List of monarchs of Persia

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Shahanshah of Iran
شاه شاهان ایران
Lion and the Sun.svg
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 2.jpg
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Details
First monarch Cyrus the Great
Last monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Formation 550 BCE
Abolition 11 February 1979
(Monarchy ended by Iranian Revolution)
Pretender(s) Reza Pahlavi II
(Pahlavi dynasty)

The following is a list of monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great in 550 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

Earlier monarchs in the area of modern-day Iran are listed in:

Minor dynasties and vassal monarchs can be found in:

Achaemenid Empire (559–334/327 BCE)[edit]

Extent of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire
Portrait Titles Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Achaemenid dynasty (559–334/327 BCE)
Olympic Park Cyrus-3.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World Cyrus the Great 600 BCE Son of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of Astyages 559–530 BCE 530 BCE King of Anshan from 559 BCE. Killed in battle with Massagetes
Cambyses II of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Cambyses II  ? Son of Cyrus the Great 530–522 BCE 521 BCE Died while en route to put down a rebellion.

Pharaonic titulary: Horus: Smatawy, Nswbty: Mesutire[1]

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Bardiya Gaumata (?)  ? Son of Cyrus the Great (possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya) 522 BCE 522 BCE Killed by Persian aristocrats
Darius In Parse.JPG The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius I 550 BCE Son of Hystaspes 522–486 BCE 486 BCE Pharaonic titulary: Horus: Menkhib
Nswbty: Stutre[2]
Xerxes Image.png The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Xerxes I 519 BCE Son of Darius I 485–465 BCE 465 BCE Most likely is the King Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther[3]
Artaxerxes I image.png The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes I Arses  ? Son of Xerxes I 465–424 BCE 424 BCE Believed by some to be the King Ahaseurus of the Book of Esther
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Xerxes II Artaxerxes  ? Son of Artaxerxes I 424 BCE 424 BCE Only recognised in Persia itself, killed by Sogdianus
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ? Sogdianus  ? Son of Artaxerxes I 424–423 BCE 423 BCE Only recognised in Persia and Elam, killed by Darius II
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius II Ochus  ? 424–404 BCE 404 BCE Son of Artaxerxes I
Artaxerxes II.png The Great King, King of Kings Artaxerxes II Arsaces 436 Son of Darius II 404–358 BCE 358 BCE
Artaxerxes III of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes III Ochus  ? Son of Artaxerxes II 358–338 BCE 338 BCE Killed
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes IV Arses  ? Son of Artaxerxes III 338–336 BCE 336 BCE Killed
Darius III of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius III Artashata 380 Son of Arsames son of Ostanes son of Darius II 336–330 BCE 330 BCE Killed by Artaxerxes V
The punishment of Bessus by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899).jpg The Great King, King of Kings Artaxerxes V Bessus  ? Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II 330–329 BCE 329 BCE Killed by Alexander III

Note: Ancient Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Achaemenid dynasty as a result of the Wars of Alexander the Great.

Macedonian Empire (336–306 BCE)[edit]

The Macedonian Empire at its greatest extent
Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Argead dynasty (336–306 BCE)
Alexander III of Macedon.jpg King Alexander the Great 356 BCE Son of Philip II of Macedonia 336–323 BCE 13 June 323 BCE King of Macedonia from 336 BCE as Alexander III
Coins of Philip III Arrhidaeus. 323-317 BC.jpg King Philip III of Macedon c. 359 BCE Son of Philip II of Macedonia June 323– 317 BCE 317 BCE Killed by Olympias
King Alexander IV of Macedon Sept. 323 BCE Son of Alexander III Sept. 323–309 BCE 309 BCE King of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater
Regent Perdiccas  ? June 323–321 BCE 321 BCE Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III, Prince of Orestis
Regent Antipater 398 BCE Son of Iollas 321–319 BCE 319 BCE Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III
Regent Polyperchon 394 BCE Son of Simmias 319–316 BCE 303 BCE Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III. Exercised no actual power in Persia.
Regent Cassander c. 350 Son of Antipater 316–309 BCE 297 BCE Regent for and murderer of Alexander IV. Exercised no actual power in Persia.

Seleucid Empire (311–129 BCE)[edit]

The Seleucid Empire at its greatest extent
Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Seleucid dynasty (311–129 BCE)
Seleuco I Nicatore.JPG King Seleucus I Nicator c. 358 BCE Son of Antiochus son of Seleucus 311–281 BCE 281 BCE Assumed title of "King" from 306 BCE.
AntiochusI.jpg King Antiochus I Soter  ? Son of Seleucus I 281–261 BCE 261 BCE Co-ruler from 291
AntiochusIIMET.jpg King Antiochus II Theos 286 BCE Son of Antiochus I 261–246 BCE 246 BCE
SeleucusII.jpg King Seleucus II Callinicus  ? Son of Antiochus II 246–225 BCE 225 BCE
SeleucusIII.jpg King Seleucus III Ceraunus Alexander c. 243 BCE Son of Seleucus II 225–223 BCE 223 BCE
Antiochos III.jpg Great King Antiochus III the Great c. 241 BCE Son of Seleucus II 223–187 BCE 187 BCE
SeleucusIV.JPG King Seleucus IV Philopator  ? Son of Antiochus III 187–175 BCE 175 BCE
Antiokhos IV.jpg King Antiochus IV Epiphanes Mithridates c. 215 BCE Son of Antiochus III 175–163 BCE 163 BCE Killed in Elymais
Antiochus v.jpg King Antiochus V Eupator c. 172 BCE Son of Antiochus IV 163–161 BCE 161 BCE
DemetriosISoter.JPG King Demetrius I Soter 185 BCE Son of Seleucus IV 161–150 BCE 150 BCE
AlexanderI.jpg King Alexander Balas  ? Purported son of Antiochus IV 150–146 BCE 146 BCE
DemetriusII.jpg King Demetrius II Nicator  ? Son of Demetrius I 146–139 BCE 139 BCE Defeated and captured by Parthians. He married Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
Antiochos VI.jpg King Antiochus VI Dionysus 148 BCE Son of Alexander III. 145–142 BCE 138 BCE In competition with Demetrius II.
Antiochus VII coin (Mary Harrsch).jpg King Antiochus VII Sidetes  ? Son of Demetrius I 139–129 BC 129 BC Killed in battle with Phraates II

Parthian Empire (247 BCE – CE 228)[edit]

The Parthian Empire at its greatest extent

The Seleucid dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid-2nd century BCE, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BCE.

