17th son like Marquis of Feng. Here Count of Xun is treated as the 18th son following Zuozhuan's ordering
- ^ Theobald, Ulrich (December 19, 2010). "Zhou Wenwang 周文王, King Wen of Zhou". ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- ^ Lin, Sen-Shou (1995). Problems in the Studies of Zhou Oracle-Bone Scripts (MA). University of British Columbia. doi:10.14288/1.0098998.
- ^ Cihai, p. 201.
- ^ <Gernet, J., (2019). EL MUNDO CHINO. Bogotá, Colombia: Editorial Planeta Colombiana>
- ^ Sima Qian, 史記 (Shiji) [10s BCE]. 10 vols. Beijing: Zhonghua Publishing,  1963.
- ^ Kern (2010), p. 23. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFKern2010 (help)
- ^ Creel. The Origins of Statecraft, p. 42.
- ^ Book of Han "Vol. 20 Tables of Persons - Then and Now" with annotations
- ^ Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian "Hereditary Houses of Guan and Cai" quote: "武王同母兄弟十人。母曰太姒，文王正妃也。其長子曰伯邑考，次曰武王發，次曰管叔鮮，次曰周公旦，次曰蔡叔度，次曰曹叔振鐸，次曰成叔武，次曰霍叔處，次曰康叔封，次曰冉季載。冉季載最少。"
- ^ a b Records of ritual matters by Dai the Elder (大戴禮記), "Protectors and Tutors (保傅), quote: "召公為太保，周公為太傅，太公為太師。" translation: "The Duke of Shao acted as Grand Protector, the Duke of Zhou as Grand Tutor, and the Grand Duke as Grand Preceptor."
- ^ Zuo zhuan, "Duke Xi -24th year - zhuan". quote: "管、蔡、郕、霍、魯、衛、毛、聃、郜、雍、曹、滕、畢、原、酆、郇，文之昭也。" translation by Durrent, Li, Schaberg (2016:380-1): "the domains of Guan, Cai, Cheng, Huo, Lu, Wei, Mao, Dan, Gao, Yong, Cao, Teng, Bi, Yuan, Feng, and Xun for King Wen’s sons of the odd-numbered generations"
- ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2012) Mao Gong 毛公, the Dukes of Mao for ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art.
- ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2018), "The Regional State of Teng 滕" for ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art.
- ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2018), "The Regional State of Wei 魏" for ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art.
- ^ Bai Hu Tong "Those whom kings consider not their subjects" quote: "召公，文王子也。"
- ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2011) "Shao Gong Shi 召公奭, the Duke of Shao" for ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art.
- ^ Yuanhe Xingzuan, Siku Quanshu version. Searchable full text in wikisource
- Ci Hai Bian Ji Wei Yuan Hui (辞海编辑委员会). Shanghai Ci Shu Chu Ban She (Shanghai), 1979 (in Chinese)
- Wu, K. C. The Chinese Heritage. Crown Publishers (New York), 1982. ISBN 0-517-54475-X.