For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – 228 AD)
Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia.jpg King, Karen, Autocrator Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces ? A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II 247–211 BCE 211 BCE
Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia.jpg ? Arsaces II Artabanus I or Arsaces ? Son of Arsaces I 211–185 BCE[4] 185 BCE
PhriapatiusCoinHistoryofIran.jpg ? Arsaces III Phriapatius ? Grandson of Tiridates I 185–170 BCE[4] 170 BCE
Phraates I.jpg ? Arsaces IV Phraates I ? Son of Phriapatius 170–167 BCE[5] 167 BCE
Mithradatesi.jpg The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene Arsaces V Mithridates I ? Son of Phriapatius 167[5] –132 BCE[6] 132 BCE
PhraatesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros Arsaces VI Phraates II ? Son of Mithridates I 132–127 BCE[6] 127 BCE Killed in battle with Scythians
Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia.jpg King Arsaces VII Artabanus II ? Son of Phriapatius 127–126 BCE[6] 126 BCE Killed in battle with Tocharians
The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes Arsaces VIII Vologases(?)[6] ? Son of Phriapatius 126–122 BCE[6] 122 BCE He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces IX Artabanus(?)[6] ? Son of Artabanus II 122–121 BCE 121 BCE Killed in battle with Medians
MithradatesII.jpg The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter Arsaces X Mithridates II ? Son of Artabanus II 121[7]–91 BCE 91 BCE
Coin of Gotarzes I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator Arsaces XI Gotarzes I ? Son of Mithridates II 91–87 BCE 87 BCE
The Great King, Theopator, Nicator Arsaces XII Artabanus(?)[5] ? Probably son of Arsaces VIII Vologases(?) 91–77? BCE 77? BCE
The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes Arsaces XIII Mithridates[6] ? Probably son of Mithridates II 88–67 BCE 67 BCE
Orodesi.jpg The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XIV Orodes I ? Probably son of Mithridates II 80–75 BCE 75 BCE
Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XV Sanatruces 157 BCE Probably son of Arsaces VIII Vologases(?)[5] 77–70 BCE 70 BCE
The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes Arsaces XVI[5] Arsaces(?) or Vardanes(?) or Vonones(?) ?  ? 77–66 BCE 66 BCE The most obscure major monarch of the first millennium BC. Nothing about him is currently known.
Coin of Phraates III of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XVII Phraates III ? Son of Sanatruces 70–57 BCE 57 BCE Killed by Orodes II
The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XVIII[5]  ? ? probably son of Arsaces XVI 66–63 BCE 63 BCE The second most obscure monarch of the first millennium BC, nothing about him is known.
The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene Arsaces XIX Mithridates III ? Son of Phraates III 65[5] –54 BCE 54 BCE Killed by Orodes II
Coin of Orodes II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes Arsaces XX Orodes II ? Son of Phraates III 57–38 BCE 38 BCE Killed by Phraates IV
Coin of Pacorus I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXI Pacorus I ? Son of Orodes II 50–38 BCE 38 BCE Killed in battle with Romans
PhraatesIVProfile.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXII Phraates IV ? Son of Orodes II 38–2 BCE 2 BCE Killed by Musa
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 30–25 BCE after 23 BCE Deposed and went to Rome
? Arsaces XXIV Mithridates[8] ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 12–9 BCE ?
Parthian Queen Bust.jpg Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania Musa Musa ? Queen of Phraates IV 2 BCE – 4 CE 4? CE
Coin of Phraates V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXV Phraates V ? Son of Phraates IV & Musa 2 BCE – 4 CE 4 CE Deposed and went to Rome
OrodesIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXVI Orodes III ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 4–6 6 Killed by Parthian aristocrats
Coin of Vonones I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus Arsaces XXVII Vonones I ? Son of Phraates IV 8–12 19 Deposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.
Coin of Artabanus II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus III ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 10–40 40
? Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III ? Probably a descendant of Tiridates II 35–36 ? Deposed and went to Rome
? Arsaces XXX Cinnamus ? Son of Artabanus III 37 ? Abdicated
Godarz.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II 11 Son of Artabanus III 40–51 51
VardanesICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I ? Son of Artabanus III 40–46 46 Killed by Gotarzes II
Vononesii.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II ? Probably son of Artabanus III c. 45–51 51
? Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates[9] ? Son of Vonones I 49–50 ? Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
VologasesI.JPG King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord Arsaces XXXV Vologases I ? Son of Vonones II 51–77 77
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II ? Son of Vologases I 55–58 ? Deposed
VologasesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II ? Probably the eldest son of Vologases I 77–89/90 ?
PacorusII.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II ? Probably the younger son of Vologases I 77–115 115
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV ? Probably son of Vologases I or Artabanus III 80–81 ?
Coin of Osroes I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XL Osroes I ? brother of Pacorus II 89/90–130 130
Coin of Vologases III of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLI Vologases III ? Probably son of Sanatruces I king of Armenia 89–109 who was brother of Osroes I 105–148 148 He was also king of Armenia as Vologases I
Coin of Parthamaspates of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLII Parthamaspates ? Son of Osroes I 116–117 after 123 Deposed and went to Rome
Coin of Mithridates IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLIII Mithridates IV ? Probably son of Osroes I c. 130 – c. 145 c. 145
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLIV[10]  ? ?  ? c. 140 – c. 140 c. 140
Coin of Vologases IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLV Vologases IV ? Son of Mithridates IV 148–191 191
Coin of Vologases V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLVI Vologases V ? Son of Vologases IV 191–208 208
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLVII Osroes II ? Probably son of Vologases IV c. 190 – c. 195 ?
Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI 181 Son of Vologases V 208–228 228 Killed by Ardashir I
Artabanusiv.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLIX Artabanus V ? Son of Vologases V 213–226 226 Killed by Ardashir I
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces L Tiridates IV[11] ? Son of Vologases IV 217–222 ? He was also king of Armenia

Sasanian Empire (224–651)[edit]

The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent
Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
House of Sasan
ArdashirIGoldCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah[12] Ardashir I 180 Son of Papak, who was son of Sasan 28 April 224 – February 242 February 242
ShapurICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Shapur I 215 Son of Ardashir I 12 April 240 – May 270 May 270
HormizdICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah[13] Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir  ? Son of Shapur I May 270 – June 271 June 271
BahramINoFireAltarCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Gilanshah Bahram I  ? Son of Shapur I June 271 – September 274 September 274
BahramIICroppedCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Bahram II  ? Son of Bahram I September 274 – 293 293
Bahram III.jpg Shahanshah, Sakanshah Bahram III  ? Son of Bahram II 293 293 Deposed
NarsehCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah Narseh I  ? Son of Shapur I 293–302 302
HormizdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Hormizd II  ? Son of Narseh I 302–309 309 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Shahanshah Adhur Narseh  ? Son of Hormizd II 309 309 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Shahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf[14] Shapur II 309 Son of Hormizd II 309–379 379
ArdashirIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Ardashir II  ? Son of Shapur II 379–383 383
ShapurIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Shapur III  ? Son of Shapur II 383 – December 388 December 388 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
BahramIVOtherCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Kirmanshah Bahram IV  ? Son of Shapur II December 388 – 399 399
YazdegerdICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Yazdegerd I 363 Son of Shapur III 399 – 21 January 420 21 January 420 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
BahramVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Bahram V 406 Son of Yazdegerd I 21 January 420 – 20 June 438 20 June 438
YazdegerdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Yazdegerd II  ? Son of Bahram V 20 June 438 – 15 December 457 15 December 457
Shahanshah Hormizd III 399 Son of Yazdegerd II 457–459 459 Killed by Peroz I
Perozi.jpg Shahanshah Peroz I 459 Son of Yazdegerd II 457 – January 484 January 484 Killed in battle with Hephthalites
Balash.jpg Shahanshah Balash  ? Son of Yazdegerd II February 484 – 488 488
Kavad i.jpg Shahanshah Kavadh I 449 Son of Peroz I 488–496 13 September 531 Deposed
Zamarzp.jpg Shahanshah Djamasp  ? Son of Peroz I 496–498 502 Deposed
Kavad i.jpg Shahanshah Kavadh I 449 Son of Peroz I 498 – 13 September 531 13 September 531
Anoushiravan.jpg Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just Khosrau I 500 Son of Kavadh I 13 September 531 – 31 January 579 31 January 579
HormizdIV.jpg Shahanshah Hormizd IV 540 Son of Khosrau I 31 January 579 – 5 September 590 5 September 590 Killed by Vistahm
Gold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpg Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II 570 Son of Hormizd IV September 590 – September 590 February 28, 628 Deposed and went to Byzantine territory
House of Mihran
BahramChobinCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Chubineh Bahram VI Mehrbandak  ? Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of Mihran September – 590 January 591 591 Assassinated under the order of Khosrau II
House of Sasan
Gold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpg Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II 570 Son of Hormizd IV January 591 – 25 February 628 February 28, 628 Executed by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II
House of Ispahbudhan
BistamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Vistahm  ? Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan. He was the uncle of Khosrau II and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VI 591 – 596 or 600 596 or 600 Killed by his wife Gorduya or by his general Pariowk
House of Sasan
KavadhIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Kavadh II Shiruyah ? Son of Khosrau II 25 February 628 – 15 September 628 15 September 628 Died from plague
Aradashiriii.jpg Shahanshah Ardashir III 621 Son of Kavadh II 15 September 628 – 27 April 629 27 April 629 Killed by Shahrbaraz
House of Mihran
ShahrbarazCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz Shahrbaraz ? Sasanian general from the House of Mihran 27 April 629 – 17 June 629 17 June 629 Killed by Farrokh Hormizd under the orders of Borandukht
House of Sasan
Khusrau iii.jpg Shahanshah Khosrau III ? Nephew of Khosrau II 630 630 Killed after a few days reign
Puran Dokht Imaginary Portrait.jpg Shahbanu[15] Borandukht 590 Daughter of Khosrau II 17 June 629 – 16 June 630 (First reign)

631 – 632 (Second reign)

632 Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz

Restored to the Sasanian throne, and later strangled to death by Piruz Khosrow

Shahanshah Shapur-i Shahrvaraz ? Son of Shahrbaraz and an unknown sister of Khosrau II 630 ? Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht
Shahanshah Peroz II Gushnasp-Bandeh ? Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I. 630 630 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Azarmedukht.jpg Shahbanu Azarmidokht ? Daughter of Khosrau II 630–631 631 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
KhosrauIVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Khosrau IV Khurrazadh ? Son of Khosrau II 631 631 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
House of Ispahbudhan
FarrokhHormizdVCoin.jpg Shahanshah Farrokh Hormizd ? Son of Sasanian general Vinduyih, the brother of Vistahm 630–631 631 Killed by Siyavakhsh under the orders of Azarmidokht
House of Sasan
HormizdVICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Hormizd VI  ? Grandson of Khosrau II 630–631 631 Killed by Iranian aristocrats
YazdegerdIIICoinCroppedHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Yazdegerd III 624 Son of Shahryar the son of Khosrau II 16 June 632–651 651 Killed by a miller

Note: Classical Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Sasanian Empire as a result of the Muslim conquest of Persia.

Dabuyid Kingdom (642–760)[edit]

Dabuyids (c. 720)

A Zoroastrian Persian dynasty that held power in the north for over a century before finally falling to the Umayyad Caliphate.

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Dabuyid dynasty (642–760)
GilGavbaraHistoryofIran.jpg Ispahbadh Gil Gavbara  ? Son of Piruz 642–660 660
Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Dabuya  ? Son of Gil Gavbara 660–676 676
Ispahbod FarXan's coin-3.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Farrukhan I the Great  ? Son of Dabuya 712–728 728
Dād-būrzmihr.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Dadhburzmihr  ? Son of Farrukhan the Great 728–740/741 740/741
Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Farrukhan II the Little  ? Son of Farrukhan the Great 740/741–747/48 747/48 Regent for Khurshid of Tabaristan
Ispahbod Xurshid's coin-1.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Khurshid of Tabaristan 734 Son of Dadhburzmihr 740/741–760 761 Committed suicide

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)[edit]

The Rashidun Empire reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthman, in 654

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Name Kunya Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Rashidun Caliphs Umar ibn Al-Khattāb - عُمر بن الخطّاب ثاني الخلفاء الراشدين.svg Al-Faruq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Umar ibn Al-Khattab Abu Hafs 583 Son of Khattab ibn Nufayl. 642–644 644 Umar became Caliph in 634 and his forces conquered Persia in 642. Killed by Piruz Nahavandi
Uthman.png Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Uthman ibn Affan Abu Amr 579 Son of Affan, of the Umayyad clan. 644–656 656 Killed by Kharijites
Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - علي بن أبي طالب.svg Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib Abul-Hasan 598 Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad. 656–661 661 Killed by Kharijites

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)[edit]

Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 750)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Name Kunya Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah I Abu Abdullah ? Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, cousin of Uthman ibn Affan and distant cousin of Muhammad 661–680 680
Yazid ibn Muawiya.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid I Abu Khalid ? Son of Muawiyah I 680–683 683
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah II Abu Abd ur-Rahman ? Son of Yazid I 683–684  ? Abdicated (?)
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Marwan I Abu Abd al-Malik ? Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I 684–685 685 Killed by his wife
First Umayyad gold dinar, Caliph Abd al-Malik, 695 CE.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Abd al-Malik Abu'l-Walid ? Son of Marwan I 685–705 705
درهم ولید ابن عبدالملک از ایالت سجستان (سیستان.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Walid I Abu'l-Abbas ? Son of Abd al-Malik 705–715 715
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Sulayman Abu Ayyub ? Son of Abd al-Malik 715–717 717
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Umar II Abu Hafṣ ? Son of Abd al-Aziz son of Marwan I 717–720 720
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid II Abu Khalid ? Son of Abd al-Malik 720–724 724
Siria (damasco), califfo hisham, dirhem omayyade, 724-743.JPG Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Hisham Abu'l-Walid ? Son of Abd al-Malik 724–743 743
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Walid II Abu'l-Abbas ? Son of Yazid II 743–744 744
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid III Abu Khalid ? Son of Al-Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III 744–744 744 Killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Ibrahim Abu Ishaq ? Son of Al-Walid I 744–744 744 Killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Marwan II Abu Abd al-Malik ? Son of Muhammad son of Marwan I 744–750 750 Ruled from Harran in the Jazira. Killed by Saffah

Abbasid Caliphate (750–946)[edit]

Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 850)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Balami - Tarikhnama - Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah is proclaimed the first 'Abbasid Caliph (cropped).jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin As-Saffah Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah 721 Son of Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdallah who was Muhammad's paternal uncle 750–754 754
Abbasid Dinar - Al Mansur - 140 AH (758 AD).JPG Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far Abdullah 714 Brother of As-Saffah 754–775 775
Abbasid al-Mahdi dirham Kirman 166AH.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mahdi Abu Abdullah Muhammad 744/745 Son of Al-Mansur 775–785 785
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Hadi Abu Mohammad Musa 764 Son of Al-Mahdi 785–786 786
Harun Al-Rashid and the World of the Thousand and One Nights.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Ar-Rashid Abu Ja'far Harun 763/766 Son of Al-Mahdi 786–809 809
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Amin Abu Abdullah Muhammad 787 Son of Harun al-Rashid 809–813 813 Killed by Al-Ma'mun
John the Grammarian as ambassador before Theophilos and Mamun.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Ma'mun Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah 786 Son of Harun al-Rashid 813–833 833
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tasim Abu Ishaq Muhammad 795 Son of Harun al-Rashid 833–842 842
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun 816 Son of Al-Mu'tasim 842–847 847
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mutawakkil Abu'l-Fazl Ja'far 821 Son of Al-Mu'tasim 847–861 861 Killed by Al-Muntasir
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad 837 Son of Al-Mutawakkil 861–862 862
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Musta'in Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad 836 Son of Muhammad son of Al-Mu'tasim 862–866 866 Deposed and later killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tazz Abu Abdullah Zubayr 847 Son of Al-Mutawakkil 866–869 869 Deposed and later killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muhtadi Abu Ishaq Muhammad  ? Son of Al-Wathiq 869–870 870
Dinar of al-Mu'tamid, AH 271.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tamid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad 844 Son of Al-Mutawakkil 870–892 892
Dinar of al-Mu'tadid, AH 285.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad 854/861 Son of Talha al-Muwaffaq son of Al-Mutawakkil 892–902 902
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muktafi Abu Mohammad Ali 877/878 Son of Al-Mu'tadid 902–908 908
Dinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muqtadir Abul-Fazl Ja'far 895 Son of Al-Mu'tadid 908–929

and

929–932

929 Briefly deposed.
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 899 Son of Al-Mu'tadid 929

and

932–934

929 Forced to resign the throne in the face of public protest, later deposed and blinded.
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Abu'l-Abbas Ar-Radi Muhammad 907 Son of Al-Muqtadir 934–940 940 De facto power in the hands of Ibn Ra'iq 936-938
Dirham of al-Muttaqi.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim 908 Son of Al-Muqtadir 940–944 944 De facto power in the hands of Bajkam 940-941, Ibn Ra'iq 941-942, Nasir al-Dawla 942-943 & Tuzun 943-944, who deposed and blinded him.
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mustakfi Abu'l-Qasim Abdullah 905 Son of Al-Muktafi 944–946 946 De facto power in the hands of Tuzun 944-945 & Abu Jafar 945-946. Deposed and blinded by Mu'izz al-Dawla

Samanid Kingdom (819–999)[edit]

Samanid Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Samanid dynasty (819–1005)
Ahmad I ? ? 819–864/865 864/5
Nasr I ? ? 864/865–892 892
Adel Isma'il I ? ? 892–907 907
Shaheed Ahmad II ? ? 907–914 914
Nasr II Samarqand coin 921 922.jpg Saeed Nasr II ? ? 914–942 943
Hamid Nuh I ? ? 942–954 954
Rashid 'Abd al-Malik I ? ? 954–961 961
Mo'ayyed Mansur I ? ? 961–976 976
Radhi Nuh II ? ? 976–996 997
Abol Hareth Mansur II ? ? 996–999 999
Abol Favares 'Abd al-Malik II ? ? 999 999
Montaser Isma'il II ? ? 1000–1005 1005

Saffarid Kingdom (861–1003)[edit]

Saffarid Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Name Kunya Birth Family relations Reign Death Note
Saffarid Dynasty (861–1003)
Emir Ya'qub as-Saffar 840 Son of al-Layth 861–879 879 Died of sickness
Emir Amr  ? Son of al-Layth 879–901 902 Captured by the Samanids, later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad
Emir Tahir Abu'l-Hasan  ? Son of Muhammad, son of Amr 901–908 ? Imprisoned in Baghdad
Emir Al-Layth  ? Son of Ali, son of al-Layth 909–910 928 Dies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad in 928
Emir Muhammad  ? Son of Ali, son of al-Layth 910–911 ? Imprisoned in Baghdad
Emir Amr Abu Hafs 902 Son of Ya'qub 912–913 ? Overthrown by the Samanids
AhmadIbnMuhammadSaffaridCoin.jpg Emir Ahmad Abu Ja'far June 21, 906 Son of Muhammad, son of Amr 923–963 March 31, 963 Killed by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman
KhalafibnAhmadCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Khalaf Abu Ahmad November 937 Son of Ahmad ibn Muhammad 963–1003 March 1009 Overthrown by the Ghaznavids in 1003, dies as exile in 1009

Ghurid Kingdom (879–1215)[edit]

Map of the Ghurid dynasty at its greatest extent by the year 1202

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Note
Ghurid dynasty (879–1215)
Malik Amir Suri ? Father of Muhammad ibn Suri[16] ?–? ? was the first Malik of the Ghurid dynasty
MuhammadibnSuriPaintingHistoryofIran.jpg Malik Muhammad ibn Suri ? Son of Amir Suri ?–1011 1011 Poisoned himself
Malik Abu Ali ibn Muhammad ? Son of Muhammad ibn Suri 1011–1035 1035 Overthrown and killed by his nephew Abbas ibn Shith
Malik Abbas ibn Shith ? 1035–1060 1060 Deposed and killed by the Ghaznavids, replaced by his son Muhammad ibn Abbas
Malik Muhammad ibn Abbas ? Son of Abbas ibn Shith 1060–1080 1080
Malik Qutb al-din Hasan ? Son of Muhammad ibn Abbas 1080–1100 1100
Malik Izz al-Din Husayn ? Son of Qutb al-din Hasan 1100–1146 1146
Malik Sayf al-Din Suri ? Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1146–1149 1149
Malik Baha al-Din Sam I ? Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1149 1149
Malik Ala al-Din Husayn ? Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1149–1161 1161
Malik Sayf al-Din Muhammad ? Son of Ala al-Din Husayn 1161–1163 1163
Ghyasudeen-Ghuri.jpg Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1139 Son of Baha al-Din Sam I 1163–1202 1202
Shahabuddin Suri.jpg Sultan Mu'izz al-Din 1149 Son of Baha al-Din Sam I 1173–1206 1206
Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud ? Son of Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1206–1212 1212
Sultan Baha al-Din Sam III ? Son of Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud 1212–1213 1213
Sultan Ala al-Din Atsiz 1159 Son of Ala al-Din Husayn 1213–1214 1214
Sultan Ala al-Din Ali ? Son of Shuja al-Din Muhammad 1214–1215 1215

Buyid Kingdom (934–1062)[edit]

Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent

The Buyid Kingdom was divided into a number of separate emirates, of which the most important were Fars, Ray, and Iraq. Generally, one of the emirs held a sort of primus inter pares supremacy over the rest, which would be marked by titles like Amir al-umara and Shahanshah.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Note
Buyids of Fars (933–1062)
Emir, Amir al-umara Imad al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali 891 Son of Buya 934–949 949 Also Senior Buyid Emir (934-949)
Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw 936 Son of Rukn al-Dawla and nephew of Imad al-Dawla 949–983 983 Senior Buyid Emir (976-983) and Emir of Iraq (978-983)
Emir, Amir al-umara Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil 962 Son of Adud al-Dawla 983–989 989 Also Senior Buyid Emir and Emir of Iraq (987-989)
Emir, King Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzuban 964 son of Adud al-Dawla 989–998 998 Also Emir of Iraq and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986)
Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, King, Shahanshah Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz 971 Son of Adud al-Dawla 998–1012 1012 Also Emir of Iraq (988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012)
Emir Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja 992 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1012–1024 1024 Also Emir of Iraq and Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021)
AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Abu Kalijar Marzuban 1011 Son of Sultan al-Dawla 1024–1048 1048 Also Emir of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048) and Emir of Iraq (1044-1048)
Emir Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun  ? Son of Abu Kalijar 1048–1054 1062 Lost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Emir Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah  ? Son of Abu Kalijar 1051–1054  ? Lost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Emir Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun  ? Son of Abu Kalijar 1054–1062 1062 Killed by the Shabankara tribal chief Fadluya
Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan (935–1038)
Ruknal-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Amir al-umara Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali Hasan 898 Son of Buya 935–976 976 Also Senior Buyid Emir (949-976)
Emir Fakhr al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali 952 Son of Rukn al-Dawla 976–980

and

983–997

980 Also Emir of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)
Muayyadal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Abu Mansur 941 Son of Rukn al-Dawla 976–983 983 Also Emir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)
AbuTalebRostamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Majd al-Dawla Abu Taleb Rostam 993 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla 997–1029 1029 Only in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Shamsal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Shams al-Dawla Abu Taher  ? Son of Fakhr al-Dawla 997–1021 1021 Only in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir Sama' al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali  ? Son of Shams al-Dawla 1021–1023 1023 Only in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids
Buyids of Iraq and Khuzistan (945–1055)
Emir, Amir al-umara Mu'izz al-Dawla Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad 915 Son of Buya 945–966 966
Emir, Amir al-umara Izz al-Dawla Abu Mansur Bakhtiyar 943 Son of Mu'izz al-Dawla 966–979 979 Self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (976-978)
Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw 937 Son of Rukn al-Dawla 977–983 983 Also Emir of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir (976-983)
Emir, King Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzban 964 Son of Adud al-Dawla 983–987 998 Also self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986) and Emir of Fars & Kerman (989-998)
Emir, Amir al-umara Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil 962 Son of Adud al-Dawla 987–989 989 Also Emir of Fars (983-989) and Senior Buyid Emir (987-989)
Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz 970 Son of Adud al-Dawla 989–1012 1012 Also Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012) and Emir of Fars (999-1012)
Emir Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja 992 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1012–1021 1024 Also Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021) and Emir of Fars (1012-1024)
Emir, Shahanshah, King Musharrif al-Dawla Abu 'Ali 1002 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1021–1025 1025 Closest thing to Senior Buyid Emir (1024-1025)
Emir Jalal al-Dawla Abu Tahir Jalal al-Dawla 994 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1027–1043 1043
AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Abu Kalijar Marzuban 1011 Son of Sultan al-Dawla 1043–1048 1048 Also Emir of Fars (1024-1048), Emir of Kerman (1028-1048) and Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048)
Emir Al-Malik al-Rahim Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz  ? Son of Abu Kalijar 1048–1055 1058 Also Senior Buyid Emir (1051-1055). Deposed by Tughril of the Seljuqs

Ziyarid Kingdom (928–1043)[edit]

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043)
Abolhajjaj, Emir Mardavij ? son of Ziyar 928–934 934
Abutaher Voshmgir ? son of Ziyar 934–967 967
Zahir od-Dowleh Bisotoon ? son of Voshmgir 967–976 976
Shams ol-Ma'ali, Abolhasan Qabus ? son of Voshmgir 976–1012 1012
Falak ol-Ma'ali Manuchehr ? son of Qabus 1012–1031 1031
Sharaf ol-Ma'ali Anushiravan ? son of Manuchehr 1031–1043 1043
Onsor ol-Ma'ali Keikavus ? son of Eskandar son of Qabus ? ?
Gilanshah ? son of Keykavous ? ?

Seljuk Empire (1029–1194)[edit]

A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Seljuqs (1029–1191)
Beg, Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Toğrül I Abu Talib Mohammad 995 Son of Mikha'il son of Seljuq 1029–1063 1063
AlpArslan.PNG Sultan ʿAdud ad-Dawla Alp Arslan Abu Shujaʿ Mohammad 1039 Son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I 1063–1072 1072
Büyük Selçuklu Sultanı Melikşah.jpg Sultan Jalal ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Malik Shah I Abu'l-Fath Hasan 1055 Son of Alp Arslan 1072–1092 1092 Killed by Assassins
Sultan Nasir ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud I 1086 Son of Malik Shah I 1092–1094 1094
Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu'l-Muzaffar Barkiyaruq 1080 Son of Malik Shah I 1094–1105 1105
Sultan Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad I Tapar 1082 Son of Malik Shah I 1105–1118 1118
Sultan Muglith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Mahmud II 1104 Son of Muhammad I 1118–1131 1131 Dominated by his uncle Sanjar and killed in a rebellion against him.
Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Talib Toghrul II 1109 Son of Muhammad I 1132–1134 1134 Ruled only in Iraq, dominated by his uncle Ahmed Sanjar
Sultan As-Salatin Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa'd-Dīn Abu'l-Harith Ahmed Sanjar 1087 Son of Malik Shah I 1097–1157 1157 Ruled in Khorasan, dominating a series of nephews in Iraq.
Sultan Ghiyath ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Fath Mas'ud 1109 Son of Muhammad I 1134–1152 1152 Ruled over the western portion of the empire. Preoccupations in the east meant Sanjar was unable to dominate him.
Sultan Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Malik Shah II 1128 Son of Mahmud II 1152–1153

and

1160

1153 Deposed by Khass Bey

Regained throne but then deposed by the people of Isfahan after 16 days.

Sultan Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad II 1128 Son of Mahmud II 1153–1160 1160 Rule contested with his uncle Sulayman Shah (1153-1155)
Sultan Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah 1118 Son of Muhammad I 1153–1155

and

1160–1161

1162 Rule contested with his nephew Muhammad II

Deposed by Inanj, Lord of Reyy and the court officials

Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Arslan 1134 Son of Toghrul II 1161–1176 1176 De facto power in the hands of Ildeniz (1160-1174) and his son Pahlavan (1174-1176)
Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Talib Toghrul III  ? Son of Arslan 1176–1194 1194 De facto power in the hands of Pahlavan (1176-1186) and Qizil Arslan (1186-1188). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.

Killed by Khwarazm Shah Tekish

Sultan Sanjar II  ? Son of Sulayman Shah 1189–1191 1191 De facto power in the hands of Qizil Arslan (1189-1191). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.
Eldiguzids (1191)
Sultan Qizil Arslan  ? Son of Ildeniz 1191 1191 Held de facto power (1186-1188). Deposed Qizil Arslan in 1191, declared himself Sultan and died an hour before his coronation.

Khwarezmian Empire (1153–1220)[edit]

Khwarazmian Empire at its greatest extent

An empire built from Khwarezm, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family Relations Reign Death Note
Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1220)
Sultan Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Atsiz 1097/1105 son of Muhammad I of Khwarazm 1153–1156 1156 Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127
Sultan Taj ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Il-Arslan  ? son of Atsiz 1156–1172 1172
Sultan Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Tekish  ? son of Il-Arslan 1172–1200 1200 With opposition from Sultan shah
Mort de Muhammad Hwârazmshâh.jpeg Shah Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Muhammad Sanjar  ? son of Tekish 1200–1220 1220 Eliminated by the Mongols
Памятник Джелал ад-Дину Манкбурны.JPG Jalal od-Din, Sultan Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Mingburnu  ? son of Muhammad 1220–1231 1231 Reign largely guerilla warfare against the Mongol conquerors

Mongol Empire (1220–1256)[edit]

Mongol Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes
Great Khans (1220–1251/1256)
YuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpg Khan Genghis Temujin 1162 Son of Yesugei Baghatur 1220–1227 1227 Ruling in Mongolia from 1206
Tolui Khan.jpg Khan Tolui 1192 Son of Genghis 25 August 1227 – 13 September 1229 13 September 1229 Regent
YuanEmperorAlbumOgedeiPortrait.jpg Khan Ögedei c. 1186 Son of Genghis 13 September 1229 – 11 December 1241 1232
Töregene Khatun coin.png Khatun Töregene  ? Wife of Ögedei 1242 – March 1246 ? Regent
Güyük à la fête.jpeg Khan Güyük c. 1206 Son of Ögedei and Töregene 1246–1248 1248
Khatun Oghul Qaimish  ? Wife of Güyük 1248–1251 1251 Regent
Khan Möngke 10 January 1209 Son of Tolui 1 July 1251 – 11 August 1259 11 August 1259

Ilkhanate and successor kingdoms (1256–1501)[edit]

Ilkhanate at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Ilkhanate (1256–1357)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Ilkhanate (1256–1357)
Hulagu Hulagu Khan.jpg Khan, Ilkhan c. 1217 – 8 February 1265 1256 8 February 1265 Son of Tolui
Abaqa Abaqa Khan.jpg Khan, Ilkhan 1234–1282 1265 1 April 1282 Son of Hulagu
Ahmad Nicholas Tekuder Tegüder recevant une ambassade.jpeg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1284 1282 1284 Son of Hulagu Killed by Arghun
Arghun AbaqaOnHorseArghunStandingGhazanAsAChild.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan c. 1258 – 7 March 1291 1284 7 March 1291 Son of Abaqa
Gaykhatu Geikhatu interrogeant Shingtûr Nuyân.jpeg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1295 1291 1295 Son of Abaqa Killed by general Taghachar
Baydu Baydu coin with Khagan's name.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1295 1295 1295 Son of Taraqai son of Hulagu Executed by Ghazan
Mahmud Ghazan Ghazan with wife at his court.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan 5 November 1271– 11 May 1304 1295 1304 Son of Arghun
Muhammad Khodabandeh Öljaitü Majma' al-Tavarikh 001.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, 1280 – 16 December 1316 1304 16 December 1316 Son of Arghun
Abu Sa'id Ala' ad-Din Bahadur Ilhanli Ebu said enguriye 720.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan 2 June 1305 – 1 December 1335 1316 1 December 1335 Son of Öljaitü
Arpa Ke'un Mu'izz ad-Din Mahmud Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1336 1335 10 April 1336 Son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malik-Temur son of Ariq Böke son of Tolui Killed in battle by Ali Padshah
Nasir ad-Din Musa Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1337 12 April 1336 1337 Son of Ali son of Baydu Puppet of Ali Padshah, fled after being defeated by the Jalayirid Hasan Buzurg
Togha Temür Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1353 1335 1353 Son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur In opposition to Jalayirid and Chupanid candidates, killed by the Sarbadar Yahya Karawi
Muzaffar ad-Din Muhammad Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,  ?–1338 1336 1338 Son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, executed by the Chupanid Hasan Kucek
Sati beg Khatun c. 1300 – after 1345 1338 1339 Daughter of Öljaitü Puppet of Hasan Kucek, who deposed her.
Izz ad-Din Jahan Temür Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,  ?–? 1339 1340 Son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, who deposed him for Togha Temür.
Suleiman Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? May 1339 1345 Husband of Sati beg and son of Yusef Shah son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu Puppet of Hasan Kucek, fled to Diyarbakr in the disorder after his death.
Anushirwan Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? 1344 1356  ? Puppet of the Chupanid Malek Ashraf
Luqman Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? 1353 1388 Son of Togha Temür Puppet of Timur
Ghazan II Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? 1356 1357  ? Puppet of Malek Ashraf

Sarbadars (1332–1386)[edit]

Sarbadars in 1345
Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Sarbadars (1332 - 1386)
Abd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah Amir  ??-1338 1337 1338 Revolted against Togha Temür, stabbed to death by his brother
Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah Amir  ??-1344 1338 1344 brother of Abd al-Razzaq Captured by the Paduspanids and executed.
Muhammad Aytimur (1343–1346) Amir  ??-1346 1344 1346 Unrelated to predecessors Overthrown and executed
Kulu Isfendiyar Amir  ??-c. 1347 1346 c. 1347 Unrelated to predecessors
Shams al-Din ibn Fazl Allah Amir  ??-?? c. 1347 1347 brother of Abd al-Razzaq Forced to abdicate by successor
Khwaja Shams al-Din 'Ali Amir  ??-1351/1352 1347 1351/1352 Unrelated to predecessors Assassinated by a disgruntled official
Yahya Karawi Amir  ??-1355/1356 1351/1352 1355/1356 Unrelated to predecessors Eliminated Togha Temür, assassinated.
Zahir al-Din Karawi Amir  ??-1355/1356 1355/1356 1355/1356 Nephew of Yahya Karawi Deposed by vizier
Haidar Qassab Amir  ??-1356 1355/1356 1356 Unrelated to predecessors Assassinated by a Turkish slave
Lutf Allah Amir  ??-1357/1358 or 1361 1356 1357/1358 or 1361 Son of Wajih ad-Din Masud Deposed and executed by his vizier
Hasan al-Damghani Amir  ??-1361/1362 1357/1358 or 1361 1361/1362 Unrelated to predecessors Overthrown by Dervish rebels
Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud Amir  ??-?? 1361/1362 1376/1377 Unrelated to predecessors
Rukn ad-Din Amir 1376/1377 1376/1377 Unrelated to predecessors Installed by Dervish rebels.
Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud Amir  ??-?? 1376/1377 1381 Unrelated to predecessors Restored, became vassal of Tamerlane in 1381

Chupanids (1335–1357)[edit]

Chupanids at its greatest extent
Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Chupanids (1335–1357)
Hassan Kuchak Amir c. 1319–December 15, 1343 July 16, 1338 December 15, 1343 Son of Timurtash son of Chupan Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Sati Beg and Suleiman Khan.
Yagi Basti Amir  ?-1344 1343 1344 Son of Chupan Assassinated by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.
Surgan Amir c. 1320-? 1343 1345 Son of Chupan and Sati Beg Driven out by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.
Malek Ashraf Amir  ?-1357 1343 1357 Brother of Hassan Kuchak Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Anushirwan. Hung by Jani Beg of the Golden Horde.
Temürtas Amir  ?-1360 1360 1360 Son of Malek Ashraf Short-lived puppet of the Golden Horde.

Jalayirids (1335–1432)[edit]

Jalayirids at its greatest extent
Throne name Original name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Jalayirids (1335–1432)
Taj-ud-Din Hasan Buzurg Ulus Beg  ?-1356 1336 1356 Son-in-law of Chupan Ruled through Ilkhanate puppets Muhammad Khan and Jahan Temür.
Mu'izz-ud-dunya wa'd-Din Shaikh Uvais Bahadur Khan c. 1337-1374 1356 1374 Son of Hasan Buzurg
Hasan Shaikh  ?-1374 1374 1374 Son of Shaikh Uvais Killed by the Amirs
Jalal-ud-Din Husain I (1374–1382) Shaikh  ?-1382 1374 1382 Son of Shaikh Uvais Executed by his rebellious brother Ahmed
Bayazid Shaikh  ?-? 1382 1384 Son of Shaikh Uvais In opposition to Husain and Ahmed
Ghiyath ud-Din Ahmad Sultan  ?-1410 1383 1410 Son of Shaikh Uvais In exile 1393-4, 1400-2, 1403-5. Killed in battle by Qara Yusuf
Ala ud-Dunya Shah Walad Sultan  ?-1411 1410 1411 Son of Ali, son of Uvais
Mahmud Sultan  ?-1425 1411 1411 Son of Shah Walad Under regency of Tandu Khatun
Uvais Sultan  ?-1421 1415 1421 Son of Shah Walad
Muhammad Sultan  ?-1421 1421 1421 Son of Shah Walad
Mahmud Sultan  ?-1425 1421 1425 Son of Shah Walad Second reign
Hussain  ?-1432 1425 1432 Son of Ala-ud-Dawlah, son of Ahmed Defeated by Kara Koyunlu

Injuids (1335–1357)[edit]

Injuids at its greatest extent
name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Injuids (1335–1357)
Sharaf ad-Din Mahmud Shah  ?-1325 1304 1335 Highly autonomous master of the Ilkhanate royal estates (the injü), removed by Abu Sa'id, executed by Arpa Ke'un.
Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Khusrau Amir  ?-1338/9 1335 1338/9 Son of Mahmud Shah
Jalal ad-Din Mas'ud Shah Amir  ?-1342 1338 1342 Son of Mahmud Shah In opposition to Kai-Khusrau. Jalayirid partisan. Assassinated by Chupanids.
Shams ad-Din Muhammad Amir  ?-1339/40 1339/40 1339/40 Son of Mahmud Shah In opposition to Mas'ud Shah. Murdered by his Chupanid supporter.
Shaikh Abu Ishaq Amir  ?-? 1343 1357 Son of Mahmud Shah Defeated & executed by the Muzaffarids

Muzaffarids (1314–1393)[edit]

Muzaffarids at its greatest extent
name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Muzaffarids (1335–1357)
Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar Emir 1301-1368 1314 1358 Founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty
Shah Shuja Emir  ?-1384 1358 1384
Zain al-Abidin Emir  ?-1387 1384 1387
Shah Yahya Emir  ?-1391 1387 1391 Only ruled in Shiraz
Shah Mansur Emir  ?-1393 1391 1393

Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)[edit]

Kara Koyunlu at its greatest extent
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Kara Koyunlu (1375-1468)
Qara Muhammad Qara Muhammad Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja Bey  ?–1388 1378 1388 First Bey of Kara Koynulu
Qara Yusuf Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad Bey  ?–1420 1388 1420 Reign ended by Timurid invasion
Qara Iskander Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf Bey  ?-1436 1420 1436 killed
Jahan Shah Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf Bey 1397-11 November 1467 1438 11 November 1467 Son of Qara Yusuf Killed by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu
Hasan Ali Hasan Ali ibn Jahan Shah Bey  ?-1468 11 November 1467 1468 Son of Jahan Shah Killed by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu

Ak Koyunlu (1378–1497)[edit]

Aq Qoyunlu empire at the year of Uzun Hasan's death, 1478
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Ak Koyunlu[17][18] (1378-1497)
Qara Osman Qara Yuluk (Nickname) Bey  ?–1435 1378 1435 For aiding Timur, he was given Diyarbakir in 1402
Ali Nur al-Din Ali ibn Qara Yülük Bey  ?-1438 1435 1438 Son of Qara Osman
Hamza Bey  ?–1444 1403 1435
Jahangir M‘uizz al-Din Jahangir ibn Ali ibn Qara Yülük Bey  ?-1453 1444 1453 Son of Qara Osman
Uzun Hassan Uzun Hassan ibn Jahangir HasanAgha.jpg Bey  ?-1478 1453 January 6, 1478 Son of Jahangir
Khalil Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan Bey  ?-1479 1478 1479 Son of Uzun Hasan
Yaqub Yaqub ibn Uzun Hasan Bey  ?-1490 1479 1490 Son of Uzun Hasan
Baysongur Baysongur ibn Yaqub Bey  ?-1491 1490 1491 Son of Yaqub
Rostam Rostam ibn Maqsud Bey  ?-1496 1491 1497 Son of Maqsud
Ahmad Govde Ahmad Govde ibn Muhammad Bey  ?-1497 1497 1497 Son of Muhammad

Timurid Empire (1370–1507)[edit]

Locator map of the Timurid Empire, c. 1400
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Reign began Reign ended Family Relations Note
Timurid Empire (1370–1449)
Timur Tarmashirin Khan Barlas Timur reconstruction01.jpg Emir, Beg, Khan, Mirza, Gurkani 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405 1370 18 February 1405 Son of Muhammad Taraghai
Pir Muhammad Pir Muhammad Khan bin Jahangir Emir, Khan c. 1374 – 22 February 1407 18 February 1405 22 February 1407 Grandson of Timur
Khalil Sultan Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shah Xalil-Sulton.jpg Emir, Sultan, Shah c. 1384 – 4 November 1411 18 February 1405 13 May 1409 Grandson of Timur
Shahrukh Mirza Shahrukh Mirza Shahruch reconstruction.jpg Mirza 30 August 1377 – 12 March 1447 18 February 1405 12 March 1447 Son of Timur
Ulugh Beg Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay Mirza, Sultan 22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449 12 March 1447 27 October 1449 Son of Shahrukh Mirza Deposed and murdered by his successor
Rulers in Transoxiana (1449-1469):
Abdal-Latif Padarkush Mirza, Sultan c. 1429 - 9 May 1450 27 October 1449 9 May 1450 Son of Ulugh Beg Murdered by Amirs
'Abdullah Mirza c. 1410 - June 1451 9 May 1450 June 1451 Grandson of Shah Rukh Deposed and executed by his successor
Abu Sa'id Sultan Abu Said Mirza.jpg Mirza 1424 - 1469 June 1451 17 February 1469 Nephew of Ulugh Beg and great-grandson of Timur Conquered Khurasan in 1459, realm disintegrates at his death.
Rulers in Khurasan (1449-1459, 1459-1507):
Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza  ?-1457 1449 1457 Grandson of Shah Rukh
Shah Mahmud Mirza c. 1446 - 1460s 1457 1457 Son of Babur Expelled by successor
Ibrahim Mirza  ? - March 1459 1457 March 1459 Nephew of Babur Died at Battle of Sarakhs
Interregnum (1459-1469)
Husayn Bayqarah Behhzad 001.jpg Mirza, Sultan June/July 1438 - 4 May 1506 24 March 1469 4 May 1506 Great-grandson of Timur
Badi' al-Zaman Mirza  ? - 1517 4 May 1506 1507 Son of Husayn Driven out by Uzbeks
Uzbeks (1507-1510)
Shaybani Khan Abul Fath Muhammad Shaybani.jpg Khan c. 1451 - 2 December 1510 1507 2 December 1510 Died at the Battle of Marv

Safavid Empire (1501–1736)[edit]

The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)
Ismail I Shah Ismail I.jpg Shah, Sultan, Kagan-i Suleyman shan, Turk-Tajdar 1487–1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524 son of Sultan Heidar
Tahmasp I Tahmasb-1.jpg Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin, Kagan-i Suleyman shan 1514–1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576 son of Ismail I
Ismail II Shah Ismayil II.jpg Shah 1537–1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577 son of Tahmasp I Poisoned (?)
Mohammad I Mohammen xudabende Sefevid.jpg Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan 1532–1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587 son of Tahmasp I Deposed
Abbas I ShahAbbasPortraitFromItalianPainter.jpg Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571–1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629 son of Mohammad I
Safi Sam Mirza Shah Safi.png Shah, Mirza 1611–1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642 son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza son of Abbas I
Abbas II Abbas II of Persia.jpg Shah 1632–1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666 son of Safi
Suleiman I Safi Mirza Suleiman I of Persia.jpg Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645–1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694 son of Abbas II
Sultan Husayn Sultan Husayn of Persia.jpg Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668–1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1722 son of Suleiman I Deposed & then killed by Ashraf Hotak
Afghan Rebellion
Mahmud Hotak SHAH-MAHMUD-HOTAK.jpg Shah 1697?–1725 23 October 1722 22 April 1725 son-in-law of Sultan Husayn son of Mirwais Khan Hotak Recognised as Shah of Persia after the Siege of Isfahan
Ashraf Hotak Ashraf Shah Hotaki 1725-1729.jpg Shah  ?–1730 22 April 1725 5 October 1729 cousin of Mahmud Hotak Ruled in opposition to Tahmasp II and lost control of Persia after the Battle of Damghan
Safavid restoration
Tahmasp II Persia, scià thamasp II, decuplo afshari d'oro, 1722-1732.JPG Shah 1704–1740 11 September 1722 16 April 1732 son of Sultan Husayn Ruled in opposition to Mahmud Hotak, later deposed & then killed by Nader
Abbas III Abbas III.jpg Shah 1730–1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736 son of Tahmasp II Under control of Nader. Deposed & then killed by Nader

Afsharid Empire (1736–1796)[edit]

Afsharid dynasty at its greatest extent
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Afsharid dynasty[19] (1736–1796)
Nader Shah Nadhar Qoli Khan Nader Shah Afshar.jpg Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698–1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747 son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed
Adil Shah Ali Qoli Beig Shah 1719/20–1749 19 June 1747 29 July 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim
Ebrahim Afshar Mohammd Ali Beig Shah 1724–1749 29 July 1748 3 September 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar
Shahrukh Afshar Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)
Brief Safavid control[20] (1749-1750)
Suleiman II of Persia Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi Shah  ?-? 1749 1750 Pretender to the Safavid throne Removed and blinded
Afsharid restoration[21] (1750-1796)
Shahrukh Afshar Coin of Shahrukh Afshar.png Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

Zand Kingdom (1751–1794)[edit]

Map of the Zand dynasty at Lotf Ali Khan time
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Zand dynasty[22] (1751–1794)
Karim Khan Mohammad Karim Karim Khan by Charles Heath.jpg Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705–1779 1751 6 March 1779 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
Mohammad Ali Khan Khan 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 son of Karim
Abol Fath Khan Khan 1755–1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Karim
Zaki Khan Khan  ?–22 August 1779 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha
Sadiq Khan Zand Mohammad Sadeq Image of sadiq khan zand.png Khan  ?–1782 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
Ali Murad Khan Ali Murad Khan Zand.png Khan 1720–1785 14 March 1781 11 February 1785 son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh
Jafar Khan Ja`far Khan.png Khan  ?–1789 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 son of Sadeq
Sayed Murad Khan Sayed Murad Zand.png Khan  ?–1789 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh
Lotf Ali Khan Lotf Ali Khan.jpg Khan 1769–1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794 son of Ja'far Deposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Qajar Empire (1794–1925)[edit]

Map of the Qajar dynasty at Mohammad Khan time
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Qajar dynasty[23] (1794–1925)
Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan Aggha Mohammad Khan.jpg Khan, Shahanshah, Khaqan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797 son of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar Gelded prior to accession. Assassinated
Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Baba Khan Fath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad
Mohammad Shah Qajar Mohammadshah.jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848 son of Abbas Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat'h Ali
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Nāser al-Dīn Schah.jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam 1831–1896 5 September 1848 1 May 1896 son of Mohammad and Mahd-e Olia Assassinated at Shah-Abdol-Azim by Mirza Reza Kermani
Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907 son of Naser ed-Din
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Mohammad Ali Shah.jpg Shahanshah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909 son of Mozaffar ed-Din Deposed
Ahmad Shah Qajar AhmadShahQajar2.jpg Shahanshah 1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925 son of Mohammd Ali Deposed

Pahlavi Kingdom (1925–1979)[edit]

Map of the Pahlavi dynasty
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)
Reza Shah Reza Khan (later Pahlavi) Reza shahpahlavi.jpg Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Sardar Sepah 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941 son of Abbas Ali Deposed during the Anglo-Soviet invasion
Mohammad Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 2.jpg Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 son of Reza Shah Deposed during the Iranian Revolution

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ G. Posener, La première domination perse en Égypte, Cairo, 1936, pp. 30-36.
  2. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol 46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. ISBN 3-8053-2310-7, pp. 220–21.
  3. ^ "Ahasuerus". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  4. ^ a b Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BCE" Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  7. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BCE"
  8. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  9. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  10. ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. AD 140)
  11. ^ See: Tiridates III (c. AD 224 – 228?)
  12. ^ In Persian it means "King of Kings"
  13. ^ "The great king of Armenians"
  14. ^ "The penetrator of the shoulders"
  15. ^ "Queen"
  16. ^ In arabic, ibn means son of. so muhammad ibn suri means: muhammad son of suri (so suri is his father)
  17. ^ Muʾayyid S̲ābitī, ʻAlī (1967). Asnad va Namahha-yi Tarikhi (Historical documents and letters from early Islamic period towards the end of Shah Ismaʻil Safavi's reign.). Iranian culture & literature (46). Kitābkhānah-ʾi Ṭahūrī., pp. 193, 274, 315, 330, 332, 422 and 430. See also: Abdul Hussein Navai, Asnaad o Mokatebaat Tarikhi Iran (Historical sources and letters of Iran), Tehran, Bongaah Tarjomeh and Nashr-e-Ketab, 2536, pages 578,657, 701-702 and 707
  18. ^ H.R. Roemer, "The Safavid Period", in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. VI, Cambridge University Press 1986, p. 339: "Further evidence of a desire to follow in the line of Turkmen rulers is Ismail's assumption of the title 'Padishah-i-Iran', previously held by Uzun Hasan."
  19. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 960.
  20. ^ http://www.san.beck.org/1-11-Ottoman1730-1875.html
  21. ^ Lang, David Marshall (1957), The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, p. 148. Columbia University Press
  22. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 961.
  23. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 962.

Bibliography[edit]